Document Sample
					          EU POLICY TRACKER – AUTUMN 2009


                                     If you would like any further information about the
                                                               Policy Tracker contact us:

                                                      James Sharples, Policy Manager,
                                                             Merseyside Brussels Office:

                                     Robert Delis, Senior European Information Officer,
                                                    Greater Manchester Brussels Office:


This paper provides an overview of EU policy with implications for PTEs. The aim is to
ensure that we have a good understanding of all relevant areas and can easily
identify priorities. While the document is all encompassing, we have also indicated
which areas we think are of the greatest importance to PTEs.

To make the survey more accessible, the main part of the paper (sections two to
eight) tackles EU policy on a thematic basis. For each of the themes covered, the
paper gives a full survey of all “live” dossiers; this is taken to mean:
    all relevant proposals currently going through the EU legislative process;
    all relevant legislation having passed into EU law within the last twelve months
       (i.e. where the legislative process is complete but the information is still recent
       and perhaps not widely known at UK level);
    any overarching EU transport strategies of high relevance, even if they were
       finally adopted more than a year ago, if they are still valid and new initiatives
       are still being generated within their framework.

The final section of the paper (section nine) details a limited number of old transport
dossiers that do not fit into the above categories but are “on the radar” for UK
practitioners, and may not yet have been fully transposed into UK law. These are
included for context only – no further Brussels activity is planned.

The themes covered by the document are:
    2. Overarching policies
         - 2.1 Common Transport Policy
         - 2.2 Action Plan on Urban Mobility
         - 2.3 EU Presidency Priorities
    3 Greener cities
         - 3.1 Renewable energy/ biofuels
         - 3.2 Energy Efficiency
         - 3.3 Climate change: adaptation/ post-Kyoto negotiations
           - 3.4 Green procurement
           - 3.5 Carbon trading
           - 3.6 Assessment and management of environmental noise
           - 3.7 Rail noise abatement
     4 Passengers and staff
           - 4.1 Working time for road transport
           - 4.2 Passenger charter on coach travel
           - 4.3 Passenger charter on sea and inland waterway travel
     5 Social inclusion
           - 5.1 National Action Plans on Social Inclusion
           - 5.2 Renewed Social Agenda/Recommendation on active inclusion
     6 Franchising, procurement and financing
           - 6.1 Public procurement
           - 6.2 Interoperability and railway market liberalisation
           - 6.3 Type-approval of buses
           - 6.4 Access to the public-service vehicles market
           - 6.5 Green transport package (incorporating internalisation of external
6.6 Eurovignette
           - 6.7 The future of TEN-T
     7 Intelligent transport systems
           - 7.1 Galileo
           - 7.2 Intelligent Transport System (ITS)
     8 Safety and security
           - 8.1 European road safety action plan
           - 8.2 Cross border enforcement of road safety sanctions
8.3 Critical infrastructure and terrorism
     9 Old Initiatives
           - 9.1 Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment
           - 9.2 Checks for road transport
           - 9.3 Training for bus and truck drivers
           - 9.4 Public service requirements in passenger transport for road and rail
           - 9.5 Interoperability of urban rail
           - 9.6 Road infrastructure safety management
           - 9.7 Passenger charter on rail
           - 9.8 Regulation on driving time, breaks and rest periods
           - 9.9 European licences for train drivers
           - 9.10 Bus Emission Standards
           - 9.11 Regulation on vehicle type

A colour coding system is used for the various policy initiatives listed:
    Priority for pteg response / further investigation
    Watching brief (priority)
    Watching brief


Consultation on the European Commission Communication: A Sustainable Future for
Transport: Towards an integrated, technology-led and user friendly system

On 17th June the Commission launched a consultation document aimed at
informing the EU’s Common Transport Policy (CTP) White Paper. The CTP is a ten year
strategic plan that forms the basis for the Commission’s activities in the field of
transport. The Department of Transport and DG Transport and Energy have both
launched consultations but ask different questions. pteg have replied to the


In the first two sections of the consultation Communication paper the Commission
outlined its successes in the transport field over the last ten years, they have
improved competitiveness and helped mobility in the single market, but they also
acknowledge that transport is still not following an environmentally sustainable path.
In order to inform this paper, a study was commissioned to identify possible low
carbon scenarios for the future of transport, the study goes to 20501.

The CTP for 2000 – 2010 main aim was to decouple transport growth and economic
growth, this has not happened. In no other sector has the growth rate of greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions been as high as in transport. However, recent action has been
taken to improve fuel quality and a binding target of 10% share of renewable
energy sources in transport by 2020 have been adopted as part of the Climate and
Energy package.

Trends and Challenges

Section 3, outlines the main trends and challenges facing the development of

3.1 An Ageing Population: By 2060, the median age of the European population is
projected to be more than 7 years higher than today. An ageing society is likely to
place more emphasis on the provision of transport services with a high level of
perceived security and reliability. Accessibility and reduced mobility issues are likely
to become more significant.

3.2 Migration and Internal Mobility: Net migration to the EU is projected to add 56
million people to the EU’s population in the next five. Migrants are generally young
and mainly live in urban areas2.

1 TRANSvisions, transport scenarios for 20 and 40 year timelines,
2 Eurostat (2008), Population and social conditions, Statistics in Focus 72/2008
3.3 Environmental challenges: The European Environment Agency, which provides
indicators tracking transport and environment in the EU, shows that many Europeans
still remain exposed to dangerously high levels of air and noise pollution3. As
mentioned in the introduction, the biggest challenge remains the reduction of
Green House Gas emissions.

3.4 Increasing scarcity of fossil fuels: Increased demand, poorer quality and security
of supply will mean that low carbon technologies will have to be developed. This will
also reduce the fossil fuel share (51%) of the international shipping market.

3.5 Urbanisation: Is expected to increase from 72% - 84% by 20504. This leads to urban
sprawl and congestion, which adds to fuel inefficiency and environmental problems.
Urban road transport accounts for 40% of CO2 emissions and 70% of emissions of
other pollutants from road transport5.

3.6 Global trends: EU external trade is predicted to grow rapidly. The population is
expected to grow by a third to around 9 billion. Some studies predict that car
ownership will increase from 700 million to 3 billion, increasing the urgency to
develop a low to zero carbon vehicle.

Policy Objectives for Sustainable Transport

Section 4 of the Communication outlines the objectives of the CTP and defines what
is essentially their mission statement: ‘to establish a sustainable transport system that
meets society’s economic, social and environmental needs and is conducive to an
inclusive society and a fully integrated and competitive Europe.’

4.1 Quality transport that is safe and secure: Road safety will remain an on-going
priority. Particular concern is given to the quality of transport for those with reduced
mobility, particularly the elderly. The paper states that infrastructure has to be built,
maintained and upgraded on the principle of accessibility to all. An emphasis is
placed on the creation of a safer and more secure urban environment, to
encourage the use of public transport.

4.2 A well maintained and fully integrated network: Optimal functioning of the
transport network is needed. ICT applications, good transport nodes and smoother
operational and administrative procedures are needed. A more effective and
efficient network would reduce congestion, emissions, pollution and accidents.
Better integration of high speed rail and aviation, in particular, is identified and the
acute need for modal shift in urban areas. New infrastructure should maximise socio-
economic benefits but take into account external costs (such as environmental
damage) and the impact on the wider network.

4.3 More environmentally sustainable transport: The undesired impacts of transport
must be reduced; in particular, noise, air pollutant emissions and greenhouse gas
emissions. Whilst EU requirements exist in many of these areas already, they will
require assessment and updating in the future.

3 EEA, Transport at a crossroads, TERM 2008, No 3/2009
4 United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division (2008), World
Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision.
5 Green Paper on Urban Mobility
4.4 Keeping the EU at the forefront of transport services and technologies: ICT is the
main focus here, the Commission believe that it can do more to create efficiencies
and comfort in transport. Transport is also a sector where Europe is a global leader,
therefore, it is important to support and encourage this strength.

4.5 Protecting and developing human capital: This refers to worker protection in the
transport sector. As it does, by definition, involve a mobile work force, the
Commission are keen to protect the rights of workers from a ‘race to the bottom’.
The paper also wants to encourage the participation of women in this sector.

4.6 Smart prices at traffic signals : The Commission feel that the consumer and
operator are confused by the choices that they face and that their dilemma would
be made easier if the cheapest option was also one that took account of ‘external’
costs, such as those to the environment. The Commission claim that, ‘there is no
economic incentive’ currently to make these choices.

4.7 Planning with an eye to transport: improving accessibility: More account should
be taken of investment decisions, in terms of accessibility and all related transport
needs. More use of eWorking could reduce congestion.

Policies for Sustainable Transport

This section is meant to make concrete proposals on how to reach the policy goals.

5.1 Infrastructure: maintenance development and integration of modal networks:
Intermodal and transhipment platforms should be promoted and optimised. Urban
areas, where freight and passenger transport corridors face the most congestion,
should be focused on. Other than the urban bottlenecks, ‘green corridors’
dedicated to freight or ‘smart’ priority rules, should be considered. An expansion of
the current Environmental and Strategic Impact Assessments could take account of
the effects on the overall transport network. More synergies with shipping could be
put into greater use. ICT systems overseeing complex transport chains could be
improved or developed.

5.2 Funding: finding the resources for sustainable transport: Whilst the inclusion of
aviation in the Emission Trading Scheme and the revision of the Directive on toll
charges for heavy goods vehicles now mean that these modes take more account
of their environmental costs. Whilst not proposing any further legislation, it points to its
handbook on the ‘internalisation of external costs’ and suggests that congestion
charging should be considered to improve self-financing.

5.3 Technology: how to accelerate the transition to a low carbon society and lead
global innovation:
Standard setting for new technologies will assist them to develop, but working in this
field must not exclude new technologies and act as a barrier to market entry of new
products. The Commission intends to continue their R&D spending in this field. It is
believed that state aid rules could also facilitate alternative modes of transport.

5.4 The legislative framework: further promoting market opening and fostering
More action will be taken to create a strong internal market in this sector, rail, in
particular; will be targeted, with the possible suggestion of trans-national
infrastructure managers.
More will be done on security standards and passenger rights, especially those with
reduced mobility.

5.5 Behaviour: educate, inform and involve
More education and involvement of people is required.
Transport workers are given particular importance and should be consulted on
transport developments

5.6 Governance: effective and coordinated action
The paper identifies two areas. The first is the Commission’s work on standardisation
and interoperability. The second is the ‘urban challenge’; the Commission believes
that its role is limited to ‘demonstration projects... the exchange of best practice...
and (providing an EU) framework in which it will be easier for local authorities to take

5.7 The external dimension: the need for Europe to speak with one voice: This is
particularly relevant to standard setting and those modes of transport that are
global, especially shipping and aviation.

pteg produced two responses to the recent Commission consultation: one was
submitted to DfT to inform their own response; the other was sent directly to the
Commission. Though the form of the responses differed, the key messages were the
same, namely:
    An increasing majority of EU citizens (according to the Communication’s own
      estimate, 84% by 2050) live in urban areas and the majority of their journeys
      are in those areas. It follows therefore that if the wider environmental,
      economic and social objectives set out in the paper are to be met then
      urban transport must be central to the new Common Transport Policy. Locally
      accountable transport authorities have a central role to play in the
      implementation of sustainable urban transport strategies. Empowering and
      resourcing those cities and city regions to devise and deliver workable
      transport policies will be the most effective course of action.
    Urban transport should be a greater priority for EU funding (for example,
      currently only 9% of the Structural Funding for transport is earmarked for urban
      transport) and there is no trans-national (urban) transport fund.
    The EU has a role to play in sharing and promoting best practice in a more
      focused way than it has hitherto.
    There is a need to further develop ‘joined up thinking’ on EU policies which
      have a significant urban transport dimension. Examples include the
      connections between urban transport policy and EU policies on regional
      issues, energy, the internal market, social inclusion and the environment.
    Decarbonisation of transport is a major priority. The EU has a legislative role to
      play in driving up environmental standards; here the focus should be on
      private transport, such as the car and light commercial delivery vehicles. As
      important, however, is a reduction of the need to travel and promotion of
      modal shift to more sustainable public transport options.
       The EU should not seek to impose uniform approaches to urban transport
        issues, as cities and city regions need the freedom to pursue and implement
        locally relevant solutions.

DG TREN6 : Economic Analysis, Impact Assessment, Evaluation & Climate Change
Head of Unit: Sandro Santamato
Actions: The Commission will publish all responses to the Future of Transport by mid-
November on its website. This will be followed by a further stakeholder conference
on 20 November 2009.
Priority: Priority watching brief on proposals emerging from the consultation


In 2008, pteg provided a response to the ‘Green Paper on Urban Mobility’
consultation. The Action Plan was expected to be published in early 2009. The
economic crisis and the particular difficulties felt by the automotive sector are
thought to have delayed its publication. The European Parliament reacted with
consternation to these delays and the Transport Committee wrote an ‘own-
initiative’7 report on the Action Plan.

Action Plan on Urban Mobility

The action plan echoes many of the views that have already been expressed in the
consultation. The introduction underlines the role that urban transport plays locally,
as well as its significance as a hub point for international transport. It outlines the role
of transport, in meeting renewable energy goals and social inclusion objectives. The
action plan emphasises its voluntary nature, stressing that it is principally local,
regional and national actors that lead in this area. The Action Plan consists of on 20
short and medium term practical actions to be launched between now and 2012.

The EU justification for action in the field of urban transport is that urban transport
systems are integral to the European transport system and is therefore within the
remit of Articles 70 – 80 of the EC Treaty. In addition, the successes of other EU
policies, especially in the environmental field, require action in the field of urban
transport. The Commission have listed their ‘actions’ under six themes.

Theme 1 – Promoting integrated policies

Summarised as linking urban transport systems internally and with their surrounding
areas and wider Europe, as well as with related policies, such as, environmental
protection where the example of the links between air quality and transport plans.

Action 1 – Accelerating the take up of sustainable urban mobility plans. The
Commission will support the exchange of best practice, support educational
activities for urban mobility professionals, identify benchmarks and provide guidance

6 DG Transport and Energy Policy
7 Committees can produce reports relevant to their competence, without having to be consulted. This
is usually done when feelings on the issue are particularly strongly held and the Parliament feel a
response is needed.
material. In the longer term they will look at the possibility of making
recommendations and providing incentives.

The Commission is also considering introducing an urban mobility field into the
Covenant of Mayors, this will strengthen the link between climate change and
transport. The Covenant of Mayors is a European Commission supported initiative to
create a permanent network of European local authorities in the fight against
climate change. The main commitments include the development of a Sustainable
Energy Action Plan (SEAP) with 12 months of signing up; Preparation of a baseline
emissions inventory to inform the SEAP; and, sharing good practice and experience
and publicise the work of the covenant.

Action 2 – Sustainable urban mobility and regional policy. The objective here will be
to increase the awareness of Structural Funds and EIB support for sustainable urban
mobility, as well as the link between urban transport and the transEuropean network
(TEN-T). It will also do more to explain state aid and public procurement rules.

Action 3 – Transport for a healthy urban environment. The Commission proposes the
development of partnerships between public health and transport policy.

Theme 2 – Focusing on citizens

The Commission wishes to promote the use of public transport by improving its
quality and affordability.

Action 4 – Platform on passenger rights in urban public transport. The Commission
proposes working with stakeholders to set ambitious voluntary commitments in
place, including quality indicators, commitments to protect the rights of travellers
and of persons with reduced mobility, as well as commonly agreed complaint
procedures, and reporting mechanisms.

Action 5 – Improving accessibility for persons with reduced mobility. The Commission
notes the commitment of EU states to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons
with Disabilities, signed in 2007. In particular, Article 9, which commits signatories to
providing access to people with disabilities on an equal basis. The Commission will
work with Member States to ‘achieve full compliance... by including the urban
mobility dimension in the EU Disability Strategy 2010 – 2020 and by developing
appropriate quality indicators and reporting mechanisms. It will also target some of it
FP7 allocation (research budget) towards this end.

Action 6 – Improving travel information. The Commission intends to provide a multi-
modal travel information service for the EU on the Internet; it will include local links to
TEN-T nodes.

Action 7 – Access to green zones. To exchange good practices on how different
approaches work and on access rules for ‘green zones’ e.g. would include low
emission zones.

Action 8 – Campaigns on sustainable mobility behaviour. Education and awareness
raising campaigns over and above what is offered by European Mobility Week will
be supported.
Action 9 – Energy efficient driving as part of driving education. This is already
mandatory for professional drivers; the Commission is proposing to extend it to
private drivers.

Theme 3 – Greening urban transport

Action 10 – Research and demonstration projects for lower and zero emission
vehicles. The Commission points to its support for research into clean vehicles and
fuels, in particular, the use of electric vehicles. The European Green Cars Initiative,
which is part of the European Economic Recovery Plan, will include an
‘electromobility’ demonstration project. This will focus on electric vehicles and their
related infrastructure; this will support standardisation of recharging infrastructure.

Action 11 – Internet guide on clean and energy efficient vehicles. This will include an
overview of the market, legislation and support schemes. More support will be given
to the joint procurement of clean vehicles. This will support the Directive on clean
and energy-efficient vehicles.

Action 12 – Study on urban aspects of the internalisation of external costs. The
Commission will launch a study on the urban aspects of charging. The study will look
at the effectiveness and efficiency of various pricing solutions, including
implementation issues such as public acceptability, social consequences, cost
recovery, availability of ITS tools and how urban pricing policies and other green
zone arrangements can be effectively combined.

Action 13 – Information exchange on urban pricing schemes. This will look at existing

Theme 4 – Strengthening funding

Action 14 – Optimising funding sources. In addition to what is already available the
Commission will consider new research and demonstration activities for urban

Action 15 – Analysing the needs for future funding. The Commission has launched a
review of CIVITAS, with a view to designing CIVITAS FUTURA.

Theme 5 – Sharing experience and knowledge.

Action 16 – Upgrading data and statistics. The Commission will launch a study on
how to improve data collection for urban transport and mobility. The Commission will
also explore synergies with existing Commission activities.

Action 17 – Setting up an urban mobility observatory. This will be a virtual platform. It
will include best practice and an overview of EU Legislation and financial instruments
relevant to urban mobility.

Action 18 – Contributing to international dialogue and information exchange. Using
existing platforms to promote dialogue, especially with neighbourhood regions i.e.
outside the EU and including city twinning. CIVITAS FUTURA and Research will be
extended to neighbourhood regions involvement.

Theme 6 – Optimising urban mobility.

Action 19 – Urban freight transport. The Commission will look at the links between
long distance, inter urban and urban freight transport to ensure efficient ‘last mile’
delivery. In 2010 the Commission will organise a conference on urban freight
Action 20 – Intelligent transport systems (ITS) for urban mobility. The concrete
proposal is a study on improving the interoperability of ticketing and payment
systems across services and transport modes, including the local dimension, though
this will focus on ‘major’ European destinations.

A review of the Action will be undertaken in 2012.

DG TREN: Clean Transport and Urban Transport Unit
Head of Unit: Elenis Kopanezou
Actions: The new Action Plan is not currently time tabled for discussion in the
European Parliament.
Priority: further investigation of CIVITAS FUTURA proposals and possible lobbying to
support more effective EU urban transport funding than at present


The EU Presidency rotates between Member States on a six month basis and each
Presidency identifies and seeks to progress their priorities. The Presidency chairs, and
has some control, over the agenda that transport ministers discuss when meeting in
Council and in working groups. Given the short duration of each Presidency, the
French, Czech and Swedish Presidencies (the trio) have set out a combined
programme for July 2008 to December 2009. The next trio Presidency will start from 1
January 2010, with Spain, Belgium and Hungary.

According to the provisional priority programme of the Spanish Presidency there are
no specific actions scheduled for the EU transport agenda for the first half of 2010.

Spanish Government:        Ministry in charge of transport matters - (Ministerio de
Contact officers: Jesús Izarzugaza Uriarte, Counsellor Transports, Spanish Permanent
representation to the EU
Priority: Watching brief


The thrust of EU policy is to ensure that public authorities reduce carbon and
pollutant emissions – including via their vehicle procurement policies At one level EU
initiatives are a welcome driver for raising environmental standards – however at the
same time EU legislation and policy could lead to significant cost increases and, if
drafted inappropriately, distorted investment programmes.


The Renewable Energy Road Map was proposed in January 2007. It proposes an
overall 20% renewables target for 2020 and a biofuels target of 10% by the same
date. The overall EU target would be broken down into national targets and
member states would be required to set out national action plans on how they
intend to achieve them. The Road Map has been followed by a Framework
Directive on Renewable Energies, which passed into EU law on 23 April 2009.

The directive stipulates that the EU should achieve, by 2020, a 20% share of energy
(gross final consumption) from renewable sources generally and a 10% share
specifically in relation to transport. For the general target, there will be differentiated
targets for each member state. The specific transport target is the same across all
member states, however – 10%. Each member state will adopt a renewable energy
action plan setting out its national targets for the share of energy from renewable
sources consumed in transport, electricity, heating and cooling for 2020 and notify
the Commission of this by June 2010.

The directive establishes sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids, aiming to
ensure that these are not taken from land with high biodiversity value or carbon
stock or from peatland.

The directive should be transposed into national law by 5 December 2010. By the
end of 2011 the Commission may present two further proposals: the first permitting
the whole amount of electricity originating from renewable sources used to power
all types of electric vehicle to be considered; the second a methodology for
calculating the contribution of hydrogen originating from renewable sources in the
total fuel mix.

DG TREN: D.1 Regulatory policy and promotion of renewable energy
Head of Unit: Mr Hans VAN STEEN
Priority: Watching brief


The EU’s current Energy Efficiency Action Plan for 2007-12 is up for review in
November 2009. This “mid-term” review is likely to contain thirteen priority issues,
including: sustainable transport and energy consumption of cars; financing for
energy efficiency; education and training. It will contain binding and non-binding

The aim of the original action plan is to control and reduce energy demand and to
take targeted action on consumption and supply in order to save 20% of annual
consumption of primary energy by 2020 (compared to the energy consumption
forecasts for 2020). This objective corresponds to achieving approximately a 1.5%
saving per year up to 2020. The plan sets out a number of short and medium-term
measures around six objectives: improving energy performance; improving energy
transformation; limiting the costs linked to transport; financing, incentives and fares;
changing behaviour; adapting and developing international partnerships.
Specifically on transport, the plan contains provision for several separate initiatives
covered elsewhere in the policy tracker, such as the Urban Mobility Action Plan, the
Third Rail Package, the Green Procurement of Vehicles Directive and vehicle
labelling. It plans to set a binding target to reduce polluting car emissions to below
120g of CO2/km by 2012. It also intends to address the issue of car components,
such as air conditioning and tyres, in particular by issuing a European standard for
rolling resistance and by promoting tyre pressure monitoring.

The mid-term review will be informed by a recent public consultation. On transport,
46% of respondents were in favour of additional measures on transport while 10.8%
were opposed. Respondents’ other main points included: that the current ETS
indirectly penalises rail by not being tough enough on aviation; support for further
electrification of most modes of transport; a call for more robust regulation on CO2
emission for vans; support for more EU eco-driving initiatives.

DG TREN: D.4 Energy Efficiency
Head of Unit: Ms Pirjo-Liisa KOSKIMAKI
Priority: Watching brief


Two key initiatives relating to climate change include how the EU should adapt to
climate change, and the EU’s position in international negotiations post-Kyoto (post-

A white paper on adaptation to climate change came out in April 2009. It aims to
address our need to adapt to the effects of climate change, following an earlier
consultative green paper - ‘Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe - Options for
EU Action’ which argued that we are now faced with a double challenge: next to
deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions we also need to adapt to the changing
climate conditions and described possible avenues for action at EU level on the
latter challenge. It covered areas such as:

      what the most severe impacts of climate change will be;
      what should be the respective roles of the various levels of government and
       the private sector;
      how policy priorities need to change for different sectors;
      how countries and European energy policy should reflect climate change;
      the relationship between adapting to climate change and mitigating climate
      how companies and citizens can be encouraged to adapt;
      what the EU’s external policies should be;
      where the knowledge gaps are.

The White paper sets out an EU Framework which endeavours to allow us to adapt
and cope with climate change effects using a coherent and strategic approach.
The Framework is designed to evolve as further evidence becomes available and
aims to complement action taken at a national and a wider international level. The
Framework uses a phased approach. Phase 1 which runs from 2009-2012 should lay
the groundwork for preparing a comprehensive EU adaptation strategy to be
implemented during phase 2, commencing 2013. Phase 1 will focus on four pillars of
   1) Building a solid knowledge base related to the impact and consequences of
      climate change for the EU
   2) Integrating adaptation into EU key policy areas
   3) Employing a combination of policy instruments (market-based instruments,
      guidelines, public-private partnerships to ensure effective delivery of
   4) Stepping up international cooperation on adaptation

Under the ‘Building a solid knowledge base’ section of phase 1 a Clearing House
mechanism would be set up as an IT tool and database on climate change impact,
vulnerability and best practices on adaptation. This would contribute to the Shared
Environmental Information System, a collaborative initiative by the European
Commission and the European Environmental Agency to establish an integrated
and shared EU-wide environmental information system.

The Commission also envisages the setting up of an Impact and Adaptation Steering
Group (IASG) composed of representatives from Member States involved in the
formulation of national and regional adaptation programmes which will consult with
representatives from civil society and the scientific community. It will be supported
by technical groups for key sectors. The role of the IASG will be to develop the four
pillars and consider the appropriate levels for action.

At the international conference on climate change held in Bali in 2007, it was
agreed to adopt by the end of 2009 a new international climate-change
agreement to replace Kyoto which expires in 2012. Any new agreement reached in
Copenhagen would come into force in January 2013. The last conference, held in
Poznań in 2008, saw agreement on a work programme for 2009 and called for a
negotiating document to be ready by June 2009. Technical details were refined in
areas such as deforestation and setting up an international fund to help poorer
countries cope with global warming. Issues such as long-term goals for cutting
emissions were not discussed. The main aims of the Copenhagen summit, according
to the Head of the United Nations’ Convention on Climate Change, are:
1) How far industrialised countries are prepared to cut emissions to satisfy the need
    to agree on ‘ambitious, legally-binding emissions reductions targets’;
2) How far major developing countries such as China, India and Brazil, are
    prepared to limit the growth of their own emissions;
3) Financing clean technology and adaptation efforts in developing countries
   through international cooperation;
4) Reforming governance structures of the UNFCCC so as to give representation to
   developing nations.

Work on an expected EU green paper on post-2012 policies was shelved in summer
2007. However, the Commission held a more informal consultation, which closed in
October 2008 and led to the Communication ‘Towards a Comprehensive Climate
Change Agreement’ in Copenhagen in January 2009 which gives the EU position in
the run-up to Copenhagen. A Communication more specifically related to
international climate finance was published in September 2009. In the former
Communication, the Commission recognises that in order to keep temperature
increase below 2°C (the EU’s goal); developing countries will require substantially
higher funding from the developed world and multilateral organisations. Its
proposals include the creation of an OECD-wide carbon market by 2015, which
would link the EU ETS system with comparable third-country systems and
international funding sources based on countries’ emissions and ability to pay. It was
stated in the Communication that the Copenhagen deal should set global goals to
reduce emissions and provide the basis for strengthening countries’ ability to adapt
to climate change. The Commission stated that to do this, global emissions must
peak by 2020 and be cut to less than 50% of 1999 levels by 2050, requiring action
from both developed and developing countries.

Developed countries should cut their collective emissions by 30% by 2020. The EU has
pledged to do this if other developed countries do the same and already has in
place measures to cut emissions by 20%. The Communication proposed specific
parameters in a bid to ensure national targets entail a comparable level of effort.
Developing countries, except the poorest ones, would be expected to limit growth
in their collective emissions to 15-30% below current levels by 2020, including a rapid
decrease in emissions from deforestation. These countries should commit to
adopting low-carbon development strategies covering all key emitting sectors by
2011. A new international mechanism would support these strategies and match
proposed actions with appropriate external support. The EU remains divided on how
to calculate the division of the overall emissions cuts but the Commission has
suggested four criteria:
    1) GDP per capita;
    2) Emissions per unit of GDP;
    3) Emissions trends between 1990 and 2005;
    4) Population trends over the period 1990-2005.

The Commission would like to see the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development
Mechanism reformed and, for advanced developing countries, replaced by a
sectoral crediting mechanism and cap-and-trade systems.

DG Environment: Climate Change
Head of Unit: Mr Artur Ringe-Metzger
Priority: Watching brief

On 23 April 2009, the European Parliament and Council of the European Union
adopted the Directive on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road
transport vehicles. The aim of the Directive is to stimulate the market for clean and
efficient vehicles and to bring about developments and investments by the industry.

All purchases of road transport vehicles by public authorities or by transport
operators charged with public service obligations must take into account the
energy and environmental impacts of the lifetime operation of vehicles. These
impacts include energy consumption, CO2 emissions and pollutant emissions (such
as nitrogen oxide (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and particulate
matter (PM)).

Public authorities and transport operators have two options for meeting the
requirements: they can set technical specifications for energy and environmental
performance, or they can include energy and environmental impacts as award
criteria in the purchasing procedure.

The Directive defines common rules for calculating the lifetime costs of the
operation of vehicles, if the impacts are monetised for inclusion in the purchasing
decision. To facilitate the process of implementation, the European Commission
launched a website on clean and energy-efficient vehicles (consisting of a
legislation guide, a lifetime calculator, information on joint procurement and
references to Community funded projects).

Commission website on Clean Urban Transport:
Lifetime cost calculator:
Lifetime cost toolbox:
Training toolkit for green procurement:

Examples of total lifetime costs, together with typical vehicle prices, are given in the
table below for vehicles with present emission standards, a EURO IV bus, and a EURO
4 diesel car. This monetisation shows the relative importance of costs incurred over
the lifetime of vehicles, compared with the vehicle price invested into procurement.
An informed decision, taking into account the total cost of the vehicle's purchase
price, the energy cost for the operator and pollutant costs for society could then be
based on the sum of vehicle price and lifetime costs.

Lifetime cost for:
Vehicle      Vehicle     Fuel        CO2        NOx        NMHC     PM        Vehicle
type          price                                                           price
                                                                              costs +
Bus          €150,000    €313,50     €30,210    €87,780    €2,622   €9,918    €594,030
(1 million               0
Diesel car   €17,000     €5,500      €530       €220       €10      €435      €23,695
Petrol car       €15,000       €7,700   €669   €70       €20      €87       €23,547

DG TREN8 : Clean Transport and Urban Transport Unit (A.4)
Head of Unit: Ms. Magda KOPCZYNSKA
Priority: Watching brief


Since its inception in 2003, the EU Emissions Trading Scheme Directive has had two
major amendments. Firstly, the 2008 Aviation Directive added aviation to the
scheme as of 2012. The UK government is currently working on passing this Directive
into UK law by February 2010. Secondly, the Revised EU ETS Directive was passed on
23 April 2009 to extend, and with the aim of improving the EU’s emission trading
scheme. This will come into force in 2013 and forms part of the EU 2020 Climate &
Energy package agreed in December 2008. It will be passed in two stages: Stage 1
by 31 December 2009 and Stage 2 by the end of 2012. EU heads of state had asked
that the new Directive increase the transparency of ETS, and strengthen and
broaden its scope.

Under the Emissions Trading Scheme, 10,000 energy-intensive plants across the EU are
able to buy and sell permits to emit carbon dioxide. Industries currently covered
include: power generation, iron and steel, glass, cement pottery and bricks. The fine
for exceeding allocation has risen from €40 in 2003 to €100 in 2008. One key aspect
of the Directive is the possibility of ‘flexible mechanisms’ which link to the Kyoto
Protocol’s Joint Implementation and Clean Development mechanism and allow
member states to meet part of their targets by financing emission reduction projects
in countries outside the EU. This is dependent on a new international agreement at
the Copenhagen summit. Only credits from projects in third-countries that ratify the
new international agreement will be eligible.

The new directive includes two more greenhouse gases. It has also widened the
sectors covered to include: the petrochemical, ammonia and aluminium sectors in
addition to aviation. Around 50% of emissions are now covered. Transport, building
and shipping remain excluded, though the latter is likely to be included at a later

The Directive covers the trading period between 2013 and 2020. Emissions levels are
to be reduced every year, with a 21% reduction on 2005 levels by 2020; this EU-wide
cap replaces national allowances. While currently the majority of allowances are
given for free, the new Directive states that ‘around 60% of the total number of
allowances will be auctioned by 2013’ and that the power sector will be entirely
auctioned. Other sectors will be gradually subjected to full auctioning on an annual
basis. Companies can buy allowances from any Member State. A distribution
method for free allowances will be developed in 2010 by the Commission. Rules will

8   DG Transport and Energy Policy
be determined by benchmarks based on techniques and processes considered the
most efficient. The Commission will consult relevant stakeholders in defining the
criteria but the default position will be the average performance of the top 10%
most-efficient EU installations in any given sector between 2007 and 2008. Although
the original proposal required full phase-out of free allowances between 2013 and
2020, the final text requires 70% phase-out by 2020 with a view to full phase-out by
2027. However, certain energy-intensive sectors particularly vulnerable to
competition with countries that don’t have any ETS could continue to get their
allowance for free. This is dependent on whether or not an international agreement
subjecting all countries to similar climate change mitigation is reached at the
Copenhagen summit. A Commission proposal on the proportion of such allowances
is expected in the first half of 2010. In addition, another Commission proposal on
which sectors are considered to be exposed to the risk of carbon leakage is
expected by the end of 2009. The proposal will assess the extent to which it is
possible to pass on the direct costs of required allowances and the indirect costs
from higher electricity prices into product prices. Under the revised EU ETS Directive
2009, all industries receive 80% free allowances up until 2013 but sectors at significant
risk of carbon leakage will get 100% allowances for free. Every year the Commission
may, at its own initiative or on the request of a Member State, add to the list of
sectors exposed to carbon leakage. The Commission analysis has so far identified
the following sectors at risk: mining, quarrying, oil and gas, textiles, paper and pulp,
chemicals, ceramics, fish processing installations, wine, sugar manufacturers and the
sound recording industry.

A Commission Regulation is expected in the first half of 2010 on the timing and
administration of the carbon auctioning scheme, following the adoption of the
revised Directive. The proposed Regulation would aim to ensure that operators, in
particular SMEs, covered by ETS, have full access to auctions. Smaller installations
(those that emit under 25,000 tonnes of CO2 per year) are able to opt out of the ETS,
provided that alternative reduction measures are put in place. Industrial GHGs,
prevented from entering the atmosphere through the use of carbon capture and
storage (CCS), are to be credited as ‘not emitted’ under the scheme. Sectors not
covered, such as transport, are to achieve an average greenhouse gas reduction of
10% by 2020 through the setting of national targets, differentiated according to
GDP. Revenues raised from the trading system should be used to support research
and development on renewable energies and carbon capture and storage.

A legislative proposal to amend the Revised EU ETS Directive 2009 is expected in the
first quarter of 2010, following any agreement made at the Copenhagen Climate
Change summit in December 2009, to specify provisions aimed at contributing to a
30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. It would also contain
transnational and suspensive measures pending the entry into force of an
international agreement on climate change.

DG Environment: Market Based Instruments Including Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Head of Unit: Yvon SLINGENBERG
Priority: watching brief

Noise maps and action plans on environmental noise are required by EU law to
reduce noise in major urban areas where exposure levels can induce harmful effects
on human health, and to protect quiet areas against increases in noise.

The aim of this directive is to define a common approach intended to avoid,
prevent or reduce exposure to environmental noise. The following actions shall be
implemented progressively:
    noise mapping, by common assessment methods
    making information on noise publicly available
    the adoption of action plans with a view to preventing and reducing
      environmental noise, particularly where exposure levels can induce harmful

The timetable is as follows:
    18 July 2008, action plans must be drawn up for major roads which have more
       than six million vehicle passages a year, railways which have more than
       60,000 train passages per year, major airports and agglomerations with more
       than 250,000 inhabitants and a population density of more than 500 persons
       per square kilometre.
    18 July 2013, action plans must be drawn up for all major agglomerations,
       major airports, major roads and major railways.

The action plans are to be reviewed when a major development occurs affecting
the existing noise situation, and at least every five years.

The directive defines ‘environmental noise’ as ‘unwanted or harmful outdoor sound
created by human activities, including noise emitted by means of transport, road
traffic, rail traffic, air traffic, and from sites of industrial activity’.

Environmental Noise (England) Regulations 2006 transposes the requirements under
Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 June 2002
(often known as the Environmental Noise Directive (END).

Defra have now produced noise maps of agglomerations; airports; major rail outside
cities and urban areas and major roads. We are currently trying to find out more
about the action plans. The action plans will be developed following a consultation
process involving local authorities, other government departments and other
interested bodies and members of the general public.

According to a report published by Environmental Protection UK, noise mapping
shows that in Manchester, over 17% of the population are exposed to road noise
levels over 65dB(A); a level deemed by the World Health Organisation to harm
health. In the 2004 Merseyside study, road traffic noise was heard by 79% and
bothered 44%, and caused sleep disturbance for at least 354,100 residents.

Action plans will include: a description of the agglomeration, the major roads, the
major railways or major airports and other noise sources being taken into account in
the plan; a summary of the results of the noise mapping; an evaluation of the
estimated number of people exposed to noise, and identification of problems that
need to be improved; any noise reduction measures already in force and any
projects in preparation; as well as actions to be taken in the next five years and a
more long term strategy. Relevant measures to combat noise could include national
and local measures.

Defra: UK Government Department responsible for implementation
Actions: Defra are currently carrying out their consultation on the different action
plans for agglomerations, major road and rail lines. The consultation closes on 4 th
November 2009.
Priority: watching brief


Whilst rail is considered to be one of the more environmentally friendly forms of
transport, about 10% of the population consider noise from rail to be above the
threshold for ‘serious annoyance’. At a time when the EU wants to make more use of
rail for freight and passengers, remedial action is needed to reduce public
opposition. The Commission has already introduced rules on new and renewed
rolling stock to reduce noise by about 50%, however since rolling stock has a very
long lifetime this will take a long time to become widespread. The Communication is
aimed at retrofitting all European freight wagons, with an annual mileage of more
than 10,000 km and a remaining life expectancy of at least five years, by 2015.

Retrofitting is costly: the Commission estimates that 370,000 wagons need to be
retrofitted, that the most cost effective option is probably introducing LL-Blocks to
replace cast iron braking blocks and that this will cost somewhere between €200 –
700 million. In order to achieve this investment, the Commission has suggested a
combination of three measures: noise-differentiated track access charges; noise
emission ceilings; and voluntary commitments.


This is the key measure in achieving retro-fitting. The Commission is looking at three
different models; it might also look at the possibility of combining different models.
The models are:
     a ‘bonus-malus system’ with reduced charges for silent wagons and higher
         charges for noisy ones;
     a ‘bonus system’ where the infrastructure manager receives financial
         compensation from the state to reduce charges enabling the retrofitting of
     a ‘malus system’ which consists of increased charges for noisy wagons.


The noise emission ceiling limits the average emissions within a determined period at
a certain location. In some ways this mirrors the directive on the assessment and
management of environmental noise. In order to maintain the noise reduction
achieved by retrofitting, the Commission recommends that member states
introduce noise ceilings.

In order to speed up implementation, the Commission has asked for voluntary
commitments before the legal requirements enter into force. The Commission has
also asked for voluntary commitments from the railway undertaking to pass on any
bonuses to wagon suppliers (where different entities) for investment in retrofitting.

The Commission will set up expert groups and issue guidelines to ensure that
voluntary arrangements are coordinated EU level.


The Commission will fund further research into reducing noise in rolling stock and rails.

The UK and Portugal seem to have developed a cost-neutral retrofitting system.
Whilst making this observation, the Commission does not indicate how it will make
use of this approach by either investigating or emulating it.


The Commission suggested that it will look at other legislative measures and
implement them if appropriate. The Commission is also considering revision of the
technical specifications, to include technological developments, looking at rail
improvements to match rolling stock improvements and the possibility of using state
aid to improve interoperability.

DG TREN: Rail transport and interoperability
Head of Unit: Mr Maurizio CASTELLETTI
Priority: watching brief


The EU is being fairly interventionist in this area – with the European Parliament
particularly keen. The EU is seeking to ratchet up enforceable passenger rights across
transport modes. This is starting with international and long distance services, but
could creep into inter-regional and local public transport over time.

The EU is also seeking to raise, and internationalise, the standards of driver training for
public transport vehicles and also to limit working hours.

Whilst enforceable consumer rights and a better trained and motivated workforce
has to be good for public transport, there are concerns as to how European
passengers’ charters could cut across existing and bespoke local packages of
consumer rights. On staff hours and training there are costs and relevancy issues.


Directive 2002/15/EC on the organisation of working time was adopted on 11 March
2002 and has been in force in EU member states since 23 March 2005 (this
supplements existing Directive 93/104/EC). The directive lays down the minimum
requirements with regard to working time for all mobile workers – of drivers, crew and
other travelling staff performing road transport activities - with the aim of improving
road safety, safeguarding the health and safety of workers and preventing distortion
of competition. The main provisions are a maximum working week of 60 hours,
provided the average number of hours worked per week does not exceed 48 over
any 4 month period, and that no more than 6 hours should be worked consecutively
without a break. In the UK, the directive is implemented through the Road Transport
(working time) Regulations 2005 (SI 2005/639).

On 15 October 2008, the European Commission adopted a proposal
(COM(2008)650) to amend the directive in order to tackle the problem of falsely self-
employed drivers. As the directive stands, it is possible for road transport companies
to impose self-employed status on drivers, circumventing the working time rules. To
avoid this, the revised directive clarifies the definition of a mobile worker and a self-
employed worker. This would make the absence of an employment contract no
longer the only determinant of a self-employed worker - the worker must also be
economically independent.

The proposed amendment would put self-employed drivers outside the scope of the
directive altogether. The proposal also clarifies the definition of night work and
introduces common principles on the application and enforcement of the rules by
national governments.

In initial discussions, the Council has indicated its agreement with the general tenor
of the proposal. The Parliament, however, rejected it in its plenary vote in May 2009,
stating that the original 2002 directive had called for the amendment to apply the
directive to all self-employed drivers as well. The proposal has therefore been
referred back to the Parliament’s transport committee for further consideration.

DG Employment and Social Affairs: F.3 Working conditions, adaptation to change
Head of Unit: Mr F. Vasquez
Actions: No timetable is set for the Parliament’s continued deliberations.
Priority: Watching brief


A proposal for a regulation on rights for bus and coach passengers was adopted by
the European Commission on 4 December 2008, along with one for maritime
passengers (a political agreement on 9 October 2009). At present, these are the
only modes not covered by Community legislation, and the proposals are inspired
by what exists for rail and air transport.

The proposal covers rights for passengers, particularly those with reduced mobility,

      In the event of a cancellation or delay of over 2 hours, passengers are eligible
       for a 100% refund, plus compensation to the same value if they are not
       offered other equivalent means.
      Liability in the event of death or injury of passengers. Undertakings will not be
       able to exclude liability for damage up to €220,000. The maximum liability for
       damages will not be subject to a financial limit
      Liability for the loss of or damage of luggage (up to €1,800 per passenger,
       €1,300 for hand luggage)
      No price discrimination on the basis of nationality or place of residence
      Rights for reduced mobility passengers, including non-discrimination, access
       and assistance (including assistance (dis)embarking and on-board transport
       services). The regulation covers training for transport employees on this issue
       and rules on loss and damage of wheelchairs and mobility equipment.
      Obligations for providers on the provision of information and the handling of
       complaints, including maximum response times.

The proposed regulation covers both international and national trips, however as
urban, suburban and short-distance regional bus or coach services are normally
covered by public service contracts, national governments may exclude these
services from the scope of the regulation – provided the level of passenger rights is
comparable to that set by the regulation.

The Directive must be approved by the European Parliament and Council through
co-decision. On 23 April 2009 the European Parliament adopted, under the first
reading of the co-decision procedure, the proposal with several amendments. The
EP also suggested that the proposed regulation should apply with effect from two
years (instead of one year) after its entry into force.

DG TREN: Unit A3 - Services of general economic interest, passenger rights &
Head of unit: Mr Salvatore D’ACUNTO
Action: Currently, the Council is working on the text of this proposal. A political
agreement on a common position is expected to be reached during the next
Transport Council meeting which will take place on 17 December 2009.
Priority: pteg to monitor the evolving provisions on local services and lobby the EP at
second reading for a local exclusion if necessary


A proposal for a regulation on rights for maritime passengers was adopted by the
Commission on 4 December 2008, along with one for coach and bus passengers. At
present, these are the only modes not covered by Community legislation, and the
proposals are inspired by what exists for rail and air transport.

The proposed regulation covers both maritime and inland waterway services,
including cruises. However, national governments may exclude from the scope of
the regulation services already covered by public service contracts – provided the
level of passenger rights is comparable to that set by the regulation.

The proposal sets rights for passengers, particularly those with reduced mobility,

      No price discrimination on the basis of nationality or place of residence
      Compensation event of a cancellation or delay. Without forfeiting the right to
       transport passengers are eligible for minimum levels of compensation of 25%
       of the ticket price for delays of 60-119 minutes, and 50% of the ticket price for
       delays over 120 minutes.
      For delays over 120 minutes the carrier is expected to offer passengers
       alternative transport, or, if that is impractical, inform them of adequate
       alternative transport services. If passengers fail to receive these services, they
       will be eligible for a 100% refund.
      Rights for reduced mobility passengers, including non-discrimination in price
       and access, and assistance (including assistance at ports and other
       (dis)embarkation points and aboard ships). This assistance is provided under
       certain conditions, specified in the regulation. The regulation covers training
       for transport employees on this issue and rules on loss and damage of
       wheelchairs and mobility equipment.
      Derogations from these access rights for reduced mobility passengers are only
       allowed where adherence would contravene EU, national or international
       safety law or where carriage is physically impossible.
      Obligations for providers on the provision of information and the handling of
       complaints, including maximum response times.

Note that unlike the proposals for bus and coach transport, this proposal does not
include the liability of transport providers with regard to passengers and their

The Directive must now be approved by the European Parliament and Council
through co-decision, and it is now in the preparatory phase in Parliament. It is
forecast that a report could be adopted by the Transport Committee by 31 March
2009, in which case a plenary vote could take place on 5 May 2009.
DG TREN: Unit A3 - Services of general economic interest, passenger rights &
Head of unit (acting): Anne HOUTMAN
Priority: watching brief


The linkage between transport and social inclusion by, and within, the European
Commission has been poor. National Action Plans are one way of reinforcing those
links and feeding it back into UK transport policy.


As part of European cooperation in the social area, each member state must
produce a biennial action plan outlining how the government and stakeholders are
addressing the EU’s 2010 poverty eradication targets. The latest UK National Action
Plan (NAP) for social inclusion was published by the Government in October 2008.
This is the fourth such plan and covers the period 2008-2010.

On the basis of the national NAPs, the Commission and the Council prepare ‘Joint
Reports’ analysing the outcomes of the process and highlighting the key challenges

The 2008-2010 NAP identifies transport as a sector that has a significant impact on
social inclusion, as poor public transport infrastructure can make it difficult to access
work and public services.

The report encourages accessibility planning by local authorities. Local transport
authorities are expected to work with partner organisations, such as Primary Care
Trusts, to identify and address accessibility issues. At least one accessibility indicator
should be addressed by local authorities in their second Local Transport Plan.

The NAP advocates travel training schemes, following the positive results of a 2007
report by the Department for Transport. The majority of such schemes are directed
at people with learning difficulties, to help them access education or work. The DfT
has developed a strategy to increase the awareness, and number, of travel training

The report also advocates campaigns to ensure that information on concessions for
transport users is disseminated to ensure the widest possible take-up. The report also
mentions the forthcoming review strategy for the Blue Badge (disabled parking)

The ‘Working Together’, the UK NAP for 2008-2010, is online at:

DG Employment and Social Affairs: Unit E2 - Inclusion, Social Policy Aspects of
Migration, Streamlining of Social Policies
Head of Unit: Ms Antonia Carparelli
Priority: Watching brief.

In 2008 the European Commission came forward with a new package of proposals
entitled the ‘Renewed Social Agenda’. Although the EU has limited powers and
responsibilities in social policy, it can be proactive and act in partnership with
Member States and stakeholders in promoting its own agenda. The current package
includes proposals on tackling discrimination, increasing mobility, improving
opportunities and access to the ‘global scene’, and investing in better and more
skilled jobs. The package is looking to tackle discrimination ‘beyond the workplace’
and seeks to ensure universal “access to goods and services”.

Although the transport sector is not explicitly mentioned, it is nonetheless expected
to have far reaching consequences for how disabled and older travellers are
catered for.

On 3 October 2008, and as part of the wider framework of the Renewed Social
Agenda, the Commission adopted a Recommendation on the Active Inclusion of
People Excluded from the Labour Market. The document recommends that member
states design and implement a comprehensive strategy for the active inclusion of
people excluded from the labour market, combining adequate income support,
inclusive labour markets and, crucially, access to quality services

The strategy should
    enhance co-ordination between public agencies and services
    take careful consideration of the complexities of multiple disadvantages and
       of local and regional circumstances and the notion of territorial cohesion
    include tailored, personalised, responsive services

While there is no explicit reference to transport in the final text, it does say more
generally that active inclusion should provide services essential to supporting active
social and economic inclusion, including, “territorial availability, physical
accessibility, affordability…adequate physical infrastructure”. The final text is the
result of two previous consultations, and the Commission’s synthesis report of
responses to the first consultation (from February 2006) states that respondents
supported “better access to services that may help some individuals and their
families in entering mainstream society, supporting their reinsertion into employment
(through, for instance, …healthcare…lifelong learning…and more broadly,
adequate public transport”). Perhaps as a result of this, in the second consultation
document the Commission puts forward the view that “all services of general
interest, including…transport…play an important role” in active inclusion and

The common principles set out in the Commission recommendation represent a
voluntary framework for member states when designing their policies. At the
Employment and Social Affairs Council in December 2008, member states endorsed
the recommendation in general. While supporting the requirement for national
strategies, they emphasised that the policy mix and level of adequate income
support should be left to member-state discretion.

DG Employment and Social Affairs: Unit E2 - Inclusion, Social Policy Aspects of
Migration, Streamlining of Social Policies
Head of Unit: Ms Antonia Carparelli
Priority: Watching brief


The battle over the freedom of manoeuvre for public authorities over how they
operate their public transport systems appears to have been won for now. Broadly
speaking in-house public authorities will be allowed to continue to decide for
themselves whether to operate in-house or to franchise. However, given the critical
importance of this to PTEs this is an area we will need to keep an eye on.


Earlier this year, the European Commission produced an interpretative
communication on how to apply EU law on public procurement and concessions to
institutionalised public-private partnerships (IPPPs). The communication interprets
recent European Court of Justice case law in this area.

In the Commission’s understanding, IPPPs are undertakings jointly held by public and
private partners and are usually set up to provide services for the public, in particular
at the local level. The private input consists of active participation in the operation of
the contracts awarded to the public-private entity and/or the management of that

Irrespective of how the IPPP is set up, EU law requires a contracting entity to follow a
fair and transparent procedure, either when selecting the private partner, who
supplies goods, works and services within the IPPP, or when granting a public
contract or concession to a public-private entity.

One possible way of setting out an IPPP that is, in the Commission’s view, compliant
is to select the private partner by means of a procedure, the subject of which is both
the public contract and the concession that is to be awarded to the future public-
private entity, and the private partner’s contribution to the operation and
management. The selection of the private partner takes place at the same time as
the setting up of the IPPP and the award of the contract or concession.

The communication also includes guidelines on the procurement procedure,
information about the project, permitted selection and award criteria, specific
elements of statutes and articles of association, the shareholder agreement and the
public contract or concession.

DG Internal Market: Formulation and enforcement of public procurement law
Contact: Mr Nicolaas Bel
Priority: Watching brief


Over the past few years, the EU has been making progressive steps towards the
creation of an integrated European railway area, by:
      Amending an existing regulation on the establishment of a European Railway
       Agency (ERA)
      Introducing of new and recast directives on the interoperability of the EU rail
       system and on safety on the EU’s railways.

The ERA, set up in 2006, works towards a European railway area by reinforcing rail
safety and promoting interoperability. Its main task is to develop economically
viable common technical standards and approaches to safety, working closely with
railway sector stakeholders, national authorities, the EU institutions and other
interested parties. It also acts as the system authority for the European Rail Traffic
Management System (ERTMS) project, set up to create unique signalling standards
throughout Europe. Changes for the ERA, based on its legal competence and high
level of technical expertise, are mainly with regard to involvement in national rules,
especially on their compatibility with common safety methods and technical
specifications for interoperability.

Improved interoperability, or technical compatibility, is central to the construction of
a safe, modern integrated European railway network, as the difference in
infrastructure, rolling stock, signalling and other rail systems only serve to make it
more difficult and more costly to run a train from one country to another. The new
railway interoperability Directive sets out to establish conditions for the design,
construction, placing in service, upgrading, renewal, operation and maintenance of
the parts of the Community rail system, and the professional qualifications and
health and safety conditions of its staff. Effective on 19 July 2010, the Directive will
repeal the two previous Directives (on the interoperability of the European high-
speed rail system and on the interoperability of the European conventional rail
system). The European Commission aims to work closely with stakeholders, by
launching two formal consultations. The first ran from March 2009 to May 2009. The
second will take place in winter 2009/2010 (to include firm proposals for transposition,
including draft regulations for further feedback).

Both the Community rail safety and interoperability directives have been assessed
by the European Commission in a progress report published by the European
Commission in September 2009. The report found that the quality of harmonisation of
technical requirements is satisfactory but that the speed of implementation of
harmonised rules is still slow. The progress made thus far is shown to have promoted
the development of the internal rail market, helping in the establishment of new
businesses, cutting entry costs and promoting the competitiveness of rail as a major
mode of transport.

As for rail safety, the Railway Safety Directive is aimed at ensuring that safety is not
used as a barrier to a fully open market, and the Commission progress report
demonstrates that organisational changes introduced under EU law have had no
negative impacts on safety and are therefore expected to raise safety levels in the
short and medium term. Country-specific safety requirements still cause significant
entry barriers, from a market point of view, in relation to the cost and duration of the
procedures involved at national level, their disparity across the EU, and their lack of
transparency or predictability. Progress is expected in the following areas:
     The harmonisation of safety certificates for railway undertaking and the
       introduction of Common Safety Methods
      The interoperability directive, which will now impose cross-acceptance of
       national rules when authorising the placing into service of rail vehicles.
       Legislation on Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSIs) is supposed to
       be completed by 2010, but it is a slow progress due to the long-life cycle of
       some parts of the rail system (for example, rail infrastructure and rolling stock).

Attempts in 2009 to revise the EU’s existing First Railway Package of legislation are
ongoing. However, a major delay has been caused by the inability of 21 EU
governments to implement the existing Package (for which the deadline was March
2003), resulting in the European Commission issuing Reasoned Opinions to each
country in September 2009.

DG TREN: Rail transport and interoperability (E.2)
Head of Unit: Mr. Maurizio CASTELLETTI
Priority: Watching brief.


A new Framework Directive for the Type-Approval of Motor Vehicles had its final
approval in autumn 2007 and all EU member states have been given 18 months until
April 2009 to transpose this framework into their own national rules. The UK
Department for Transport held a public consultation from June 2008 to August 2008
on the implementation of the Directive in the UK.

All buses (including school buses) will have to comply with harmonised EC Whole
Vehicle Type Approval rules. For new types of vehicles this will come into force from
29 April 2009 or, where a vehicle is built in stages such as chassis by one constructor
and a body by another, by 29 April 2010. For existing vehicle types currently being
produced the dates for compliance are 29 October 2010 built by one constructor
and 29 October 2011 for all others.

Manufacturers will have the option of EU rules or new national rules. However, the
new national rules will only be an option for vehicles manufactured in small numbers
(up to 250 a year) or those that are type approved as individual vehicles.

School buses will have to comply with these new rules, with the exception of the "Bus
Directive" for bodywork and internal layouts, which sets the requirements for
bodywork items such as seats, gangways, doors, steps etc. Member states can set
their own rules for school buses bodywork and internal layouts. The Department for
Transport has issued a proposal for the UK national rules for school bus bodywork and
internal layouts.

pteg bus operator group is leading on this and has produced a response which can
be linked to at:

DG Enterprise : Automotive Industry Unit
Head of Unit : Mr Reinhard SCHULTE-BRAUCKS
Priority: Watching brief.

The European Commission originally proposed a set of three new regulations on
access to the public service vehicles market in 2007. In 2008, the European
Parliament and Council of Ministers adopted the regulations on establishing
‘common rules concerning the conditions to be complied with to pursue the
occupation of road transport operators’, ‘common rules for the international
carriage of passengers by coach and bus’, and ‘the access to the market in the
carriage of goods by road within the Community’.

The operator regulation sets out the requirements an operator has to meet in order
to be allowed to run either:
     an HGV for hire and reward and/or
     public service vehicles (PSVs) where the vehicle is designed to carry nine or
       more passengers and a payment is made.

There are already EU rules setting out minimum requirements to be an HGV or PSV
operator, such as the need to establish good repute, professional competence and
financial standing in order to obtain and retain an operators’ licence.

The passenger market regulation establishes 'common rules for the international
carriage of passengers by coach and bus'. It sets out the rules for an operator
engaging in international journeys in the EU using a vehicle designed to carry nine or
more passengers including the driver, either on his/her own account or to carry
passengers for hire or reward.

The goods market regulation applies to hauliers only.

pteg produced a response to a DfT consultation on this issue; a copy of the response
is available from the Brussels team on request.

DG TREN: Internal Market and Competition
Head of Unit : Jean-Louis COLSON
Priority: Watching brief.


The Commission outlined its strategy for ‘greening transport’ on 8 July 2009. The
‘package’ consists of an overarching Communication outlining what is already
being done, what is being proposed in the current set of proposals and further
measures that will be undertaken in the next 18 months. The Communication also
sketches what could be proposed after 2009.

This note outlines the main provisions of each document published on 8 July 2009.

      COM(2008)2206 – Greening Transport (overarching document)
      COM(2008)435 – Strategy for the Internalisation of External Costs
      COM(2008)436 – directive amending the Directive on the Charging of Heavy
       Goods Vehicles for the Use of Certain Infrastructures (otherwise known as
      COM(2008)432 – rail noise abatement measures addressing the existing fleet
       (i.e. retrofitting)


Transport is growing rapidly, between 1995 and 2005 goods and passenger transport
in the EU grew by 31.3% and 17.7% respectively. CO2 emissions from the road sector
alone are 30% higher than in 1990.

The Communication recognises the importance of transport to the EU’s
competitiveness. Whilst transport users already pay significant costs, the Commission
argues that these costs do not mirror the real cost to health and the environment
and therefore, do not support and promote less costly behaviour. The Commission is
proposing that economic instruments (taxes, charges and emissions trading…) be
introduced to reflect transports’ real costs; on the other hand they want to see
complementary measures including regulatory instruments, infrastructure
development and further research and development.


The internalisation of external costs was initially proposed in 1995 when Neil Kinnock
was Transport Commissioner. The proposal was met with strong opposition; the idea
was reinvigorated by the European Parliament’s insistence that by 10 June 2008 ‘the
Commission present…a generally applicable, transparent and comprehensible
model for the assessment of all external costs…for all modes of transport’. The
European Commission also believes that the transport pricing system is key to
behavioural change. It estimates that if nothing is done costs could reach €210bn by

However, despite its belief that changes to pricing are essential, the Commission has
very limited powers in this area (or political support). Road haulage is the only area
that is specifically targeted.

In order for the consumer to respond to price changes, he will need credible
alternatives. The Commission argues that this means that pricing should be
accompanied by significant investment in infrastructure, encouraging technological
innovation, legislation and setting standards. The revision to Eurovignette proposes
that any revenue generated must be earmarked for the transport sector and
reducing external costs.

Choosing the right economic instrument (toll, charge, emissions trading) varies
greatly from one mode to another. For example, aviation is already included in the
ETS. For costs that vary with time and place, such as congestion, some sort of
differentiated charging system should be considered. For CO2, the Commission
asserts that the best instrument is one directly linked to consumption, such as a fuel
tax, but they are also aware that there is no support from member states’ finance
departments for EU action on fuel tax.
Whilst the Commission has very few powers at present, these powers may be
strengthened if discrete charging systems are seen to act as a barrier in the internal
market. The Commission argues that common principles are needed to prevent

The impact analysis, which the Commission is obliged to carry out for any new
proposal, states that the objectives should be met without hampering the
competitiveness of the economy and should avoid any undue burden on transport.
The Commission feels that the best way to ensure this is to use ‘social marginal cost
charging’, where prices correspond to the additional cost (including external cost)
of one extra person using the infrastructure. Calculating this varies a great deal for
each cost type. For noise, a very complex approach is used; for accidents, costs
could be passed on to insurance premiums. A technical annex goes through the
external costs and looks at how each should be measured.

In summary, the document’s comments on each pteg-relevant mode are the


The Commission’s proposals for road haulage are outlined separately in section 6.6,
below; as already mentioned the private car is excluded. The Urban Mobility Action
Plan is likely to propose a range of measures, including: sharing best practice from
cities that have charging systems; harmonising criteria for urban traffic restrictions;
and promoting interoperability. The proposal for a Council directive on passenger
car related taxes is still under discussion, if successful it will make a clearer link
between road tax and CO2 emissions.


Revision of Eurovignette (road haulage) allows rail to internalise more costs – and a
proposal is expected later in the year. Previously, rail was limited by a provision only
allowing it to cover external costs if other modes introduced similar measures.


Inland waterways are likely to benefit from the introduction of pricing, depending on
their energy efficiency in terms of tonnes per kilometre. As petrol prices and
congestion have increased we have already seen some evidence of more freight
transport on inland waterways.

pteg responded to DfT and European Commission consultations in December 2007.
There is a proposal in the Action Plan on Urban Mobility to carry out an study on
urban transport planning. DG Environment are also considering taking more action
in this area.

DG TREN: Unit A2, Economic analysis, Impact assessment, Evaluation & Climate
Head of unit: Mr Sandro SANTAMATO
Priority: Watching brief

The first Eurovignette Directive (1999) recognises the “user pays” principle by
allowing member states to levy distance-based charges (tolls) to recover the cost of
construction, maintenance and operation of infrastructure. The directive also
authorizes time-based charges below a maximum rate. The current provisions limit
revenues from tolls to what is strictly necessary to recover infrastructure costs, even in
areas exposed to traffic-based pollution and congestion costs above the
recoverable construction costs. Moreover, they cover only the trans-European

The new revision, proposed in June 2008, would, essentially, extend the Eurovignette
Directive to a wider range of inter-urban roads and allow certain external costs to
be recovered in tolls. It establishes a methodology for calculating those external
costs. Member states are free to decide whether to apply tolls for external costs for a
given route, but where they do so they must respect the methodology set out in the
directive. Urban areas will still be exempted from the scope; here, local authorities
will retain their current freedoms as regards regulatory charges.

The proposed directive enables member states to integrate in tolls levied on heavy
goods vehicles an amount which reflects the cost of air and noise pollution and
congestion caused by traffic. During peak periods, it also allows tolls to be
calculated on the basis of the cost of congestion imposed upon other vehicles. The
amounts will vary with the travelled distance, location and time of use of roads to
better reflect these external costs. Member states which opt for it must respect
common charging principles together with mechanisms for notifying and reporting
tolling schemes to the Commission. The proposal leaves member states the freedom
to decide whether, and on which roads, to levy tolls and whether or not to
incorporate local environmental and congestion costs in the tolls, though they will
have to justify to the Commission the choice of roads covered. The directive should
apply to all HGVs over 3.5 tonnes, with certain exemptions, from 1 January 2012.
HGVs over 12 tonnes should comply by 31 December 2010.

The external cost charge permitted varies according to the type of road and EURO
emission class, and, in cases where the charge includes the cost of congestion
and/or traffic-based noise pollution, time periods such as daily, weekly or seasonal
peak and off peak periods and night period. This will be done according to
common formulae set out in an annex to the directive, or by standard unit values,
also included in the annex.

The charge must be collected through electronic systems that do not create
hindrance to the free flow of traffic. A transitional period until 31 December 2013 is
planned for this requirement, however.

The choice of projects to be financed with the proceeds of such charging is left to
the discretion of member states provided that the projects chosen contribute to
sustainable mobility. The additional revenue generated from an external cost
charge should be used in projects with a broad EU interest and designed to promote
sustainable mobility, for instance projects relating to facilitating efficient pricing,
reducing road transport pollution at source, mitigating its effects, improving the CO2
and energy performance of vehicles, and developing alternative infrastructure for

By 31 December 2013 the Commission will present a report assessing the success of
the scheme and looking into: integrating other external costs, especially linked to
CO2 emissions, accidents and biodiversity loss; extending the scope to other
categories of vehicles; adopting a revised classification of vehicles for the purposes
of varying tolls; making application of the directive mandatory for member states.

The dossier is currently undergoing its first reading in the European Parliament and
Council of Ministers. pteg submitted a short paper to Transport Committee MEPs
during their deliberations in early 2009. This was to support a small number of
amendments tabled by certain committee MEPs relating to the potential urban
implications, specifically:
   - The exclusion of urban areas from the scope of the Eurovignette is welcome
      and should be maintained in the long term. Suggested changes to the
      wording of the existing urban exemption risk creating legal uncertainty.
   - The suggested principle of the earmarking of revenues raised for sustainable
      transport projects is strongly supported, should be made binding, should
      apply to all sectors (not just road) and should be additional to existing
   - There is not a clear rationale for excluding external costs related to CO2
      emissions and accidents from the scope of the directive.

The main amendments in Parliament’s March 2009 first-reading plenary vote include:
   - Removing the specific methodology for calculating congestion costs, thereby
      leaving it up to member states to decide which method to use;
   - Extending the permitted mark-ups for mountainous regions to urban
      conurbations too;
   - More specific provisions on earmarking revenues. These should be dedicated
      to reducing the external costs of transport, reducing road-vehicle emissions
      and improving road and alternative infrastructure. From 2011, 15% of
      revenues should go to supporting TEN-T projects.

The dossier is now awaiting completion of its first reading in Council. The main
sticking points are understood to be differing views on congestion charging and if
and how to adapt the proposals in light of the recession.

DfT has confirmed there are currently no UK plans for introducing a charging
scheme to cover externalities within the scope of the Eurovignette revision.
However, the UK government supports the principle of internalising external costs
and recognises that future national schemes could fall within the scope. They
welcome the voluntary nature of the proposals and are undecided on the planned
extension of the types of roads covered.

DG TREN: A.1 Economic analysis, Impact assessment, evaluation & climate change
Head of unit: Mr Sandro SANTAMATO
Actions: The dossier is awaiting completion of first reading in Council.
Priority: Priority watching brief. Possible second reading lobbying to reinforce pteg
first-reading position.

The European Commission recently closed a consultative green paper on the broad
future direction of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T). The paper is a
preparation for a possible further revision of the TEN-T guidelines in 2010.

The TEN-T are a network of transport infrastructure across modes and across the
whole of the EU territory. They aim to contribute to:
   - the smooth functioning of the internal market through sustainable, safe and
      socially conscious mobility of people and goods;
   - economic and social cohesion (reducing the disparities between the best
      and worst performing EU regions);
   - integrating all modes of transport;
   - benefits in terms of accessibility, economic growth, time savings, emissions
      decrease and modal rebalancing.

There are currently 30 priority TEN-T projects. Most of these are rail (18) routes, some
are road, maritime or inland waterway routes, a couple are multi-modal routes;
there is also a priority project for the Galileo satellite navigation infrastructure. The
priority projects can attract EU funding; the aim is for them to be completed by 2020.
The UK is part of six priority projects.

On top of the priority projects there is a wider “comprehensive network”, a wider set
of routes that contribute to the aims of TEN-T but can attract a much lower amount
of European funding.

The Commission estimates that the total cost of implementing the TEN-T is EUR 860 bn
up to 2020 and EUR 350 bn for 2007-13. Of this, EUR 196 bn comes form national
funding, EUR 8 bn from a dedicated TEN-T budget at EU level, EUR 54 bn from
European Investment Bank loans and EUR 44 bn from EU regional funding (Structural
and Cohesion Funds). This leaves a funding gap of EUR 50 bn.

The rationale behind the current review is that there is still along way to go in order to
implement the existing TEN-T plans fully. Objectives have been rather broad, which
has made it impossible to meet them in full with the instruments available. Some of
the Commission’s other broad points are:
   - The individual citizen may not always find it easy to see the results of the
       overall TEN-T policy or the European added value generated by the EU.
   - TEN-T should better reflect established European objectives – not only in the
       transport sector but also in the wider political, socio-economic, environmental
       and institutional context.
   - Good connections to all of Europe's immediate neighbours, including Africa,
       are also vital from an economic, political and security point of view.
   - Climate change objectives should be placed at the centre of TEN-T policy.

The consultation proposed three alternative structures:
   - Maintaining the current dual layer structure with the comprehensive network
      and (unconnected) priority projects
   - Reducing the TEN-T to a single layer (priority projects, possibly connected into
      a priority network)
   -   Dual layer structure with the comprehensive network and a core network,
       comprising a – geographically defined – priority network and a conceptual
       pillar to help to integrate the various transport policy and transport
       infrastructure aspects.

Other issues identified for future TEN-T development include that:
   - passenger and freight traffic present different characteristics;
   - airports are expected to face significant capacity constraints in coming
   - the inland waterway network has ample free capacity that is already
       available or can be made available relatively cheaply;
   - freight logistics have become crucial for the EU to meet the economy's
       transport needs in a sustainable way;
   - intelligent transport systems can help to optimise the individual modes and
       make for seamless connection;
   - demand management measures are gaining increasing importance and
       should also be taken into account in infrastructure planning.

The consultation also asked for views on how better to match up TEN-T funding
options with TEN-T development goals. Suggestions included:
   - restructuring implementation targets and cost estimates for the TEN-T
   - setting TEN-T capacity standards at the planning level;
   - harnessing projects with full self-financing potential (user charging, PPPs, etc.)
   - streamlining EU grant allocation;
   - expanding the role of European coordinators in helping to prepare and
      implement certain priority projects;
   - applying the Open Method of Coordination to TEN-T.

Pteg submitted a response to the green paper consultation, the key points of which
were as follows:
   - It is important to get the balance right between improving urban transport
       networks and developing the TEN-T. According to the European Parliament’s
       recent report on the Urban Transport Action Plan, only 9% of the Structural
       Funding for transport is earmarked to urban transport. Only relatively small
       amounts of dedicated EU urban transport funding (such as CIVITAS Plus
       demonstration funding) currently exist. Urban transport scores very highly on
       social, environmental, economic and value-for-money grounds and is the
       best form of transport investment for furthering the Lisbon and Gothenburg
       agendas. The balance of EU transport funding should better reflect this.
       Furthermore, within the TEN-T the Commission should consider proposing a
       TEN-T urban priority to look at the urban aspects of TEN-T development and to
       encourage wider exchange and joint projects between the EU’s cities.
   - The comprehensive network remains an important element in terms of
       ensuring the access function to the priority projects, easing congestion, and
       allowing regions and member states to direct Structural Funds to the transport
       projects they consider most relevant. The Commission should take a cautious
       approach, however, to using the comprehensive network as a way of
       legislating in new transport areas.
   -   Any enhanced focus on ITS in the TEN-T should be on applications that are
       clearly tailored to the needs of the transport user – be it companies or
       individuals – and have user accessibility built-in.
   -   The focus in TEN-T should always be on the most sustainable modes. This
       should apply across the set of priority projects/priority network as well as within
       individual priority projects (so, in the case of multi-modal priority projects, such
       as the railway-road axis Ireland/UK/continental Europe, the focus should be
       on, say, inter-modality and rail).
   -   The current intervention rates and amounts of funding for the dedicated TEN-T
       fund are too low to have any significant leverage effect and do not
       adequately encourage delivery of the network by member states.

DG TREN: B.1 International Transport Relations & Trans-European Transport Network
Head of unit: Mr Jean-Eric PAQUET
Actions: A conference on 20 November will present the results of the consultation.
Priority: Priority watching brief on proposals emerging from the consultation


Galileo would provide Europe with its own global navigation satellite system,
providing a highly accurate, guaranteed global positioning service under civilian
control (as an alternative to, but also interoperable with, the US GPS and Russian

The fully deployed Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites and associated ground
infrastructure, to provide numerous applications for everyday life, from vehicle
guidance to the safety of transport, including commercial applications (banking,
geology, public works, energy, etc.). In the transport field, it is expected to improve
considerably air traffic control, the management of ship and lorry fleets, road and
rail traffic monitoring, the mobilisation of emergency services and the tracking of
goods carried by multimodal transport.

Funding for Galileo is to come from the EU and the European Space Agency (ESA),
but problems existed within the EU on the financing of the programme. The
European Parliament, Commission and Council agreed in 2008 on the portion of the
EU’s budget to be dedicated to the European satellite navigation radio project. This
was followed in February 2009 with an agreement between the EU and ESA on the
deployment phase of the system. Six main work packages will be put out to public
tender (system support, ground mission segment, ground control segment, space
segment, launch services and operations). When it is deployed, by 2013, the system
will provide five main services, namely the Open Service, the Safety of Life Service,
the Commercial Service, the Public Regulated Service, and the Search and Rescue
Service. For more on about Galileo, link to

The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Services (EGNOS) is another
satellite based system developed by the EU and ESA. This open service satellite
navigation signal supplements and improve the accuracy (to within 1-2 metres) of
the GPS, GLONASS and Galileo systems. On 1 October 2009, the European
Commission declared EGNOS to be operationally ready, for the benefit of both
European businesses and citizens. It can support new applications in a number of
different sectors such as agriculture, like high-precision spraying of fertilisers, or
transport, like automatic road-tolling or pay-per-use insurance schemes. EGNOS can
also support much more precise personal navigation services, both for general and
specific uses, for example systems to guide blind people

DG TREN: EU satellite navigation programmes: Infrastructure Deployment and
             Exploitation (Galileo) (G.3)
Head of Unit: Paul VERHOEF
DG TREN: EGNOS; Exploitation (G.3.001)
Head of Sector: Mr. C. DES DORIDES
Priority: Watching brief

On 16 December 2008 the European Commission published its action plan to move
Europe towards the deployment and use of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in road
transport. The initiative has an umbrella of five co-operating Directorates-General
lead by DG Energy and Transport. ITS intends to contribute to a cleaner, safer and
more efficient transport system. The action plan suggests a set of concrete measures
and a new Directive laying down the framework for the ITS implantation across all 27
EU countries. The action plan covers a long list of applications, including electronic
toll collection, tracking of freight trucks and cars that automatically ‘call’
emergency services via satellite signals in accidents.

ITS intends to apply Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to various
transport modes and stimulate interaction between them (air transport - SESAR,
Inland waterways - RIS, Maritime – VTMIS, Rail – ERTMS). The action plan outlines 24
actions within the six main priorities areas:

    Optimal use of road and traffic data:
         o EU-wide real-time traffic and travel information services
         o Collection and provision of road data and traffic circulation plans
         o Free provision of minimum universal traffic information services
         o Development of national multimodal door-to-door journey planer
    Traffic and freight management:
         o The continuity of ITS services for passengers and freight in transport
             corridors and in urban/interurban regions
         o eFreight and development of appropriate measures
         o European ITS Framework architecture
         o Implementation of electronic road toll systems
    Road safety and security:
         o Promotion of deployment of advanced driver assistance systems and
             safety and security related ITS systems, including their installation in new
             vehicles and, if relevant, their retrofitting in used ones
         o Support the Implementation platform for the harmonised introduction
             of pan-European in –vehicle emergency call (eCall) service that builds
             on the single European emergency number 112
         o Development of Human-machine-Interface framework and the
             integration of nomadic devices
         o The impact of ITS applications and services on the safety and comfort
             of vulnerable road users
         o Secure parking places for trucks and commercial vehicles and
             telematics-controlled parking and reservation systems
    Integrating ITS applications in the vehicle
         o Adoption of an open in-vehicles platform architecture for the
             provisions of ITS services and applications
         o Development and evaluation of cooperative systems and investments
             in intelligence infrastructure
         o Development of harmonised standards for ITS implementation
    Data protection and liability
         o Assess the security and personal data protection aspects related to the
             handling of data in ITS applications and services
         o Address the liability issues pertaining to the use of ITS applications and
             notably in-vehicle safety systems
    European ITS co-ordination
          o   Proposal for a legal framework for European coordination on the
              Europe-wide deployment of ITS
          o   Development of a decision-support toolkit for investment decisions in
              ITS applications and services
          o   Development of guidelines for the public funding from both EU (TEN-T
              and Structural funds for instance) and national sources
          o   Set-up of a specific ITS collaboration platform between Member States
              and regional/local governments to promote ITS initiatives in the area of
              urban mobility

Each action area has specific action points and a timetable. The present action
plan covers the period 2009 – 2014 and the European Commission is planning to
table a mid-term review on the implementation of this action plan in 2012.
The Action Plan for the development of ITS is based on the results of the public
consultation which took place in February 2009.

The Commission will be assisted in its work by a European ITS Committee
(representatives from Member States; Chair: Commission) to exchange information
and decide on actions and a European ITS Advisory Group (15-20 High Level
Members from industry, transport operators, local authorities, social partners; Chair:
EC) to advise on business, technical and user aspects. The European ITS committee
and advisory group will be set up once a Directive defending a framework for the
use of ITS is adopted.

Proposal for a Directive
Along with the action plan, the Commission has published a proposal for a Directive
defining a framework for the use of ITS in the road transport sector. On 22 April 2009
the European Parliament adopted its first-reading opinion supporting the action plan
and also a proposal for a Directive with a several amendments. On 30 March 2009
the European Council of Ministers also welcomed the action and gave its support to
the main principles of a Directive.

DG TREN: Unit G.4, EU satellite navigation programmes: Applications. Intelligence
Transport Systems (ITS)
Head of unit: Mr Edgar Thielmann
Action: Currently, there is ongoing debate between the European Parliament and
the Council on a Directive and a political agreement is expected to be reached by
the end of 2009.
Priority: watching brief


The European Road Safety Action Programme is a ten-year blueprint for the
European Commission’s work on road safety. It runs from 2001-10 and aims to halve
the number of fatalities on Europe's roads over that period from 50,000 to 25,000
annually. The Commission acknowledges that member states have been reluctant
to take on a more communautaire approach to tackling road safety (the
harmonisation of blood alcohol limits being a case in point) but still sees scope for
co-ordinated EU activity around:
   - encouraging road users to improve their behaviour;
   - making vehicles safer;
   - improving road infrastructure;
   - drafting technical guidelines to improve best practice;
   - collecting and analysing data on accidents and physical injuries,
   - channelling EU research funds to road safety questions;
   - establishing a "European Road Safety Charter".

In 2006 the Commission presented a mid-term review of the strategy. This estimated
that the target of halving road deaths by 2010 was unlikely to be met. However,
fatalities were still reducing and better vehicle safety standards and voluntary
member-state road safety plans were a significant part of this. Motorcyclists had
seen their accident rate increase and 18-25 year olds remained particularly
vulnerable. The review also outlined the specific actions undertaken by the
Commission on the back of the action programme; the promotion of passive safety
(making it compulsory to wear a seat belt); eSafety (such as implementation of the
eCall initiative); CARS-21 (the compulsory use of onboard systems in vehicles) and
the development of safe infrastructure (European road assessment programme and
the European tunnels assessment programme.) Proposals were also afoot to extend
existing legislation on driving licenses.

Individual road safety legislation currently on the table or recently approved
includes: two directives on type approval of motor vehicles; a draft directive on
cross-border enforcement of road safety penalties (see section 9.2 below) and the
Road Safety Infrastructure Management Directive (see 10.6).

The Commission has recently issued a consultation to prepare the next action
programme for 2011-20. The impetus for this is likely failure to meet fatality-reduction
targets (there were still 39,000 road deaths in the EU in 2008) and the socio-
economic costs of this (estimated at EUR 180 bn). The consultation consists of a tick-
box questionnaire around the following questions:
- What are the main problems and issues at stake in road safety (by category of
road user and in the context of societal change)?
- What are the most important infrastructure/road user (training, education,
rehabilitation, enforcement) vehicle safety measures?
- What are the key issues for institutional management of road safety (leadership
and co-ordination; legislation, funding and resource allocation, promotion;
monitoring and evaluation, knowledge transfer, research)?
- What should the EU’s road-safety role be (in terms of new transport and other
sectoral policies and removing existing EU obstacles)?
- What should the priorities of the next EU programme be?
- How should technology and ITS be used to promote safety?

The deadline for responding to the consultation is 20 November 2009.

DG TREN: E.3 Road safety
Head of Unit: Ms Isabelle KARDACZ
Priority: Watching brief


In March 2008 the European Commission proposed a draft directive to facilitate
enforcement of road safety sanctions against drivers from one member state who
commit an offence in the territory of another. The offences covered are speeding,
drink driving, not using a seat belt and failing to stop at a red light.

In December 2008 the European Parliament concluded its first reading. MEPs
   - Demanded that provision be made for the future establishment of EU-wide
      road safety guidelines. These should require minimum levels of speed checks
      and drink driving tests and more seatbelt compliance checks in member
      states where seatbelt use is very slow. These checks should all be
      concentrated on their respective infringement hotspots. Similarly, the rules
      should require automatic checking equipment to be focused on traffic lights
      with the most infringements and accidents.
   - Proposed more detailed provisions on data protection, offence notification,
      penalties and appeal, pursuing non-payment, information between
      competent authorities, information to the public and reporting and revision.

The dossier is currently awaiting first reading in Council. Some member states have
questioned the legal basis of the dossier – which means that they think the
Commission and Parliament should be secondary to the Council of Ministers in
legislating in this area.

DG TREN: E.3 Road safety
Head of Unit: Ms Isabelle KARDACZ
Actions: Watching brief


In December 2008 a new directive entered into EU law establishing a procedure for
identifying and designating European Critical Infrastructures (ECIs) and a common
approach to assessing how to improve their protection. It focuses on the energy and
transport sectors. An ECI is defined as an infrastructure located in member states the
disruption of which would have a significant impact on at least two member states.
An annex details the types of infrastructures concerned; for transport these include
road, rail, air, inland waterway and maritime modes. Each member state must
identify potential ECIs according to four steps:
   - firstly, sectoral criteria should be applied to make a first selection of
       infrastructures within a sector;
   - secondly, the definition of critical infrastructure should be applied;
   - thirdly, the transboundary element should be applied;
   - fourthly, cross-cutting criteria should be applied.

An infrastructure can only be designated an ECI if it has satisfied all four steps. The
cross-cutting criteria should take into account: the potential number of fatalities or
injuries, the potential economic and environmental effects; the potential disruption
to public confidence, daily life and essential services. Initial identification of ECIs
should be completed by January 2011 then regularly reviewed. For each ECI, the
owner/operator must establish:
    - operator security plans , identifying the ECI’s assets, what security solutions
        exist or are being implemented, a risk analysis based on major threat
        scenarios, the vulnerability of each asset and the potential impact;
    - security liaison officers functioning as the contact point between the
        owner/operator and the relevant member state authority.

A separate directive proposed in October 2008 establishes a critical infrastructure
warning information network (CIWIN). This would help member states to exchange
information on shared threats and vulnerabilities and appropriate strategies to
mitigate risks. Use of CIWIN would be open to all member states. CIWIN would consist
of an electronic forum, with fixed and dynamic areas, and a rapid alert function
where member states could post alerts on immediate threats.

DG JLS: JLS.F.1.001 Preparedness and crisis management
Head of Sector: Ms M-A. BALBINOT
Priority: Watching brief


The Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment is one of a number of recent
environmental thematic strategies. It focuses on sustainable urban management,
urban transport, and sustainable construction and design. There are no real binding
requirements as regards urban transport: the final text was down to a set of
measures to facilitate better local urban environment policy. Some of the measures
relevant to transport include: providing guidance and technical assistance on the
main aspects of transport plans; supporting the exchange of good practice;
diverting existing EU environmental and structural funds to urban environmental
management issues; supporting relevant R&D; assessing the feasibility of an urban
environment portal for local authorities.

A preparatory document on sustainable urban transport plans has been published
by DG Environment at the Commission. It is a summary of current best practice.

DG Environment: Clean Air and Transport
Head of Unit: Acting Head of Unit, Mr Moser
Contact officer: Mr Balacz Gergely


Directive 2006/22/EC was passed 15 March 2006, setting out the minimum
requirements for implementing and enforcing European social legislation on road
transport activities. The chief instrument member states will be obliged to set up is a
system of appropriate and regular checks, both at the roadside and on the premises
of transport companies; the directive also sets out quality requirement for checks,
including the reading of digital tachographs. The number of checks will increase
gradually to 3% of days worked by drivers by 2010. There may be a further increase
to 4% from 1 January 2012. The directive entered into force on 1 May 2006, with the
deadline for transposition by member states 1 April 2007. The form for the attestation
of activities, mentioned in the Article 11(3) of the directive, was published by the
Commission on12 April 2007.

DG TREN: Land Transport Policy
Head of Unit: Szabolcs SCHMIDT


Directive 2003/59/EC, which entered into force on 10 September 2003, covers both
initial qualifications and periodic training for drivers of road vehicles transporting
either goods or passengers. New and existing drivers will have to obtain a ‘certificate
of professional competence’ (CPC). This applies to bus drivers from 10 September
2008 and will apply to LGV drivers from 10 September 2009. Both categories of drivers
will have to complete 35 hours’ (5 days’) training that can be spread over five years.
Certain drivers are exempted, such as those whose vehicles have a maximum
design speed of less than 45kmph.

DG TREN: Land Transport Policy
Head of Unit: Szabolcs SCHMIDT


The regulation concerns the development of harmonised provisions on the awarding
of public service contracts in passenger transport by rail and road.

It is an update of the 1969 Community Regulatory Framework Applicable in the
Public Passenger Transport Sector. The economic environment of the sector has
changed profoundly since 1969. The Commission proposed an updated regulation
on passenger public transport, in September 2000. Following the opinion of the
European Parliament in November 2001 (first reading – which raised over 400
amendments), the Commission presented an amended proposal in February 2002.
However, the proposal remained controversial with the Council (Member States)
and was eventually withdrawn.

In order to reconcile the different positions on this and take into account the
judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Communities in the Altmark case,
the Commission adopted a revised proposal for a regulation.

The new version of the regulation, which had its final adoption in October 2007 and
which comes into force in December 2009 in the UK, regulates the ways in which
competent authorities may intervene in the inland public passenger transport sector.
It lays down the methods for paying compensation for public service obligations and
awarding exclusive rights to operators. The proposal calls for greater transparency in
the relations between public authorities and transport operators. At the same time,
at the request of the European Parliament, the proposal acknowledges for the first
time the free choice of local authorities as regards the organisation of public
transport. It establishes a framework for the competitive tendering for public service
contracts and for competent authorities to run the services themselves or award
them directly.

DG TREN: Services of General Interest and User Rights
Contact: Ms Michaela Strohschneider


In 2004 the European Commission launched a public consultation following
submissions it had received from certain rail actors calling for technical
harmonisation of urban rail systems and products. The Commission also ordered a
study into the issue. The results show that there is not strong support for legislation
and that technical harmonisation would only have a marginal effect on
competitiveness and the benefit would not be passed on to the operator or
passenger. It recommends that the Commission should not proceed with a
legislative route but should explore alternatives based on voluntary agreement.
DG TREN: Rail transport and interoperability
Head of unit: Mr Maurizio CASTELLETTI


In November 2008, a directive entered into EU law for establishing and implementing
procedures relating to road infrastructure safety management. It applies to trans-
European network roads. Member states must ensure that a road safety impact
assessment is carried out for all infrastructure projects at the initial planning stage
according to set criteria. Road safety audits must be carried out for all infrastructure
projects. Member states should conduct rankings of high accident sections and
network safety generally every three years. Appropriate signs must be in place to
warn of repairs. There should be periodic inspections of the road network and
surveys on the possible impact of roadworks on the safety of the traffic flow. For
each fatal accident an accident report must be drawn up. All the above should be
done according to harmonised criteria contained in the directive. Finally, the
European Commission should establish a best-practice exchange system
concerning infrastructure safety and safety technologies. Member states have until
December 2010 to transpose the directive into national law.

DG TREN: E.3 Road safety
Head of Unit: Ms Isabelle KARDACZ

The Regulation EC No 1371/2007 on the rights and obligations of rail passengers was
originally intended to apply only to passengers on international journeys but now
includes passengers on domestic journeys.
Under the Regulation, all rail passengers will enjoy a set of basic rights when the law
enters into force on 3 December 2009. These will apply to rail services at all levels -
international, national and local – and include the following provisions:

      tickets should be available at ticket offices, vending machines and/or on
       board trains
      access to travel for passengers with reduced mobility (PRM) should not be
       refused; it should be non-discriminatory and provided at no extra cost; there
       should be clear information on accessibility for PRM
      a complex liability scheme is established for damage to passengers and
      railway undertakings should have adequate insurance
      railway undertakings and infrastructure managers should ensure passenger
       security according to requirements laid down by public authorities

Member states may exempt long-distance rail services from a wider set of more
advanced rights for an initial period of five years, which may subsequently be
extended for two further periods of up to five years. Urban, suburban and regional
services may be granted an indefinite exemption to these more advanced rights.

Once the law enters into force, compensation in the event of delays on cross-border
services will be 25% of the fare for a delay of 60 minutes or more and 50% for a delay
of 120 minutes or more, but only if the operator can be held responsible for the
delay. Eventually these arrangements will apply to all long-distance services.

The Commission shall report on the implementation and the results of this Regulation
and in particular on the service quality standards, by 3 December 2012. The report
shall be accompanied, where necessary, by appropriate proposals.

DG TREN: Unit A3 - Services of general economic interest, passenger rights &
Head of unit (acting): Anne HOUTMAN


Driving times (as opposed to total working time), breaks and rest periods for coach
drivers are covered by Regulation 561/2006/EC, which entered into force on 1 April
2007, amending the existing Regulation 3821/85/EEC. The Regulation sets the
maximum daily and weekly driving times, daily minimum rest periods and minimum
break times for drivers. For monitoring purposes, it requires digital tachographs in all
new vehicles and drivers cards showing their driving and rest times. The Regulation
also covers penalties for cases of infringement. Regular services less than 50 km are
exempted from the regulation. Some provisions of the Regulation entered into force
on 1 May 2006, the remaining text did so on 11 April 2007.

In June 2008, the European Parliament passed a report increasing the limit for
consecutive days work for coach drivers on international trips from 6 to 12.

DG TREN: Unit E1 - Land Transport Policy
Head of Unit: Szabolcs SCHMIDT


The EC Directive on certification of train drivers (2007/59/EC) entered into force on 4
December 2007 and must be transposed into national law within two years. The
directive states that train drivers must hold a certificate stating that they meet
minimum requirements relating to medical fitness, basic education and general
professional skills; they should also have one or more certificates indicating the
infrastructures and rolling stock they are authorised to use. Member states may
exclude from the measures drivers operating exclusively on:
     metros, trams and other light rail systems

      networks that are functionally separate from the rest of the rail system and are
       intended only for the operation of local, urban or suburban passenger and
       freight services

From its entry into force, the Directive will be phased in as follows:
    after 3 years , for new drivers performing cross-border services
    after 5 years, for all drivers who must obtain a new licence or certificate
    after 10 years, for all drivers
The Commission will present, by June 2010, a report on whether other train staff
performing safety-critical tasks should be subject to a similar system of licences,
accompanied, if appropriate, by a legislative proposal. The European Railway
Agency will also report, before December 2011 on any improvements, in general,
that can be made to the system.

DG TREN : E2 - Rail transport and interoperability
Head of Unit : Maurizio CASTELLETTI


In 2007 the European Commission concluded a public consultation on a planned
Euro VI emission regulation—the next tier of emission standards for heavy-duty lorry
and bus engines. Euro IV limits have applied since 2006 and Euro V since October
2008. Euro VI would supersede these in 2013.

The consultation was followed in December by a draft Euro VI regulation, according
to which NOx would need to be reduced to 400 mg/kWh and PM to 10 mg/kWh for
HGVs by 2013-14. A reduction of 66% in the mass of particulate emissions from
compression-ignition engine vehicles will be required. While this lower emission limit
does not prescribe a particular technology, it will in reality require the introduction of
diesel particulate filters. For compression-ignition engines, a reduction of 80% in NOx
is planned. To comply, internal engine measures (such as exhaust gas recirculation)
and after-treatment devices (such as selective catalytic reduction) will be needed.
The proposal also includes reductions in emissions from positive-ignition engines.
There are general transition periods in the proposal in order to give vehicle
manufacturers time to adapt. The proposal includes a requirement that on-board
diagnostic information and vehicle repair and maintenance information be made
available through web sites in the standardised format developed by a technical
committee of stakeholders (the so-called OASIS format). It would introduce driving
cycles to evaluate pollutant emissions, emissions testing and measurement
methodology and harmonized on-board diagnostic systems. It would introduce new
requirements for the type-approval of exhaust after-treatment components.

The dossier was completed in June of this year.

DG Enterprise and Industry: Automotive industry
Head of Unit: Reinhard Schulte-Braucks


The proposed regulation lays down harmonised rules on type approval requirements
for the general safety of motor vehicles with a view to ensuring the good functioning
of the internal market while at the same time providing for a higher level of safety
and environmental protection. It aims to significantly simplify the type-approval
legislation in the field of motor vehicle safety and tyres with one Council and
Parliament regulation.
The proposal also aims, in the context of the proposed regulation on setting emission
performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the EU's integrated
approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light duty vehicles, at enhancing the
environmental performance of vehicles by reducing the amount of vehicle CO2
emissions and road noise from tyres. The proposal introduces new requirements on
wet grip and tyre rolling resistance. The proposed noise emission limit values for tyres
are more stringent than those set out in existing legislation. The Rapporteur would like
to see more work done on reducing road surface noise, which is not part of this
proposal. Furthermore, he would like noise policy to be dealt with in a more cross-
cutting way covering all transport noise.

DG Enterprise: Automotive Industry
Head of Unit: Phillipe JEAN

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