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Tangible User Interfaces Compensate for Low VGTC

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Tangible User Interfaces Compensate for Low VGTC Powered By Docstoc
					Tangible User Interfaces
 Compensate for Low
   Spatial Cognition
            John Quarles
           Department of CISE
        Samsun Lampotang
       Department of Anesthesiology
             Ira Fischler
        Department of Psychology
           Paul Fishwick
           Department of CISE
           Benjamin Lok
           Department of CISE




                                      1
            Education Problem




                           ?



 The Virtual Anesthesia          A real Anesthesia
        Machine                      Machine
(abstract 2D simulation)       (physical simulation)
                                                       2
              Education Problem
    Spatial Cognition
      how humans encode spatial information in memory
    Low Spatial Cognition can hinder learning
    transfer across mediums.
Hypothesis:
                             LOW
                          SPATIAL
                         Learning Transfer
                        COGNITION


                                                        3
          Proposed Solution
Tangible User Interfaces
  Merge virtual and real spaces: VAM + Anesthesia Machine
  The Augmented Anesthesia Machine




                                                            4
              Overview

The types of spatial challenges for which TUIs are
most beneficial
The populations that experience the most spatial
cognitive benefits from TUIs
Methods to identify users that benefit from TUIs




                                                     5
          Previous Work
Tangible User Interfaces
  Ishii 1997
  Ullmer 2000
Magic Lenses
  2D to 3D [Beir 1993]
  AR/MR [Looser 2004]




                           6
         Spatial Cognition
Definition:
  how humans encode spatial information
  how this information is represented in memory and
  manipulated internally




                                                  7
   3 Scales of Spatial Ability
Small scale (Figural)
  External space smaller than the user
  i.e. mental rotation tests
Intermediate scale (Vista)
  Space larger than the user without locomotion
  i.e. the perspective taking test
Large scale (Environmental)
  Space larger than the user, requires locomotion
  i.e. Navigation of a Virtual Environment

For more info, see Hegarty 2006

                                                    8
               User Study
How do a PUI, GUI, and a TUI impact spatial
cognition?
Focus on a specific spatial challenge:
  Understanding and visualizing Invisible Gas Flow
n = 60, between subjects design
  PUI Group: the Real Anesthesia Machine
  GUI Group: the Virtual Anesthesia Machine (VAM)
  TUI Group: The Augmented Anesthesia Machine
  (AAM)


                                                     9
       PUI Group




The Real Anesthesia Machine
                              10
     GUI Group




Virtual Anesthesia Machine
                             11
TUI Group




            12
                  Hypotheses
H1: TUI users will have less difficulty than GUI and PUI users
visualizing gas flow in the context of the real anesthesia
machine.
H2: The ability of TUI users to visualize gas flow in the
context of the real anesthesia machine will be less dependent
on spatial ability than for GUIs and PUIs. That is, TUI training
will compensate for low spatial ability.
H3: TUI users are able to understand abstract gas flow
concepts, regardless of spatial ability.
H4: The advantages provided by the TUI will be most directly
associated with the intermediate, Vista-scale spatial ability.



                                                              13
Population and Environment
60 Psychology students
  Received class credit
  Knew nothing about anesthesia machines
Conducted in a quiet lab environment




                                           14
            Study Procedure

(~90 min)




(~60 min)




                              15
         Small Scale Test
 Arrow Span Test
 15 Sequences
 2 to 6 arrows per sequence
 1 arrow shown at a time
 Answered using the numeric keypad
Example: 3 successive screenshots
                              Enter
                             Arrows
                                      16
      Intermediate Scale Test

Perspective Taking Test               broom
 Participant is physically in
 the room
 4 objects in a square room     cup              suitcase

 Learn object locations
Recall Relative Object
 locations:                           keyboard
    Time
    Accuracy

                                                   17
           Large Scale Test
Navigation of a VE
  Mouse-keyboard interaction
  Training Run
  Testing Run
    1st pass – learn layout
    2nd pass – distance and direction
    judgment
    Score: correlation to actual values
  Sketch map
    +1 point for each incorrect section
    0 is a perfect score

                                          18
            Study Procedure

(~90 min)




(~60 min)




                              19
        Example Question
Q: “Is the exhalation valve unidirectional or
bidirectional and why?”
A: “Unidirectional to prevent back flow
gasses.”

Requires student to understand abstract
concepts about gas flow .


                                            20
            Study Procedure

(~90 min)




(~60 min)




                              21
    Self-Reported Difficulty in
      Visualizing Gas Flow
Fault test
  Real machine interaction without simulations.
Afterwards, participants were asked:
  “During the fault test, how difficult was it for
  you to mentally visualize the gas flows as they
  flowed through the various components? Rate
  it on a scale of 1 to 10, 10 being very difficult,
  1 being very easy.”


                                                  22
                  Metrics
Spatial Ability
  Arrow Span (small scale)
  Perspective Taking (intermediate scale)
  Navigation of a VE (large scale)
Abstract Concept Understanding
  Written Test Scores
Visualizing Gas Flow
  Self-Reported Difficulty to Visualize Gas flow
  (DVGF)

                                                   23
                                      DVGF Results

                  Average Self-Reported Difficulty in
                        Visualizing Gas Flow
             10
              9
                                                              Groups Compared     p value
              8
                                                              TUI – PUI           p = 0.011
Difficulty




              7
                                                        TUI
              6
              5                                         GUI
                                                              TUI – GUI           p = 0.045
              4                                         PUI
              3
                                                              GUI – PUI           p = 0.740
              2
              1
                                Group
                                  1                                       T-tests on DRVG
  DRVG: 1 indicates easy, 10
      indicates difficult.

                                                  Accept Hypothesis 1                         24
  DVGF Correlations to Spatial
          Ability
Significance: * is p<0.10, ** is p<0.02, *** is p<0.01.


   Group          Arrow Span      N a v       .   Nav. Sketch
                                  Distance        Map
   TUI            0.005           -0.120          -0.066

   GUI            -0.404*         -0.553***       0.618***

   PUI            -0.539***       0.139           0.161




                Accept Hypothesis 2
                                                                25
 Written Test Score Correlations to
          Spatial Ability
Significance: * is p<0.10, ** is p<0.02, *** is p<0.01.


   Group            Arrow Span      Nav. Distance    Nav.     Sketch
                                                     Map
   TUI              0.177           -0.111           -0.334

   GUI              0.320           0.270            -0.500**

   PUI              0.614***        -0.012           -0.230




                     Accept Hypothesis 3
                                                                  26
   Vista Scale Spatial Ability

• H4: The advantages provided by the TUI will be
  most directly associated with the intermediate,
  Vista-scale spatial ability.
• No significant correlations to the Perspective
  Taking Test
               Reject Hypothesis 4




                                                    27
            Interface Benefits

Spatial Ability Scale   GUI    PUI    TUI

Small                   Good   Poor   Good

Large                   Poor   Good   Good

Intermediate            ???    ???    ???

TUIs merge spaces (i.e. small and large spaces)
This merging helps those with low ability in
   Small Scale
   Large Scale                                28
                       Conclusions
What I hope you learned from this talk:
  For which types of spatial challenges are TUIs the most beneficial?
     Small and Large scale challenges

  Which populations experience the most spatial cognitive benefits
  from TUIs?
     Users with low small scale or large scale spatial cognition

  Methods to identify users that benefit from TUIs
     Test both the large and small scale ability
     i.e. use both the Arrow Span Test and Navigation Test
TUIs compensate for low spatial cognition
                                                                   29
       Acknowledgements
NSF Grant IIS-0643557
David Lizdas
Cynthia Kaschub
Kyle Johnsen
The study participants
The University of Florida



                            30
Generalizability




                   31
           Future Work
Enhancing After Action Review




                                32

				
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posted:10/13/2012
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