Initiative Research for the Kimsey Foundation
By: Casey Czubay
“the recruitment, transportation, transfer,
harboring, or receipt of persons by improper
means, such as, force, abduction, fraud, or
coercion, for an improper purpose, like
forced or coerced labor, servitude, slavery,
or sexual exploitation.”
Based on the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish
Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women. (2000)
Trafficking is the 3rd largest international crime.
• 700,000 to 4 million women and children are
trafficked annually worldwide.
• 50,000 women and children are trafficked into the
U.S. each year for sexual exploitation.
• 500,000 women are trafficked annually into Western
• Criminal groups in Russia net an est. $7 billion (USD)
annually from trafficking.
Worldwide, trafficking is fastest growing in Eastern
2/3 of 500,000 women trafficked annually for
prostitution worldwide are Eastern European.
• In 1992 the Czech Republic reported only 2 cases of
trafficking, 8 cases in 1993, and 10 cases in 1994. Since 1994
the reported cases have dramatically increased.
• Most of the 20,000 women in Czech brothels were trafficked.
• More than 100,000 Ukrainian women, have been trapped and
enslaved as prostitutes in Western Europe.
• 70% of “pimps” who traffic Ukrainian women are women.
In 1989, 378 women from the former Soviet Union
entered Japan on entertainment visas. In 1995,
4,763 Russian women entered Japan on
Trafficking In Persons
Mandated under “Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000” to issue three
annual reports 2000, 2001, 2002. The report ranks countries in one of three
Tier 1 = complying with all laws
Tier 2 = efforts to combat trafficking
Tier 3 = ignoring or promoting trafficking
2001 - Afghanistan, Armenia, Bahrain, Belarus, Bosnia, Cambodia, Greece,
Indonesia, Iraq, Kyrgystan, Lebanon, Myanmar, Russia, Sudan, Tajikistan,
Turkey, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates.
2000 - Albania, Bahrain, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burma, Democratic
Republic of Congo, Gabon, Greece, Indonesia, Israel, Kazakhstan,
Lebanon, Malaysia, Pakistan, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South
Korea, Sudan, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Federal Republic of
T.I.P. Tier Movement
Tier Improving Nations from 2000 - 2001
Albania, the Czech Republic, France, Gabon, Israel, Kazakhstan,
Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Poland, South Korea,
Romania, and Yugoslavia (14)
Points of interest
• Currently TIP evaluates 89 nations (In 2002, want to evaluate
110). Information gathered from 186 embassies/ consulates. Many
nations not included because of lack of substantial information.
• 2001 - 89 countries listed as follows: Tier 1 = 18 countries,
Tier 2 = 52 countries, Tier 3 = 19 countries.
• Two countries from the 2001 Report were not included on the
2000 Report. (Austria and Sweden)
Recent Events Contributing to Increased Trafficking
Fall of the Soviet Union in 1991
Increased capacity for global migration
Increased wealth gap
Decline of the Asian Financial Markets
(Mid- late 1990’s)
Advocacy Direct Services
Vital Voices, La Strada, UN Foundation,
Human Rights Law Group, UNICEF, Safe Horizons, ILO,
UNICEF, UN Foundation IOFA, Safe Horizons
Direct Services Advocacy
Lobby for initial legislation at regional, national,
and international level.
Lobby for greater specificity, enforcement, and
implementation of existing laws.
Educate lawmakers, law enforcement, other
advocates, and the public about trafficking.
UNICEF, UN Foundation, Human Rights Law Group, Vital Voices
Legal Aid (visa, testimony)
UNICEF, UN Foundation, La Strada, Safe Horizons
UNICEF UN Foundation
ILO Carnegie Endowment
UNDEP Eurasia Foundation
State Department Ford Foundation
University Mott Foundation
Protection Project Smith Richardson
(Johns Hopkins Univ.)
Moderately successful in aiding victims on a case by case basis.
In general direct service organizations excel at specific tasks, i.e.,
translation services. With this in mind, it is a travesty that these
organizations most often fail to coordinate amongst other service
providers. This lack of potentially synergistic alliances, contributes to
the current situation of mediocre care.
With UN Protocol as evidence, trafficking advocates largely
successful in encouraging trafficking legislation worldwide. Also
generally successful in implementing regional and enforcement-
oriented supplemental legislation. The present advocacy task of
legislation enforcement is an arduous battle. However, all indicators
point to a marked increase in trafficking awareness and widespread
1. Coordinate Foundation/Donor Conference
2. Sponsor Vital Voices Global Leadership
Institute (Human Trafficking focus)
3. Create organization coordinator position
within La Strada
Host Trafficking Conference
Opportunity to create discussion and
Brainstorm effective methods of
Identify potential future program
Sponsor Vital Voices
Educate regional leaders.
Obtain true leverage through
empowering individuals with practical
skills necessary to engender change.
Involve the DC community.
Create Coordinator Position
Establish position in the La Strada
organization to coordinate activity amongst
the La Strada offices.
Additionally this coordinator would:
• Harmonize reintegration efforts, conferences and
• Generate organized and efficient European anti-
• Facilitate greater U.S. involvement in European anti-
trafficking efforts by functioning as an informed contact
Human trafficking is an egregious human rights
violation that did not rapidly emerge and will not
Thankfully, governments, NGO’s, and
foundations are beginning to recognize the necessity
of trafficking protection, prosecution, and prevention.
However, increased awareness and resources are
crucial to successfully eradicate human trafficking.
The time is ripe for foundations if properly
focused and coordinated to enter the human
trafficking arena with confidence that their resources
will generate substantial and essential alleviation.