Solution to the troubles

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					          Unit 2

A Brief Introduction to the
   United Kingdom II
• General Characteristics of Northern Ireland
• Description of the Nation
• Political Problems
                      Description of the Nation
•    1/5 of the Ireland Island
•    taking up an area of 14,139 km2
•    Capital city: Belfast.
•    Population: 1.64 million
•    The Lough Neagh
      is the largest lake in
    The “Giant’s Causeway”
Lough Neagh   back
        The Giant’s Causeway
• A rocky promontory
• Made up of black
  hexagonal columns
  Formed by cooling lava
  Millions of years ago
The Giant’s Causeway
            Political Problems
•   1. A nation of contradictions
•   2. Roots of the Conflict
•   3. Home Rule
•   4. Partition of Ireland Island
•   5. The Situation in Northern Ireland
•   6. Troubles
•   7. Solution to the troubles
• Land
  Special Location
• People
  People lived in Ireland Island were the
  original inhabitants----the Celts
• Religion
  Most people lived in Ireland Island are
  Most people lived in Great Britain Island
  are Protestants
                           Roots of the Conflict

• In Elizabeth ⅠAge
   The British government encouraged people
  that from Scotland and England to settle on
  the Ireland island
  ※( People from Scotland and England )
• Loyal to the British Crown
• Protestant in Religious persuasion / belief
• In 1610, British government enacted the
  “Articles of Plantation”

 ※ Articles of Plantation
• Confiscate land from the native Irish
  Catholics then transfer ownership to the
  new settlers.
• The native Irish were driven to the rocky
  hinterlands or into servitude.
• In 1641, the Irish people rose in rebellion
• In 1649, the English under Oliver Cromwell,
  slaughtered thousands of Irish Catholics.
• In 1689, the Irish rebelled again, with
  support from the deposed English King
  James Ⅱ and aided by the French.
• In 1690, the new English Monarchy,
  William of Orange, defeated the Irish rebels
  at the Battle of Boyne.
※Revolution and Restoration Period
• Civil war (1642—1649)
  (King vs. Parliament)
• King Charles Ⅰ executed
  Oliver Cromwell Protector
• King Charles Ⅱ
• King James Ⅱ
• William and Mary / Glorious Revolution
• In 1845, Ireland suffered the Great Famine
  caused by crop failures over successive
  years. England continued to import meat
  from Ireland while the Irish people starved.
                          Home Rule

• The full name of UK before 1921
 ※The full name of UK before 1921
  was called “ the United Kingdom of
  Great Britain and Ireland”
                                     Home Rule
•   In the late 19th century, a campaign in
    parliament called “ Home Rule”, i.e. Irish
    people control of Irish internal affairs.
•   The Third Home Rule Bill was passed in
•   Other forms of activities in pursuing Irish
    independence , guerrilla or terrorist
     Easter Rising in 1916
•   IRA / Sinn Fein
※Easter Rising
• In order to gain independence, different
  Irish groups had been fighting against the
  British institutions and the British military
• One such activities was the Easter Rising
  which took place in 1916.
• The rebels occupied Dublin’s Post Office.
                 Partition of the island in 1921
• The Irish people were ethnically distinct from
  the majority of British people.
• The British Government chose a compromise
  in 1921.
• the southern 26 counties form an independent
  “ free state”
• the north-eastern 6 counties remain a part of
  the UK.
• This means the end of British rule in southern
     The Situation in Northern Ireland ( 6 counties)
• Northern Ireland was given its own Parliament to
  deal with Northern Irish internal affairs.
• In the northern 6 counties, the population was not
  purely “ Loyalist”----loyal to the British crown.
• About 1/3 of the population were Catholics and
  many resented the North’s separation from the
• the local parliament was controlled by the
  Protestants, Catholics found it harder to get jobs,
  or to benefit from the social programs.
• Resentment grew, the armed conflict known as
  “troubles” developed.
                Troubles in Northern Ireland
• At first, the Catholics rebellion
  (Civil Rights Movement in U.S.)
• The Protestants organize counter-
• Northern Irish Prime Minister asked London
  for soldiers to help restore order
• IRA split to 2 groups
• In 1970s, the IRA carried out a campaign of
  bombing and shooting
• Protestants formed their own illegal
  “paramilitary” groups and took revenge on the
• In 1971, the Northern Irish government
  enacted “ Internment” policy, it was ended
  in 1975.
• In 1972, 468 people were killed in Northern
  Ireland, includes 13 Catholics. It was called
  “Bloody Sunday”
• “ Power-Sharing Mechanism ”
• Protestants took a massive and prolonged
• “direct – rule” from London
• IRA began to bomb the mainland of Great
※Civil Rights Movement in the U.S     .
• It was started by the American blacks.
• They campaigned for the equal rights with the white
• It originated from the racial discrimination in the United
• The black people constitute 1/10 of the total population .
• The term “negro” is applied to people descended or
  partly descended from slaves transported from Africa
  long ago.
• The old term “ negro/nigger” is now considered to be
• In official statistics the term “non-white” is used, and in
  ordinary situations it is acceptable to call “non-white”
  people “black”.
• The Official IRA
   after the partition of the Ireland island, they
  think they should focus on political process
  and also, they run candidates for elections
• The Provisional IRA
   they separated from the Official IRA, they
  think that armed force was the only way to
  get the British out
                   Solution to the “ troubles”

• The event in 1980s >> Sinn Fein’s political
  campaign: “the Bullet and the Ballot Box”
• In 1985, the Anglo-Irish agreement
• In 1993, the Downing-Street Declaration
                    Solution to the “ troubles”

• Three separate attempts were made to draft
  an agreement between the British and Irish
  governments that would lead to a resolution
  of the Northern Ireland conflict.

       What are they?
                 Solution to the “ troubles”

   “ Good Friday Agreement”
• As a result of multi-party negotiations
• Aided by the intervention of the United
  States Senator George Mitchell
• The “ Good Friday Agreement” known also
  as the “Belfast Agreement” signed on 10
  April 1998.
                   Solution to the “ troubles”
• This agreement assures the Loyalist
  community that Northern Ireland “remains
  part of the United Kingdom and shall not
  cease to be so without the consent of the
  majority of the people of Northern Ireland”.
• Northern Ireland is governed by 3 separate
    Republic of Ireland
    its own elected executive government
    of 10 ministers

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