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					                                           Intermediate Level

                                Scant Evidence to Link 9/11 to Cancer




Anemona Hartocollis published, in the New York Times, a summary of the US report on the attack of
The World Trade Center and its cancer related effects.


According to the US report, federal officials concluded that there is not enough evidence yet to say
whether the dust and smoke cloud produced by the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center caused
cancer. The finding, based on an initial review required by a new federal law, disappointed rescue and
recovery workers and people who lived near the World Trade Center. These people, who have cancer
diagnoses, attribute the sickness to the attack. The federal officials’ conclusions mean that rescue and
responders and survivors near the World Trade Center at the time of the bombing do not qualify for
federal benefits to treat or compensate them for their cancer, at least until further study.

But the report, released by Dr. John Howard, the director of the National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, said that there was very little evidence to go on, as there have only been 18
published research studies on the attack that even mentioned cancer.

“Drawing causal inferences about exposures resulting from the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and
the observation of cancer cases in responders and survivors is especially challenging since cancer is
not a rare disease,” the report said. Even if it appeared that the events of 9/11 caused cancer in certain
people, it would be hard to prove

The act provides treatment and compensation for a specific list of illnesses, mainly asthma and other
respiratory diseases. As part of a political compromise needed to pass the bill, cancer was not
included. A provision of the law, however, specified that the administrator of the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health would periodically review the evidence to determine whether cancer,
which could be one of the most expensive illnesses to treat and compensate for, should be added to the
list.

Three New York representatives — Carolyn B. Maloney and Jerrold Nadler, both Democrats, and
Peter T. King, a Republican — said in a statement that they were confident future studies would
support a link between cancer and 9/11.
Vocabulary:

Initial: (adjective) Definition: beginning or primary stage. Our initial visit to Europe was memorable.
Synonym: opening, early and first. Antonym: closing, final and last
.
Diagnosis :( noun) (Proper form) Definition: The process of identifying a problem or disease. The
doctor’s diagnosis was a shock to the frail woman. Synonym: analysis, opinion and conclusion.
Antonym: ambiguity, nonsense and vagueness

Attribute: (verb) (Present Tense) Definition: To assign a source or ascribe. One must be sure to
attribute the responsibilities according to skills. Synonym: apply, refer, and accredit. Antonym:
discredit, unrelated and disassociate.

Officials: (noun) (Plural form) Definition: A person representing an organization. The Olympic
officials chose England for the next events in 2012. Synonym: administrator, executive and leader.
Antonym: non representative, employee and worker

Compensate: (verb) (Infinitive Tense) Definition: make restitution. It is difficult to compensate
responders for their illnesses. Synonym: reward, atone and pay. Antonym: deprive, fine, forfeit

Periodically: (adverb) Definition: frequently, commonly. You are enabling her dependence on you by
periodically providing her with money. Synonyms: generally, habitually, and often. Antonym:
infrequently, seldom and uncommonly

Evidence: (noun) Definition: the proof of something. The evidence in this criminal case is
phenomenal. Synonym: affirmation, confirmation and demonstration. Antonym: contradiction,
disproof and hearsay.

Responders: (noun) (Plural form) Definition: Person who acts in answer to something. The
responders were on scene within minutes. Synonym: rescuer, paramedic, abstainer. Antonym: victim,
retaliator.

Compromise: (noun) Definition: agreement, Give-and-take. Currently, the government accepted a
compromise in the reimbursement policies. Synonym: accommodation, adjustment, and settlement
Antonym: dispute, controversy and disagreement

Provision: (noun). Definition: A stipulation or a condition of agreement. The rescuers are not satisfied
with the provision in the law. Synonym: limitation, prerequisite and terms. Antonym: non
specification, disagreement and requisite

Vocabulary quiz

Fill in the blanks with the following words:

    1-initial   2-diagnosis       3- attribute 4-officials       5-compensate

    6-periodically      7-compromise      8-evidence    9-responders             10-provision

    1. The ______ shock of the tragic event of September 11th was instantaneous.

    2. The _______ of cancer floored the frail lady.

    3. In classroom all over the country, teachers _________ passing grades to students

    4. ___________, provision is allowed to amend a law.
   5. _____________ in the policies permitted some rescuers to receive compensation.

   6. ________ are called to help the drug addict.

   7. Constructions of high-rises along the coastline ___________ the panoramic view

   8. Some_________ have seen the implementation of new laws.

   9. ____________ of corruption was presented to the courts.

   10. It is difficult to prove damages in order to ____________ the victims of the floods.



Answer key:   1-initial        2-diagnosis      3-attribute    4-periodically 5-provision

               6-responders 7-compromise               8-officials      9-evidence

              10-compensate


Vocabulary test:

   1. What is the most accurate definition of the word: evidence?
       (a) The disproof of something
       (b) The proof of something
       (c) The hearsay of something
       (d) The contradiction of something

   2. What is the antonym of the verb: attribute?
      (a) To apply
      (b) To refer
      (c) To disassociate
      (d) To accredit


   3. What best defines the word compromise in the following sentence: The government
      accepted a compromise in order to compensate responders for their health issues
      (a) An give and take
      (b) A dispute
      (c) A controversy
      (d) A disagreement

   4. Which answer defines the most clearly the word diagnosis?
      (a) The nonsense of identifying a problem or disease.
      (b) The process of identifying a problem or disease.
      (c) The ambiguity of identifying a problem or disease.
      (d) The vagueness of identifying a problem or disease

  5.   Which is an antonym of the adverb periodically?
       (a) Generally
       (b) Habitually
       (c) Often
       (d) Infrequently
     6. Which sentence most nearly defines the noun responders?
         (a) The victims were trapped in the house fire.
         (b) The rescuers were called to the house fire
         (c) The retaliators were called to the house fire.
         (d) The amateurs were called to the house fire.

 7. What is the synonym of the word initial?
     (a) Opening
     (b) Last
     (c) Final
     (d) Closing,

 8. Which word most closely defines the word provision? Provisions were made in the law to
    help the victims of 9-11
     (a) A specification of agreement in the law
     (b) A requisite of agreement in the law
     (c) A disagreement in the law
     (d) A stipulation of agreement in the law

9.     Which statement best defines the synonym of the word officials?
        (a) An administrator of an organization
        (b) A worker of an organization
        (c) An employee of an organization
        (d) A non representative of an organization

     10. What is the meaning of the verb: compensate?
         (a) Means to forfeit
         (b) Means to fine
         (c) Means to make restitution
         (d) Means to deprive

Answer key:     1-b   2-c       3-a       4-b     5- d

                6-b 7-a         8-d       9-a     10-c



Grammar concepts


     1. Expressions without prepositions

Some common expressions are used without prepositions.

         Verbs without prepositions

         Some verbs are normally followed by direct objects without prepositions. Examples are:
         enter, discuss, marry, lack, resemble approach etc.

                We entered the compound. (NOT we entered into the compound.)

                Let’s discuss your plans. (NOT let’s discuss about your plans.)

                She lacks tact. (NOT she lacks in tact.)
                The baby resembles its mother. (NOT The baby resembles to its mother.)

        Expressions of time

        A number of expressions of time beginning next, last, this, that, one, every, each, some and
        any are used without prepositions.

                See you next Sunday. (NOT See you on next Sunday.)

                I will never forget meeting him that evening. I will never forget meeting him in that
                evening.)

                Buses leave every ten minutes. (NOT Buses leave in every ten minutes.)

        In an informal style, prepositions can be dropped in infinitive structures.

                I have no money to buy food. OR I have no money to buy food with.

                I have no place to go. OR I have no place to go to.

                We need a house to live. OR We need a house to live in.

        Prepositions are also dropped before what time.

                What time does the train arrive? (More natural than ‘At what time does the train
                arrive?’)

                Adverbial Phrase – The adverbial phrase also has two definitions; some say it’s a
                group of adverbs (very quickly), while others say it’s any phrase (usually a
                prepositional phrase) that acts as an adverb .



    2. What are phrasal verbs?

There are four types of phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs can be separable or inseparable and they can take
an object or not.


        Phrasal Verbs which Don't Take Objects


Some phrasal verbs do not take objects. These phrasal verbs are ALWAYS inseparable.

        The thieves got away.

        The bus broke down on the way to work.

        She got up early.

If you are not sure whether a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable, ALWAYS use a noun or nouns
phrase and DO NOT separate. In this manner, you will always be correct!
Separable Phrasal Verbs: bring up, take off

        They brought up their children to respect others.

        She took off her jacket before she began the lesson.

Inseparable Phrasal Verbs: look for, set off

        She was looking for her books when he arrived.

        They set off for a wonderful holiday in Hawaii.

    3. Absolute Phrase – “My cake finally baking in the oven, I was free to rest for thirty minutes.”
        Unlike participial phrases, absolute phrases have subjects and modify the entire sentence, not
        one noun. Almost a clause, the absolute phrase can include every sentence element except
        a finite verb. For example, “My cake finally baking in the oven” would be its own sentence if
        you just added one finite verb: “My cake was finally baking in the oven.”

    4. Relations shown by prepositions

Prepositions show various kinds of relations. Some of the most important among them are the
following:

                  Reason and Purpose: She died of malaria.

                                          He trembled with anger.

                                          Smoking is injurious to health.

                  Possession:    He is a man of principles.

                                 Mumbai is the financial capital of India.

                                 I saw a boy with red hair.




            Grammar quiz

    1. What is the part of speech of the preposition of in this sentence? She died of cancer when
       she was 8 years old.

            (a)   A preposition of place
            (b)   A preposition of reason
            (c)   A preposition of possession
            (d)   A preposition of time
   2.    What is the part of speech are the words my cake finally baking... in this sentence? My
        cake, finally baking in the oven, I was free to read.
           (a) A participial phrase used as an adjective
           (b) An adverbial phrase.
           (c) An absolute phrase
           (d) An adjectival phrase

   3. The words look for, set off are
         (a) Separable phrasal verbs
         (b) Inseparable phrasal verbs
         (c) Reflexive phrasal verbs
         (d) Separable phrasal verbs requiring an object

   4. Which is true about phrasal verbs?
        (a) Phrasal verbs are verbs plus a proposition in front of them
        (b) Phrasal verbs can be separated if they have an object
        (c) Phrasal verbs have a subject but never an object
        (d) Bring up, take off are phrasal verbs that can be separated.

   5. Which statement is true about an absolute phrase?
        (a) Absolute phrases have objects
        (b) Absolute phrases modify the entire sentence
        (c) Absolute phrases are words such as anyone of, in regard to
        (d) Absolute phrases contain a finite verb

   6. Which statement is false about some prepositions?
        (a) Verbs are normally followed by direct objects with prepositions
        (b) Prepositions can be dropped in infinitive structures
        (c) Some prepositions are dropped before what time
        (d) Expressions of time beginning with next, last, etc., are used without prepositions.

   7. Which phrasal verb is incorrectly used?
        (a) The bus broke down on the way to work.
        (b) These thieves got away.
        (c) She got up early.
        (d) She ran of money out.

   8. Which is not a preposition of purpose or reason?
        (a) With
        (b) To
        (c) In
        (d) Of

   9. Which sentence contains a mistake?
        (a) We entered the compound
        (b) Buses leave every ten minutes.
        (c) See you next Tuesday.
        (d) I will never forget meeting him in that evening.

   10. Which statement contains an adverbial phrase?
          (a) Can we summarize this in a timely fashion?
          (b) Scissors are quite sharp
          (c) The ice cream is very soft.
          (d) Very quickly, the cat crossed the street.
Answer key to grammar quiz:        1-b 2-a 3-b 4-d 5-b         6-a 7-d 8-c 9-d 10-d
Grammar test: Choose the right answer.

   1. She speaks (very soft, very softly) because the children are sleeping..

   2. Being a man (with, of) principles, he accepted to work with everyone.

   3. Let’s discuss (----, about) your plans

   4. She lacks (in, ----) tact

   5. (At what, what) time does the train arrive?

   6. Buses leave every (----, in) ten minutes

   7. I will never forget meeting him (in, ----) that evening.

   8. He trembled (with, in) anger

   9. The athletes approached (-----, at) the challenge with great anticipation.

   10. Walk (very careful, very carefully) along the cliff.

       Answer key:      1-very softly    2-of      3------       4- -----   5-what

                       6-------   7------ 8-with   9-----    10-very carefully




Reading comprehension



   1. What best describes the main idea of this passage?

           (a)   The attacks of 9-11
           (b)   The US compensation program will be replaced.
           (c)   Rescuers and residents want compensation for their cancer
           (d)   The US report on the attack of The World Trade Center and its cancer related
                 effects.

           The answer is D. The author says: According to the US report, federal officials
           concluded that there is not enough evidence yet to say whether the dust and smoke cloud
           produced by the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center caused cancer. The finding,
           based on an initial review required by a new federal law, disappointed rescue and recovery
           workers and people who lived near the World Trade Center. These people, who have
           cancer diagnoses, attribute the sickness to the attack.
2. After reading this story, a person could conclude that:

       a. The compensation for rescuers and other victims for their cancer diagnosis will be a
           continuous study

       b. The compensation program will continue as is with no other provisions

       c. Rescuers will fight the government

       d. The government isn’t compensating the victims because it costs too much

       The answer is A. The author says: A provision of the law, however, specified that the
       administrator of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health would
       periodically review the evidence to determine whether cancer, which could be one of the
       most expensive illnesses to treat and compensate for, should be added to the list.




3. According to the sixth paragraph, a reasonable assumption about 9-11 and cancer is?

       (a) There is no link between 9-11 and cancer diagnosis.

       (b) The government is too careful

       (c) There is hope that further studies will prove the link between 9-11 and cancer.
       (d) The victims will not be compensated.

       The answer is C. The author says: Three New York representatives — Carolyn B.
       Maloney and Jerrold Nadler, both Democrats, and Peter T. King, a Republican — said in a
       statement that they were confident future studies would support a link between cancer and
       9/11.

4. The passage mentions each of the following except?

       a) As part of a political compromise needed to pass the bill, cancer was not included.
       b) If it appeared that the events of 9/11 caused cancer in certain people, it would be hard
          to prove
       c) Criticism towards the 9-11 attacks is prevalent in this passage
       d) These people, who have cancer diagnoses, attribute the sickness to the attack..

       The answer is C. The author says: As part of a political compromise needed to pass the
       bill, cancer was not included. If it appeared that the events of 9/11 caused cancer in certain
       people, it would be hard to prove. These people, who have cancer diagnoses, attribute the
       sickness to the attack
5. Which statement reflects the intention of the second paragraph of the passage?

                     a. The author’s intention is to accentuate the victims’ disappointment
                     b. The author’s intention is to inform us of the report’s conclusions and the
                        victims reactions
                     c. The author’s intention is to interest readers in the compensation program
                     d. The author’s intention is to reiterate that the compensation program is the
                        best in the country.

            The answer is B. The author says: The federal officials’ conclusions mean that
            rescue and responders and survivors near the World Trade Center at the time of the
            bombing do not qualify for federal benefits to treat or compensate them for their
            cancer, at least until further study.

6. In the context of the passage, the word: provision most closely corresponds to which of
   the following phrases?

       a.   The actual law
       b.   The compensation.
       c.   The result
       d.   The condition of agreement

            The answer is D The author says: A provision of the law, however, specified that
            the administrator of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health would
            periodically review the evidence to determine whether cancer, which could be one of
            the most expensive illnesses to treat and compensate for, should be added to the list.

				
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