Edible Legumes-2

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					Edible Legumes
   Legume
       Refers to plants that produce ___________ seeds
        in pods
       Members of Family Fabaceae
            Are in more than 600 genus and 13,000 species
       Many also have a symbiotic relationship with
        ___________________ bacteria
            Form nodules on their roots that can convert
             atmospheric ______________________ into a form that
             plants can use
Root nodules

 ________ root nodules   ________ nodules
   Only 22 species are widely grown for
    human consumption
   Includes
       Lentils (Lens)
       Beans (Phaseolus)
       Broad beans (Vicia)
       Soybeans (Glycine)
       Peanuts (Arachis)
   Important part of human diet
       Excellent source of _______________ when meat
        is not available, preferred, or allowed
   Characteristics
       Annual plants
       _________________are contained in pods
       Fix nitrogen
   Some species are cool season, others are
    warm season plants
Peas (Pisum sativum var. sativum)
   Native to eastern
    _______________ from
    Turkey eastwards to
    Syria, Iraq, Iran
   Probably first cultivated
    in Turkey
   Were grown as early as
    ____________ BC
       One of the most ancient
   Fresh peas first
    consumed in ________
Pea Plant characteristics
   Cool season
       Cold hardy
       Plant when temperatures are above __________ F
   Annual
   Soil
       Well-drained
       Moderately fertile because excess _____________
        causes large vines and few pods
            Also poor nodulation
   Have ____________
       when the shoot
        breaks through the
        soil and the
        stay below ground
Types of peas
    Dried peas
         Not commonly grown in

    English pea (garden pea
     or sweet pea)
         Grown for fresh (non-
          dry) seed
         ___________ harvested
          when seeds fully form
          but before they
          ____________ and fade
          in color
Types of peas
    Edible-pod pea
     (snow peas, sugar
     peas, Chinese peas)
         Grown for _________
          instead of _________
          Pods are:
              Brittle, succulent,
               tender, fiber-free
         Picked when pods are
          __________ and peas
          just developing
Types of Peas
   Snap pea
       Both the seed and
        pod are __________
       Pick when seed and
        pods fully developed
        but seed not hard or
        pod not __________
Haricot Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)
   History
       Plant native to Central and South
       Were cultivated over 7,000 years ago
       Spread throughout the Americas by time
        Columbus arrived
       __________________ and _________________
        explorers spread throughout the world
   Both pod and seed can be consumed
Haricot Beans

Have epigeal emergence
     Emerges in the form of a hook with cotyledons
      pulled above the soil surface
Emergence Strategies
Haricot Beans
                   Characteristics
                       Most ____________
                        of all legumes in
                        respect to shape of
                        plant, _____ and
                        ______ of pod, and
                        color and shape of
                   Can be classified
                    according to use
Haricot Beans
   Fresh (snap) beans
       Pods of most varieties can be eaten fresh before
        they reach ________________
       Also called ______________ beans or waxed beans
       When buying fresh pods, look for:
            Firm, crisp pods
            Healthy green or yellow color
            Free of blemishes
            __________________ from around the break when pod
             is snapped in two
Haricot Beans
   Fresh (snap) beans
       Temperature
            Love warmth
       Weeding
            Need to keep weeds
             down because snap
             beans have ______
             root systems
   Two types
       Bush
       Pole or climbing
            Must be trellised
Haricot Beans
   Fresh (Snap) beans
       Soil and fertility
            Respond to well-drained, friable ________ soils
                 Loam is a very balanced soil texture class
            Respond to fertile soils
                 Are not efficient at _________ fixation

   Harvesting
       Pick when pods and their seeds are
Haricot Beans
   Mature (Dry bean)
       Are harvested after the
        pods are mature and
       They are __________
        and the dry seed are
        cooked and consumed
Haricot Beans
   Mature (dry beans)
       Are a wide range of
        different types
            Examples: white beans, _____________ beans,
             kidney beans, black beans, __________ beans
       Harvesting
            Harvest seed when fully mature and hard
            __________ test to determine proper hardness
                 Should barely be able to dent the seed
Fava Beans
                Broad bean or fava
                 bean (Vicia faba)
                    Only ______ in diet
                     of old world until 16th
                    Characteristics
                         Named because of its
                          broad, ____________
                         Pods ~7 inches long
                              Contain 5 or 6 large
Fava Beans
                Culture
                     Conditions favoring
                           _________ weather
                     ______ _____
                      growing tips when
                      first pods form for
                      higher yield
                Harvesting
                     Harvested as ______
                      shell or dry beans
Lima Beans
(Phaseolus limensis)
   Native to Americas
       Name came from the seed
        of the large type found by a
        sea captain in Lima Peru
   Hard to ___________
   Types
       Large seeded
            called ____________ types
            Originated in Peru
       Small seeded
            Called _______ limas
            Cultivated by Native
             Americans in North
Lima Beans
   Environmental conditions
       ____________-season crop
            Requires 3 to 4 months of warm days and nights
            Baby limas mature more rapidly and are better grown in
       Soils
            Avoid soils too rich in ______________
                   Can cause lima beans to shed their blooms without setting

   Include both bush and pole types

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