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Human Trafficking Kimsey Foundation

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					     Human Trafficking
Initiative Research for the Kimsey Foundation
By: Casey Czubay


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Human Trafficking:
 “the recruitment, transportation, transfer,
 harboring, or receipt of persons by improper
 means, such as, force, abduction, fraud, or
 coercion, for an improper purpose, like
 forced or coerced labor, servitude, slavery,
 or sexual exploitation.”

 Based on the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish
 Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women. (2000)
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      Quick Statistics
Trafficking is the 3rd largest international crime.
    • 700,000 to 4 million women and children are
       trafficked annually worldwide.
    • 50,000 women and children are trafficked into the
      U.S. each year for sexual exploitation.
    • 500,000 women are trafficked annually into Western
      Europe.
    • Criminal groups in Russia net an est. $7 billion (USD)
      annually from trafficking.
Worldwide, trafficking is fastest growing in Eastern
Europe.                                                   4
   Additional Statistics
2/3 of 500,000 women trafficked annually for
prostitution worldwide are Eastern European.
• In 1992 the Czech Republic reported only 2 cases of
  trafficking, 8 cases in 1993, and 10 cases in 1994. Since 1994
  the reported cases have dramatically increased.
• Most of the 20,000 women in Czech brothels were trafficked.
• More than 100,000 Ukrainian women, have been trapped and
  enslaved as prostitutes in Western Europe.
• 70% of “pimps” who traffic Ukrainian women are women.

In 1989, 378 women from the former Soviet Union
entered Japan on entertainment visas. In 1995,
4,763 Russian women entered Japan on
entertainment visas.
                                                            5
               T.I.P. Report
                   Trafficking In Persons
Mandated under “Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000” to issue three
annual reports 2000, 2001, 2002. The report ranks countries in one of three
tiers:
Tier 1 = complying with all laws
Tier 2 = efforts to combat trafficking
Tier 3 = ignoring or promoting trafficking

Tier 3
2001 - Afghanistan, Armenia, Bahrain, Belarus, Bosnia, Cambodia, Greece,
     Indonesia, Iraq, Kyrgystan, Lebanon, Myanmar, Russia, Sudan, Tajikistan,
     Turkey, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates.

2000 - Albania, Bahrain, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burma, Democratic
     Republic of Congo, Gabon, Greece, Indonesia, Israel, Kazakhstan,
     Lebanon, Malaysia, Pakistan, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South
     Korea, Sudan, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Federal Republic of
     Yugoslavia.
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    T.I.P. Tier Movement
Tier Improving Nations from 2000 - 2001
  Albania, the Czech Republic, France, Gabon, Israel, Kazakhstan,
  Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Poland, South Korea,
  Romania, and Yugoslavia (14)

Points of interest
• Currently TIP evaluates 89 nations (In 2002, want to evaluate
  110). Information gathered from 186 embassies/ consulates. Many
  nations not included because of lack of substantial information.
• 2001 - 89 countries listed as follows: Tier 1 = 18 countries,
  Tier 2 = 52 countries, Tier 3 = 19 countries.
• Two countries from the 2001 Report were not included on the
  2000 Report. (Austria and Sweden)

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   Significant Catalysts
Recent Events Contributing to Increased Trafficking


     Fall of the Soviet Union in 1991
     Increased capacity for global migration
     Increased wealth gap
     Decline of the Asian Financial Markets
       (Mid- late 1990’s)


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          Policy Trends




Advocacy                  Direct Services
Vital Voices,             La Strada, UN Foundation,
Human Rights Law Group,   UNICEF, Safe Horizons, ILO,
UNICEF, UN Foundation     IOFA, Safe Horizons

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Direct Services   Advocacy




                             10
Advocacy




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                   Advocacy
  Lobby for initial legislation at regional, national,
  and international level.
  Lobby for greater specificity, enforcement, and
  implementation of existing laws.
  Educate lawmakers, law enforcement, other
  advocates, and the public about trafficking.

Prominent Organizations:
UNICEF, UN Foundation, Human Rights Law Group, Vital Voices


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Direct Services




                  13
        Direct Services
  Counseling
  Medicinal Attention
  Translation
  Legal Aid (visa, testimony)
  Monetary Assistance
  Housing
  Reintegration Efforts

Prominent Organizations:
UNICEF, UN Foundation, La Strada, Safe Horizons
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Concerned/Interested Parties
   UNICEF                  UN Foundation
   ILO                     Carnegie Endowment
   UNDEP                   Eurasia Foundation
   State Department        Ford Foundation
       IOM
                           MacArthur Foundation
   Georgetown
   University              Mott Foundation
   Protection Project      Smith Richardson
   (Johns Hopkins Univ.)
                           Foundation
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             Assessment
Direct Services
      Moderately successful in aiding victims on a case by case basis.
In general direct service organizations excel at specific tasks, i.e.,
translation services. With this in mind, it is a travesty that these
organizations most often fail to coordinate amongst other service
providers. This lack of potentially synergistic alliances, contributes to
the current situation of mediocre care.
Advocacy
       With UN Protocol as evidence, trafficking advocates largely
successful in encouraging trafficking legislation worldwide. Also
generally successful in implementing regional and enforcement-
oriented supplemental legislation. The present advocacy task of
legislation enforcement is an arduous battle. However, all indicators
point to a marked increase in trafficking awareness and widespread
concern.
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Initiative Possibilities
1. Coordinate Foundation/Donor Conference

2. Sponsor Vital Voices Global Leadership
   Institute (Human Trafficking focus)

3. Create organization coordinator position
   within La Strada

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Host Trafficking Conference
   Opportunity to create discussion and
  dialogue.

   Brainstorm effective methods of
  involvement.

   Identify potential future program
  partners.
                                          18
 Sponsor Vital Voices
Trafficking Conference
 Educate regional leaders.

  Obtain true leverage through
 empowering individuals with practical
 skills necessary to engender change.

 Involve the DC community.
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Create Coordinator Position
  Establish position in the La Strada
  organization to coordinate activity amongst
  the La Strada offices.

  Additionally this coordinator would:
     • Harmonize reintegration efforts, conferences and
       advocacy.
     • Generate organized and efficient European anti-
       trafficking efforts.
     • Facilitate greater U.S. involvement in European anti-
       trafficking efforts by functioning as an informed contact
       person.
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      Conclusions
     Human trafficking is an egregious human rights
violation that did not rapidly emerge and will not
promptly depart.
     Thankfully, governments, NGO’s, and
foundations are beginning to recognize the necessity
of trafficking protection, prosecution, and prevention.
However, increased awareness and resources are
crucial to successfully eradicate human trafficking.
     The time is ripe for foundations if properly
focused and coordinated to enter the human
trafficking arena with confidence that their resources
will generate substantial and essential alleviation.
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