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					Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1
   How to Use This Revision Book ........................................................................................................... 1
   Passing the units and then the External Exam .................................................................................... 1
Chapter 1 - Relational Database Systems ............................................................................................... 2
   A Selection of Key Words .................................................................................................................... 2
   What is a database? ............................................................................................................................ 2
       Flat File Database ............................................................................................................................ 2
       Relational Database ........................................................................................................................ 3
       Normalisation.................................................................................................................................. 4
       Relationships and Entity Relationship Diagram .............................................................................. 6
       Data Dictionary ............................................................................................................................... 6
       Normalisation Question .................................................................................................................. 7
   Developing a Solution ......................................................................................................................... 8
Chapter 2 - Using Information .............................................................................................................. 10
   Topic 1 - Data and Information ......................................................................................................... 10
       Data and Information.................................................................................................................... 10
       Knowledge is gained from Information. ....................................................................................... 10
       Categorisation of Information ...................................................................................................... 10
       Levels of Information .................................................................................................................... 11
       Uses of Information within Organisations .................................................................................... 12
       Forms of Information .................................................................................................................... 12
       Types of Information..................................................................................................................... 12
       Characteristics of Information ...................................................................................................... 14
       The Difference Between Value and Cost ...................................................................................... 14
   Topic 2 Organisational Information Systems .................................................................................... 15
       Categories of Information Systems ............................................................................................... 15
       Centralised Database .................................................................................................................... 16
       Network Strategy .......................................................................................................................... 16
       Security Strategy ........................................................................................................................... 17
       Backup Strategy ............................................................................................................................ 19
       Upgrade Strategy .......................................................................................................................... 19
       Software Strategy ......................................................................................................................... 20

                                                                        Page | i
      Centralised and Distributed Databases......................................................................................... 21
   Topic 3 - Organisational Information Systems .................................................................................. 23
      Presenting Information for Print Media ....................................................................................... 23
      Presenting Information for On-line Media ................................................................................... 23
      Data Handling – Spreadsheet........................................................................................................ 24
      Project Management .................................................................................................................... 24
      Personal Information Management (PIM) .................................................................................... 24
      Objects and Operations of Each class of Software ....................................................................... 25
   Topic 4 – Implications of ICT ............................................................................................................. 27
      Social Implications......................................................................................................................... 27
      Legal Implications of Information Systems ................................................................................... 29
      Economic Implications of ICT ........................................................................................................ 31
      Ethical Implications of ICT ............................................................................................................. 31
Chapter 3 - Applied Multimedia ........................................................................................................... 33
   Topic 1 Contemporary Uses and Means of Delivery......................................................................... 33
      A definition of multimedia ............................................................................................................ 33
   Multimedia applications: Business ................................................................................................... 33
      Multimedia applications: Training ................................................................................................ 34
      Multimedia delivery media ........................................................................................................... 34
      Advantages and disadvantages of different multimedia delivery media ..................................... 35
   Topic 2 - Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 36
      The project brief............................................................................................................................ 36
      Requirements specification .......................................................................................................... 36
   Topic 3 - Navigational structures ...................................................................................................... 36
      Linear structure ............................................................................................................................. 37
      Hierarchical structure ................................................................................................................... 37
      Web structure ............................................................................................................................... 37
      Complexity of navigation structures (lost in hyperspace) ............................................................ 37
      Use of search facilities .................................................................................................................. 38
      User Interfaces .............................................................................................................................. 38
      The use of metaphors in interface design .................................................................................... 38
      User interface design .................................................................................................................... 38
   Topic 4 - Critical evaluation of screen design ................................................................................... 40
      Storyboards ................................................................................................................................... 40
      Appearance ................................................................................................................................... 40
                                                                      Page | ii
       Downloading and Streaming Audio and Video ............................................................................. 41
       Implications of using video ........................................................................................................... 41
   Topic 5 - Software for creating and delivering multimedia applications .......................................... 43
       Presentation and Authoring Software .......................................................................................... 43
       Presentation software ................................................................................................................. 43
       Multimedia Players ....................................................................................................................... 43
       Skills required by personnel .......................................................................................................... 44
   Topic 6 – Graphic, Audio and Video Files.......................................................................................... 44
       Graphic file types .......................................................................................................................... 44
       Audio file types ............................................................................................................................. 45
       Video file size and quality ............................................................................................................. 45
       Structure of a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) ........................................................................... 46
   Topic 7 - Testing ................................................................................................................................ 48
       Testing ........................................................................................................................................... 48
       Project development documentation........................................................................................... 48
       User Documentation ..................................................................................................................... 49
       Evaluation of multimedia application ........................................................................................... 49
       Copyright ....................................................................................................................................... 50
Chapter 4 – Focus On The External Exam ............................................................................................. 52
   The Structure of the Exam ................................................................................................................ 52
       Section I: Short response, core units ............................................................................................ 52
       Section II: Extended Response Core Units .................................................................................... 52
       Section III: Extended Response, Optional Unit. ............................................................................ 52
       The Importance of Your Coursework Mark .................................................................................. 52
   Exam Preparation Tips ...................................................................................................................... 53
   Focus on Problem Solving ................................................................................................................. 53
       Application of Knowledge ............................................................................................................. 53
       Analysis ......................................................................................................................................... 54
       Evaluation ..................................................................................................................................... 54
       Practice Exam Type Questions. ..................................................................................................... 55
Answers ................................................................................................................................................. 63
   Questions in the text......................................................................................................................... 63
       Database ....................................................................................................................................... 63
       Using Information ......................................................................................................................... 64
       Applied Multimedia ...................................................................................................................... 68
                                                                       Page | iii
Practice Exam Type Questions .......................................................................................................... 71
   Section I......................................................................................................................................... 71
   Section II........................................................................................................................................ 71
   Optional Topic – Applied Multimedia ........................................................................................... 73




                                                                   Page | iv
Introduction

This book is designed to help you pass the new revised version of Higher Information Systems.

The book covers both core units (Relational Database Systems and Using Information) as well as the
optional unit Applied Multimedia.

The material covers all the topics in the content grids of the SQA Higher Information Systems
arrangements document. It also contains sets of questions covering the content of each unit.

Finally, there is a chapter focusing on the external exam. This contains a guide to the structure of
the exam, tips on exam preparation, a section on problem solving and a set of exam style problem
solving questions.

How to Use This Revision Book
Use the book to check up on your knowledge of the topics on the checklist for each of the core
topics and your optional topic.

Attempt the questions as you go along. The answers are at the back of the book.

Read carefully the section on Problem Solving in Chapter 4. It will help you understand the type of
problem solving questions that the examiners will set in the final exam.

Finally attempt the exam style problem solving questions at the end of the book. Read the tips
about exam preparation and come up with your own revision plan!

Just before you go into the exam read the advice about the exam structure carefully.

If you do all this, you will greatly improve your chances of passing Higher Information Systems.

Passing the units and then the External Exam
To pass Higher Information Systems you have to pass the two core units (Relational Database
Systems and Using Information) and then your option, Applied Multimedia. To pass a unit you have
to sit a simple objective multiple-choice test, known as a NAB, and perform some practical tasks
appropriate for higher (Web Site, Database operations, Using Software like Excel and Publisher well).

Once you have passed the units, you need to prepare for the external course examination. This
examination will test your knowledge of the course content of the units and your problem solving
ability.




                            I.
Chapter 1 - Relational Database Systems


A Selection of Key Words
Attribute                  Entity                      Flat-File                   Primary Key
Anomalies                  Foreign Key                 Surrogate key               Compound Key
Candidate Key              Cardinality                 Normalisation               Entity Integrity
Referential Integrity      Restricted Choice           Presence Check              Range Check
Query                      Searching                   Sorting                     Calculating
Forms                      Sub-forms                   Reports


What is a database?
A database is a collection of related information about a set of persons or objects. Traditionally,
databases have been manual paper based systems. An example is the “Yellow Pages” .

A database management system (DBMS) is a software package that is used to create, manipulate
and present data from electronic databases. Example of DBMSs include Microsoft Access and
Filemaker Pro.

Flat File Database
The simplest kind of database is a flat file. All data is held in the one file so if a library kept a file of
books and borrowers we can get three types of problems.
Addition anomalies: If a book is added, it cannot be unless it is being borrowed. If a borrower joins
the library, they cannot unless they borrow a book.
Deletion Anomalies: If a book is deleted then it may lose the only instance of a borrower and if a
borrower leaves then maybe the only record of a book is deleted too (if it has only ever been
borrowed by him).
Data is very likely to be duplicated. The duplication of data leads to the possibility of data
inconsistency.

Questions
   1. In a relational database model, what is the data a collection of?
   2. Describe what is meant by an addition anomaly in a flat file database
   3. Describe what is meant by a deletion anomaly in a flat file database
   4. Describe what is meant by a duplication anomaly in a flat file database




                                                  Page | 2
Relational Database
A relational database stores data in more than one table. The idea is to ensure that data is only
entered and stored once, so removing the possibility of data duplication and inconsistency.
Entities and Data Relationships
An entity represents a person or object. e.g. Member, DVD Rental . Each entity has a set of
attributes, which describe examples or instances of that entity.
     The attributes of the DVD Rental entity are code, title, cost, date out, date due and member
         number.
     The attributes of the Member entity are member number, name and telephone number.

Data Relationships
    One-to-one e.g. one car has a unique registration number
    One -to- Many e.g. one DVD can be borrowed many times
    Many-to-Many e.g. one pupil has many teachers and one teacher has many pupils.

    The cardinality is the data relationship between two entities.

Keys
         A key is a field, or set of fields, whose values uniquely identify a record.
         In any table, there may be more than one field or set of fields, which can uniquely identify
          each record—these are called candidate keys.
         The candidate key that is chosen to be used is called the primary key.
         A primary key of one entity found in another entity is called a foreign key.
         A surrogate key is a key made up when there are too many attributes to make up a unique
          key.
         A compound key is a key made up of two or more attributes.


Entity Integrity
An attribute cannot exist as a foreign key in one entity unless it already exists as a primary key in
another entity.

Questions

    5.    What is an entity?
    6.    What is an attribute?
    7.    What is cardinality?
    8.    What is a candidate key?
    9.    For what purpose is a primary key used?
    10.   How would you describe a foreign key in an entity?
    11.   Describe what is meant by a surrogate key?
    12.   What does entity integrity require?
    13.   What is the name given to a collection of columns that together uniquely identify each row
          in a table?




                                                 Page | 3
Normalisation
The process of normalisation takes the data items (called attributes) of the existing entities and
produces new entities that are easier to implement in a relational database.

Generally, normalisation will produce a final set of “real world” entities such as “Customers”,
“Orders” etc. We usually move from a model that is many-to-many to one that is one-to-many or a
mixture of one-to-many and one-to-one.

There are four stages to normalisation, un-normalised form (UNF), first normal form (1 NF), second
normal form (2NF) and third normal form (3NF).

Case Study – Caravan Bookings
There is a booking form kept in a caravan rental agency. The form records the booking information,
Booking Ref, Date of Booking, Name, Address, and Customer Number. The caravan booking details
are recorded on the form to allow a customer to book more than one caravan and are Caravan ID,
Sleeps, Power, Cost per Week, Date In and Date Out.

UNF
List all the attributes which must be stored in the database;-
Booking Ref                         In the exam, the attributes are
Date of Booking                     listed, usually in order, with any
No of days                          repeated attributes removed
Customer name
                                    and consistency of attribute
Customer Address
Customer No                         names like between no. and
Caravan ID                          number.
Sleeps
Power
Cost per week
Date In
Date Out



1NF
In first normal form, we identify a repeating group and remove it to a new entity.

UNF                                 The Caravan ID down to Date          1NF
Booking Ref                         Out is the repeating group. We       Booking Ref
Date of Booking                     remove it a new entity.              Date of Booking
No of Days                          We take the key with it so the       Number of days
Customer name                       primary key is repeated and the      Customer name
Customer Address                    second time it appears it is a       Customer Address
Customer No                         foreign key (denoted with *).        Customer No
 Caravan ID                         Caravan ID is the primary key
 Sleeps                             along with Booking Ref giving a      Caravan ID
 Power                              compound key.                        Booking ref
 Cost per week                                                           Sleeps
 Date In                                                                 Power
 Date Out                                                                Cost per Week

                                                 Page | 4
                                                                   Date In
                                                                   Date Out



2NF
In second Normal form, we have to remove the partial dependencies. In other words, some
attributes in the Caravan entity will depend on the Caravan ID and some on the Booking Ref.
Booking Ref             Copy the top part because we are not going     Booking Ref
Date of Booking         to deal with it just now.                      Date of Booking
Number of Days                                                         Number of days
Customer name                                                          Customer name
                        Write down the two parts of the compound
Customer Address                                                       Customer Address
Customer No             key and leave some space between them.         Customer No
                        We must decide which of the attributes go
Caravan ID              with the caravan and which with the booking. Caravan ID
Sleeps                  Obviously, Sleeps and Power go with caravan Sleeps
Power                   and cost and dates go with the booking.        Power
                        We now have to look at the keys. Booking
Booking Ref             Ref has been taken out of the lower entity so *Booking Ref
Cost per week           take the key – Caravan ID. To book the         *Caravan ID
Date In                 caravan we need the Booking Ref, Caravan ID Cost per week
Date Out                and the Date in (the number of days can be     Date In
                        added to this to give the date out.            Date Out
                        The Booking Ref is a primary key in the
                        bookings entity and the Caravan ID is a
                        primary key in the Caravan Entity so they
                        become foreign keys in bookings.


3NF
In third normal form we remove non-key dependencies. This means we look at the entities and see
if we have a “hidden” repeating group.
Booking Ref            We do have a “hidden” repeating group.    Customer No
Date of Booking        The customer name, address and no. will   Customer name
Number of days         have to be written down every time that   Customer Address
Customer name
                       customer makes a booking. They can be
Customer Address                                                 Booking Ref
Customer No            removed to new entity and Customer No.    *Customer No
                       becomes the key. This leaves Booking Ref, Date of Booking
Caravan ID             Date of Booking and Number of days but    Number of days
Sleeps                 we need to know who has made the
Power                  booking so we take the customer key with Caravan ID
                       us. It becomes a foreign key.             Sleeps
                                                                 Power
*Booking Ref
*Caravan ID            We now have the entire database system
                       in third normal form.                     *Booking Ref
Cost per week
                                                                 *Caravan ID
Date In
                                                                 Cost per week
Date Out
                                              Page | 5
                                                                       Date In
                                                                       Date Out

NB Do not repeat any attribute unless making it a foreign key. Do not introduce or add any new
attributes to the model.

Relationships and Entity Relationship Diagram
We can now establish relationships between the different entities that we have made up. Wherever
we see a foreign key, we have a “many” so here we have:-
    One Customer makes Many Bookings
    One Caravan has Many Caravan Bookings
    One Booking has Many Caravan bookings
We can represent this with an entity relationship diagram. The arrowhead represents Many.

           Customer                              Caravans




           Bookings



                                Caravan Bookings
Data Dictionary
A data dictionary holds the information about each entity that you need to help you implement the
database system. For our normalised caravans database the data dictionary looks like this.

Entity          Attribute       Key     Data       Required   Unique    Format     Validation
                                        Type
Customer        Customer No     PK      Number     Y          Y
                Customer                text       Y          N
                Name
                Customer                text       Y          N
                Address
Booking         Booking Ref     PK      text       Y          Y
                Customer No     FK      number     Y          N                    Lookup from
                                                                                   Customer
                Date of                 date       Y          N         Short
                booking                                                 date
                No of Days              number     Y          N         integer    3,7,10,14,21,28
Caravan         Caravan ID      PK      text       Y          Y
                Sleeps                  number     Y          N         integer    4,6,8
                Power                              Y          N
Caravan         Booking Ref     PK/FK   text       Y          N                    Lookup from
Booking                                                                            Booking
                Caravan ID      PK/FK   text       Y          N                    Lookup from
                                                                                   Caravan
                Cost per Week           number     Y          N         currency   >=£50, <=£500
                Date In         PK      date       Y          N         Short

                                               Page | 6
                                                                      date
                Date Out               date       Y          N        Short
                                                                      date



Note well the following:-
    Key – PK is unique if not compound key, not unique if compound.
    Validation for FK is always “lookup from…”
    No of Days and Sleeps will be drop down lists
Questions

   14.   What is a collection of multi-valued attributes in an entity referred to?
   15.   When an entity in UNF is turned into first normal form what is achieved?
   16.   When an entity in first normal form is turned into second normal form what is achieved?
   17.   When an entity in second normal form is turned into third normal form what is achieved?
   18.   What must each column in a database table have?
   19.   What is special about each row in a database table?


Normalisation Question
A holiday club charges members to join and with this money it builds holiday resorts. As it has
grown so has its IT systems and now it wants to computerise its booking system. A member can
book several holidays each year in apartments owned by the club and consequently each apartment
can have up to 52 bookings every year and each member can have several bookings. The booking
form was turned into an un-normalised form (UNF) like this.
Booking Ref
Member Number
Member Name
Member Address
Member Telephone Number
Property Ref
Property Name
No of Beds
No Sleeps
Date in
No of Nights
User Charge

Using the Un-normalised data form:-
    1. Turn the Un-normalised form into first normal for.
    2. Turn the first normal form into the second normal form
    3. Turn the second normal form into the third normal form.
    4. Create an entity relational diagram




                                              Page | 7
Developing a Solution


Referential Integrity – a foreign key must always refer to a record that exists in another table. It
is established by defining relationships between the tables.

Validation – can be established in three different ways.

       Presence Check – Where you have said Required = Yes
       Range Check – Where the validation looks for a range of data e.g. between £50 and £500
       Restricted Choice – Choice between several items e.g. Mr, Mrs, Miss, Dr.

Format
    Numbers can be formatted as Integer, Real, Currency etc.
    Date & Time can have many formats including Short date (4/12/10), long date (4th December
      2010). Time can be 24-hour clock, am/pm and so on.

Queries
Queries are used to interrogate your database. Within a query, you can:-

       Search for specific records
       Sort groups of selected records
       Perform calculations on selected records.

Searching
Searching is the process of selecting records from a table or combination of tables. To perform the
query, three items must be identified

       Which fields will be used to identify the records required?
       What are the criteria for identifying the records required?
       Which fields will be displayed?

Sorting
To perform a sort, two items must be identified:

       Which field (or fields) will be used to decide the order of records?
       For each field selected, will the order of sorting be ascending or descending?

Calculations
Horizontal calculations are often known as calculated fields, and vertical calculations are known as
summary fields. Here is a summary of the commonly used functions that are used to build
calculations.

       Aggregate – Sum, Average, Maximum, Minimum, Count
       Mathematical – Sun, Cos, Tan, Integer, Round
       Text, - Left, Right, Middle, Length, Uppercase, Lowercase, Find, Replace
       Logical – If, IsNull, IsNumeric, IsError
       Conversion – Number-to-text, Text-to-Number, Date-to-Text, Text-to-Date

                                               Page | 8
Macros
Can be used to add control. Scripted using predefined words and functions. E.g., open a form from
a form based on a condition.

Forms
Forms are used to create a user interface that is better than seeing tables and several different
forms can access the same table allowing different views of the table. Sub forms can be added to a
form to show a related “many” table with is originating table.

Reports
Reports are used to allow us to produce printed copy in an atheistic pleasing manner. A form or
report is usually based on a query, which selects the required fields from the appropriate tables,
sorting the results if necessary, and performing any horizontal calculations.

Questions

    20.   What is special about each row in a database table?
    21.   What is the purpose of the data dictionary?
    22.   What should data dictionaries include details of?
    23.   What does referential integrity require?
    24.   Describe the three different types of data validation.
    25.   Name three ways in which numbers can be formatted.
    26.   In a relational database system what is a query?
    27.   In a relational database system what is a form?
    28.   In a relational database system what is a report?
    29.   In a relational database system what is a macro?




                                                Page | 9
Chapter 2 - Using Information
Using Information is very content heavy, and has been divided into four topics. These are
     Data and information
     Organisational Information Systems
     Information Management Software
     The implications of ICT

Topic 1 - Data and Information

Data and Information
Data is raw unprocessed facts and figures that have no context or purposeful meaning.
Information is processed data that has meaning and a context.

Knowledge is gained from Information.
We gain knowledge from information and we use that information to make decisions.
Explicit knowledge is rules or process or decisions that can be recorded either on paper or in an
information system.
Tacit knowledge exists inside the minds of humans and is harder to record. It tends to be created
from someone’s experiences, again a set of rules or experiences.
Metadata can be thought of as data that describes data e.g a data dictionary or the card index
system used by libraries pre computerisation, where each card told you the author, title and where
to find the book.

Questions
   1. How would you describe data?
   2. How would you describe information?
   3. What is the difference between data and information?
   4. What is gained from information?
   5. What is the difference between explicit and tacit information?
   6. What is metadata?
   7. Give an example of metadata.

Categorisation of Information
Information can be categorised under several headings that allow us to determine the overall
usefulness of it.

Primary or Secondary
A primary source provides the data to an information system from an original source document.
     an invoice sent to a business or a cheque received.
     sales figures for a range of goods for a tinned food manufacturer for one week or several
         weeks and several locations.
A secondary source of information is one that provides information from a source other than the
original, e.g.:-
     an accounts book detailing invoices received
     a bank statement that shows details of cheques paid in.

Where statistical information is gathered, such as in surveys or polls, the survey data or polling data
is the primary source and the conclusions reached from the survey or the results of the poll are
secondary sources

                                               Page | 10
Nature
Formal Communication is Information presented in a structured and consistent manner.
Main methods: - the formal letter, properly structured reports, writing of training materials etc. in
cogent, coherent, well-structured language.
Informal Communication is less well-structured information transmitted within an organization or
between individuals usually who know each other.
Quantitative Information is information that is represented numerically.
Qualitative Information is information that is represented using words.

Time
Historic - Information gathered and stored over a period of time. It allows decision makers to draw
comparison between previous and present activities. Historic information can be used to identify
trends over a period of time.
Present - Information created from activities during the current work-window (day, week or month).
In real-time systems this information would be created instantly from the data gathered (the
temperature in a nuclear power plant turbine) giving accurate and up-to-date information.
Future - Information that is created using present and historic information to try to predict the
future activities and events relating to the operation of an organisation.

Frequency of Information
Continuous - This is information created from data gathered several times a second. It is the type of
information created by a real-time system.
Periodic - Information created at regular time intervals (hourly, daily, monthly, annually).
Annually - On an annual basis a company must submit its report and accounts to the shareholders.
Monthly – Banks and credit card companies produce monthly statements for the majority of its
customers.
Daily – A supermarket will make daily summaries of its sales and use the product information to
update its stock levels and reorder stock automatically.
Hourly – A busy call centre will often update totals for each operator on an hourly basis and give the
top employee for the hour some reward.

Questions
What is the nature of the following pieces of information? Use all the categories that apply.
   8. A receipt printed from a supermarket till.
   9. A memo between two members of an organisation.
   10. A profit forecast by a company at the start of a year.
   11. A letter offering a person a job.
   12. A spreadsheet showing financial transactions and a balance (no descriptions).
   13. A telephone conversation where both parties make detailed notes.


Levels of Information
Strategic – Decisions made by Top level of Management; long time frame (up to 5 years); mixture of
internal and external documents.
Tactical - Decisions made by Middle level of Management; medium time frame (6 months up to 5
years); mostly internal and some external documents.
Operational - Decisions made by lowest level of organisation; short time frame (daily up to 6
months); mostly internal documents.

Questions
   14. State three characteristics of information at the strategic level.
   15. State three characteristics of information at the tactical level.
                                               Page | 11
    16. State three characteristics of information at the operational level.

Uses of Information within Organisations
Planning and Control
Planning is the process of deciding, in advance, what has to be done and how it is to be done.
Planning means decisions by management about:
     What is to be done in the future
     How to do it
     When to do it
     Who is to do it
An objective is something that needs to be achieved.
A plan contains the activities or actions required to achieve the objective.
Control is the monitoring and evaluation of current progress against the steps of a predefined plan
or standard.

At operational level the manager‘s time will be spent on control activities
At higher levels planning and control are more closely linked, with management being concerned
with the monitoring of progress against the plan, assessing the suitability of the plan itself and
predicting future conditions.

Decision Making
Decision-making is selecting an action or actions from those possible based on the information
available. It involves determining and examining the available actions and then selecting the most
appropriate actions in order to achieve the required results. It is an essential part of management
and is carried out at all levels of management for all tasks. It is made up of four phases:
     Finding occasions for decision making
     Find possible courses of action
     Choosing among these courses of action
     Evaluating past choices

Questions
   17. What is planning defined as?
   18. What is an objective?
   19. What is a plan?
   20. What is Control defined as?
   21. At the tactical level how is planning and control used?
   22. What is decision making defined as?

Forms of Information
Written - hand-written, word-processed, e-mails, reports from different classes of software, reports,
memos and tables, receipts, invoices, statements, summary accounting information.
Aural - Speech, formal meetings, informal meetings, talking on the phone and voice-mail messages.
Employee presentations to a group where there may be use made of music and sound effects as well
as speech.
Visual - pictures, charts and graphs, presentations via data projects, DVD’s etc.

Types of Information
Detailed - an inventory list showing stock levels, actual costs to the penny of goods, detailed
operating instructions, most often used at operational level
Sampled - Selected records from a database, product and sales summaries in a supermarket, often
used at a tactical level (maybe strategic).

                                               Page | 12
Aggregated - totals created when detailed information is summed together, details of purchases
made by customers totalled each month.




                                            Page | 13
Questions
   23. Give three characteristics of written information.
   24. Give three characteristics of aural information.
   25. Give three characteristics of visual information.
   26. In a banking situation describe how detailed information may be presented.
   27. In a banking situation describe how sampled information may be presented.
   28. In a banking situation describe how aggregated information may be presented.


Characteristics of Information
Availability / Accessibility - Information should be easy to obtain or access
Accuracy - Information needs to be accurate enough for the use it is going to be put.
Reliability or Objectivity - Reliability deals with the truth of information or the objectivity with which
it is presented.
Relevance / Appropriateness - Information should be relevant to the purpose for which it is
required. It must be suitable.
Completeness - Information should contain all details required by the user.
Level of Detail / Conciseness - Information should be in a form that is short enough to allow for its
examination and use. There should be no extraneous information.
Presentation - Information can be more easily assimilated if it is aesthetically pleasing.
Timing - Information must be on time for the purpose for which it is required. Information received
too late will be irrelevant.

The Difference Between Value and Cost
Value - The relative importance of information for decision-making can increase or decrease its
value to an organisation.
Cost - Information should be available within set cost levels that may vary dependent on situation.
The Difference between Value and Cost
Valuable information need not cost much.
Information costly to obtain may not have much value.

Questions
   29. What is the difference between value and cost of information?
   30. A fully labelled chart is used to present information. What characteristics of information is
       this an example of?
   31. While writing a dissertation a student makes extensive use of the Internet. What
       characteristics of information will they use while writing this dissertation?




                                                Page | 14
Topic 2 Organisational Information Systems

Categories of Information Systems
Data Processing Systems (DPS) – Operational; Transactional Processing System that deals with
day to day transactions. Used in accountancy, invoicing, stock control where Items are scanned by
bar code reader.
     DPS are the tools used at the Operational level of an organisation.
     DPS involves use of a computer

Management Information Systems (MIS) – Tactical; MIS converts data from internal and external
sources into information for managers. The source of data for a MIS usually comes from numerous
databases. These databases are usually the data storage for Data Processing Systems.
     MIS summarise and report on the organisations basic operations.
     MIS produce reports for managers interested in historic trends on a regular basis.
     MIS operate at the tactical level.

Decision Support Systems (DSS) – Tactical; A DSS provides information and models in a form to
help tactical and strategic decision-making. They support management decision-making by
integrating:
     Company performance data;
     Business rules in a decision table;
     Analytical tools and models for forecasting and planning;
     A simple user interface to query the system.
DSS are useful when making ad-hoc, one off decisions.
The source of data for a DSS tends to be a combination of summary information gathered from
lower level DPS and MIS.

Executive Information System (EIS) – Strategic; An EIS provides senior managers with a system to
assist in taking strategic and tactical decisions. Its purpose is to analyse, compare and identify trends
to help the strategic direction of the organisation. EIS incorporate data about external events.
     Draw summarised information from internal MIS and DSS.
     Systems filter, compress, and track critical data.
     Reduce time and effort required to obtain information useful to strategic management.
     Employ advanced graphics software to provide highly visual and easy-to-use representations
         of complex information and current trends.
     They do not provide analytical models.
EIS allow the user to look at specific data that has been summarised from lower levels within the
organisation and then drill down to increase the level of detail - data warehouse analysis.

Expert Systems - An expert system is a computer program that tries to emulate human reasoning.
It does this by combining the knowledge of human experts and then, following a set of rules, draws
inferences. An expert system is made up of three parts.
      A knowledge base stores all of the facts, rules and information needed to represent the
         knowledge of the expert.
      An inference engine interprets the rules and facts to find solutions to user queries.
      A user interface allows new knowledge to be entered and the system queried.

Reasons for Expert Systems.
    To store information in an active form as organisational memory.

                                                Page | 15
       To create a mechanism that is not subject to human feelings, such as fatigue and worry.
       To generate solutions to specific problems that are too substantial and complex to be
        analysed by human beings in a short period of time.
Centralised Database
This is a very large and powerful database - at the heart of an organisation. Database program is
called the database engine and it saves and indexes files in tables and manages the relationships
between the tables. Information can be found fairly easily by querying the centralised database.
Usually a multi-user or network system is used which means that any user on the system can have
access to the database.

Advantages to the database being centralised.
    Much easier to organise, edit, update and back-up the data.
    Communications are easier.
    No real disadvantages to a centralised database.

Questions
   32. Which type of information system would be used at the operational level?
   33. At the operational level what is the information system likely to be used for?
   34. Which type of information system would be used at the tactical level?
   35. At the tactical level what is the information system likely to be used for?
   36. Which type of information system would be used at the strategic level?
   37. At the strategic level what is the information system likely to be used for?
   38. Name the three parts of an expert system.
   39. Describe the function of the three parts of an expert system.
   40. What are the three reasons for using an expert system?
   41. What type of computer system is generally used in a centralised database?
   42. State two advantages of using a centralised database.

Network Strategy
Network Topology
Networks - LAN (Local Area Network) – in one building.
    Device Sharing.
    Software Sharing.
    Data Sharing.
    Communication.
WAN (Wide Area Network) – over a city, country or the wide world.
    Uses telecommunications.
    Distributed Networks.
LAN with several servers, data accessible from all over the network.

Client-Server Network Central server stores data files and log-in details.

Peer to Peer network No central server, all stations equal. Cheaper, data less secure.

Network Hardware
Network Adapter Card.
Built-in to the computer.
Allows the computer to send and receive data around the network.
Structured Cabling.
Cables made from copper wire, co-axial cable, fibre optic cable and twisted pairs.
Twisted pair Ethernet most Common.
Fibre Optic used to link over longer distances and to carry a very high bandwidth.
                                               Page | 16
Network Software
Network Operating System. – 2 parts
The version that runs on the server is needed to control which users and workstations can access the
server, keep each user’s data secure. Control the flow of information around the network. It is also
responsible for file and data sharing, communications between users and hardware and peripheral
sharing.
The version that runs on the personal computers to turn them into network stations. Each
workstation (computer) connected to the network needs the Network Operating System installed
before it can connect successfully to the network facilities

Network Auditing and Monitoring Software. This software keeps a track of network activity. It
records user activity and workstation activity. In a commercial organisation this sort of auditing and
monitoring can be used to detect fraud and suspicious activity.

Questions
   43. What are the differences between a LAN and a WAN?
   44. What are three advantages of using a LAN over stand-alone machines?
   45. What is the difference between a Client-Server and a Peer-To-Peer network?
   46. What is the function of a network adapter card?
   47. What is the main advantage of fibre optic cable over a simple twisted pair?
   48. Explain why a file server and a networked computer both require a network operating
       system.
   49. What is the purpose of network auditing and monitoring software?


Security Strategy
Security, Integrity and Privacy of Data

Data Security means keeping data safe from physical loss.

A virus is a piece of programming code that causes some unexpected and usually undesirable event
in a computer system.
Viruses can be transmitted:-
      As attachments to an e-mail.
      As a download.
      On a disk being used for something else.

How Viruses Work
Some viruses take effect as soon as their code takes residence in a system .
Others lie dormant until something triggers their code to be executed by the computer.
Viruses can be extremely harmful and may erase data or require the reformatting of a hard disk once
they have been removed.

Data Integrity and Privacy
Data Integrity means the correctness of the stored data.
Data Privacy means keeping data secret so that unauthorised users cannot access it.

The Security Risks to Information Systems
Hacking is gaining unauthorised access to a computer information system. The offence is maliciously
altering data or stealing information.

                                               Page | 17
Denial of service - This involves flooding an organisation’s Internet server with a surprisingly large
amount of requests for information (traffic). This increase in traffic overloads the server, which is
incapable of dealing with the backlog of requests, results in the server crashing or needing to be
taken offline to resolve the problem.

Policies and Procedures for Implementing Data Security
Codes of conduct - apply to users of an information system. Most organisations insist that users
follow a set of rules for using their system. Employees have to sign a code of conduct as part of their
conditions of employment. A code of conduct can cover basic professional competences as well as
obvious statements like “Never disclose your password to anybody else and change your password
every week.”
BCS Code of Ethics Covers:-
      Professional conduct
      Professional integrity
      Public interest
      Fidelity
      Technical competence
Password guidelines - Minimum length of 5 characters. Must consist of letters and numbers. Must
not contain any words. Cannot be the same as the previous password and cannot use easily guessed
strings of letters or numbers (e.g. 123456 and abcdef).

Implementing Data Security - Virus Protection
Prevention
     Prevent users from using floppy disks.
     Scan incoming e-mails for viruses.
     Do not open mail or attachments from someone you don’t recognise.
Detection
     Install Anti-virus software.
     Update it regularly to detect new viruses.
     Repair
     Anti-virus s/w can quarantine a virus.
     Can delete the virus code from an infected file.

Firewalls - Device or software used to prevent unauthorised access to a network. Placed between
the server and the Internet connection (router). Can block sections of the network. Only allows
authorised users to join the network (dial-in).

Encryption - Used by on-line retailers to keep card details secure. Need it to gain trust of
purchasers. 32 bit encryption almost impossible to crack.

Access Rights
Read – allows users to read files. Allows files to be made read only.
Write – allows users to write (save) files.
Create – allows users to create new files.
Erase – allows users to erase files.
Modify – allows users to modify files.
Groups of users may have. Read/write/create/erase on home drive. Read only on shared areas.

Questions
   50. What does data security mean?
   51. Why might an organisation implement a security strategy?

                                                Page | 18
    52.   Explain what Data Integrity means.
    53.   Explain what Data Privacy means.
    54.   What is meant by the term “hacking” (2 parts to this answer)?
    55.   What is a denial of service attack?
    56.   What is a code of conduct for Information Systems?
    57.   What rules may be in place for a code of conduct regarding passwords?
    58.   Explain how a firewall works.
    59.   Why do Internet retailers use encryption?
    60.   What is a popular method of encryption?
    61.   Access rights involve how files can be accessed on a network. Describe the main actions that
          can be applied to files.

Backup Strategy
Every computer user should have a strategy in place to backup their data. Backing up is the process
of making a copy of data stored on fixed hard disks to some other media. This can be tape, external
portable hard disks, writeable CD-ROM or DVD. The purpose of backing up data is to ensure that the
most recent copy of the data can be recovered and restored in the event of data loss.
Reasons for loss; electronic disasters such as a disk head; files being accidentally erased; the disk
being attacked by a virus

Archive, Recovery and Storage Methods
Archive - The process of copying data from hard disk drives to tape or other media for long-term
storage.
Recovery – The data is saved in a form so that it can be restored to the computer and used by users.
Data verification - it is important to check that the data stored on the backup media can be
recovered.
Storage Methods - DAT tape on built in drives on servers; USB removable hard drives.
Frequency and Version Control - Full backup (weekly) and incremental daily; Grandfather, father,
son method.

Questions
   62. Why should an organisation have a backup strategy in place?
   63. Describe what is meant by data archiving.
   64. Describe what is meant by data recovery.
   65. Describe what is meant by frequency in relation to backups.
   66. Describe what is meant by version control.

Upgrade Strategy
Future Proofing - making sure that a system has a reasonable life and does not need to be totally
replaced too soon.
Hardware & software compatibility
     Will older s/w work with new operating systems etc.
     Will older h/w work with newer equipment (e.g. printers with computers).
Integration Testing
     Are the peripheral devices compatible with the hardware and operating system?
     Does the network software support the hardware and operating system?
     Is the application software compatible with the operating system and computer?
     Is the hardware compatible with the operating system?
Legacy Systems
Old information systems running on out of date hardware and operating systems are often referred
to as legacy systems.

                                               Page | 19
Problems with legacy systems lead to many computer companies developing software that
conformed to Open Standards.
Emulation
Allows access to greater range of applications that might not be available on the given hardware
platform.
The use of an emulator allows data to be transferred between platforms.

Questions
   67. Why should an organisation have an upgrade strategy in place?
   68. What is meant by the terms hardware and software compatibility?
   69. Give two criteria of integration testing.
   70. What is a legacy system?
   71. Describe what is meant by emulation?
   72. What does emulation allow?

Software Strategy
Needs to take account of the issues :-
     evaluating the software for use, using several key criteria
     the user support for the software
     the training supplied for end users of the software
     the upgrade path of the software
Software Evaluation should cover.
Functionality - This refers not only to the number of features an application program has but the
number of useable features it has. Also the tasks to be completed need to be evaluated against the
features in the software.
Performance – The performance of software can be measured by several different criteria
depending on the type of software.
Criteria for Evaluation of Software
Speed- Measured against benchmarks.
Usability - Look and feel, choices in menus etc.
Compatibility - With operating system.
Data Migration - Translating from one format to another
Reliability - Does the job it is supposed to.
Resource Requirements - Has the computer enough RAM, big enough disks etc.
Portability - Will it work on different systems.
Support - Assistance from vendors or writers

Training in Using Software
On-the-job - A new user needs to be introduced to the software either by working through a
tutorial to become familiar with the functions of the software or using an online tutorial program or
tutorial manual that teaches the user about the software.
In House - This is when small groups of staff, within the company receive a training course
delivered by IT staff.
 External - Offered by specialist training providers for popular application software, such as
software created by Microsoft, Macromedia and Adobe.

User Support
Manuals –
Installation Guide – gives advice on how to install the software and how to configure it to work with
various hardware.
Tutorial Guide – gives step-by-step instructions on how to use the software.
Reference Manual – Is an indexed guide detailing all the functions of the software.
                                              Page | 20
On-line Help
Explains to the user what each feature of the software does. It is a part of the program situated on
the computer and is not on the Internet.
On-line Tutorials
Step by step instructions on the computer not on the Internet.
Help Desk.
Internal (end user) and external (software vendors).
Newsgroups.
A Newsgroup allows users of a piece of software to post email messages to the wider user
community.
FAQs.
This stands for Frequently Asked Questions. It is usually a file that contains a list of commonly asked
user queries about a piece of software.

Issues Affecting Decisions to Upgrade Software
Lack of functionality
Business changes, new technology outdates software.
Hardware Incompatibility
Upgraded computers do not support old software.
Software Incompatibility
New operating system will not run old software.
Perfecting the Software
Removing bugs and improving it – will existing data work with it.

Questions
   73. How can software be evaluated with regard to the criteria functionality and performance?
   74. In terms of software evaluation what does portability mean?
   75. What is meant by on-the-job training?
   76. How is an in-house training course likely to be provided?
   77. What is an external training course likely to focus on and who would provide it?
   78. Describe the following methods of user support. On-line help, help desk and FAQs.
   79. How may lack of functionality be likely to affect a decision to upgrade software?
   80. How may software incompatibility be likely to affect a decision to upgrade software?


Centralised and Distributed Databases
Centralised database
All the data is held on a central computer- mainframe or server.
Advantages.
      far easier to manage and control if it is only in one location.
      far easier to back up when it is centralised.
Distributed Database
Consists of two or more files located at different sites on a computer network.
Different users can access it without interfering with one another.
The DBMS must synchronise the scattered databases to make sure they all have consistent data.

Data Warehousing
Historical data transactions are separated out from the business.
The data is re-organised in such a way as to allow it to be analysed, the newly structured data is then
queried and the results of the query are reported.
Data warehousing could be used as a predictive tool, to indicate what should be done in the future.
                                               Page | 21
The main use of data warehousing is as a review tool, to monitor the effects of previous operational
decisions made in the course of a business.

Data mining is "The nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful
information from data".
It uses machine learning, statistical and visualisation techniques to discover and present knowledge
in a form, which is easily comprehensible to humans.
Data mining is the analysis of data and the use of software techniques for finding patterns and
regularities in sets of data. The computer is responsible for finding the patterns by identifying the
underlying rules and features in the data.
The mining analogy is that large volumes of data are sifted in an attempt to find something
worthwhile (in a mining operation large amounts of low grade materials are sifted through in order
to find something of value.)

Questions
   81. What is the difference between a centralised and a distributed database?
   82. What are the advantages of a centralised database over a distributed database?
   83. What does data warehousing mean?
   84. Why may a company decide to warehouse data?
   85. What is data mining defined as?
   86. Describe how data mining operates.
   87. Describe a situation in business where data mining may be very useful.




                                              Page | 22
Topic 3 - Organisational Information Systems

Classes of Software
There are five classes of software:-
     Presenting Information for Print media
     Presenting Information for On-Line Media
     Spreadsheet (data handling)
     Project Management
     Personal Information Management

Presenting Information for Print Media
Most applications are designed to produce printed output except for graphics and web authoring
which tend to be visual. Only Word Processing (WP) and Desk Top Publishing are classed in this
group.
Differences between WP and DTP
WP is used for generating text, while DTP tends to use pre-prepared text.
DTP manages to handle text and graphics far more easily.
WP can deal with multi-page documents but DTP handles multi-page documents far better.
DTP files tend to be very large especially if real pictures are used.

Questions
   88. Outline two differences between DTP and Word processing.
   89. What type of software would be better suited to preparing and printing a 32 page A5
       booklet (e.g. 8 double sided pages folded into a booklet)?

Presenting Information for On-line Media
Presentations
    Large growth in the use of s/w to create presentations.
    Cost of data projectors has dropped.
    Presentation s/w allows the user to create a slide show.
    Slides can hold a variety of multimedia objects,
    Slides can be sequenced - jump to using hyperlinks.
    PowerPoint most popular package.
Web Authoring
    Software allows users to easily make up web pages.
    Click on icons to link graphics and media files.
    Deals easily with hyper-linking.
    File written as HTML or XTML code.

Questions
   90. What are three features of presentation software that would help in a multi-media
       presentation?
   91. What are three features of web authoring software that would help in a multi-media
       presentation?
   92. What are the main advantages of web authoring software in relation to the audience
       reached?



                                            Page | 23
Data Handling – Spreadsheet
Education
Record and analyse marks and results
Keeping track of budgets and financial information,
Home situation
Keep track of household expenditure, track share values and even keep track of contacts.
Very good at formatting output, used for printing address labels.
Financial Application
Cash flow forecast, statement of accounts, invoices, sales orders, purchase orders etc.
Modelling and Simulation
Predicting a new situation from existing one - “what-if? analysis.”
Statistical Analysis
E.g. analysis of numerical information. Two examples are Descriptive Statistics and Goal Seeking.
Macro Use
A Macro is a sequence of instructions that can be used to automate complex or repetitive tasks.

Questions
   93. Describe two ways in which spreadsheets can be used in business.
   94. Describe two ways in which spreadsheets can be used in education.
   95. What is a Macro?

Project Management
The software is used to help manage a project in particular planning, monitoring and control of the
various activities or resources that contribute to its success.
Project management is identifying the activities that need to be carried out to complete the project.
For each activity - duration; cost; resources; employees; inter-relationships - all need to be assigned.
Activities scheduled to ensure efficiency. Plan output as PERT or Gantt chart.
Software Packages - Microsoft Project; CA SuperProject and Hoskyns Project Managers Workbench.
Time lining - Shows how and when a task needs to be completed before the next one starts.
Resource Allocation – There are software tools to help match up the materials, machine, people and
money. The aim is either maximising profits or achieving best quality.
Gant and PERTT charts.
    • Gant shows timings of each activity in a chart.
    • PERTT shows relationship between activities.
Optimisation & Critical Path Analysis
    • A mathematical process concerned with the optimisation of time.
    • Used for very complicated processes (managing a production line).

Questions
    96. What is project management software used for?
    97. How does project management software work?
    98. What is meant by resource allocation?
    99. What is the purpose of a Gant Chart?
    100. What is the purpose of a PERTT chart?
    101. How can critical path analysis be used?

Personal Information Management (PIM)
PIM is a type of software application designed to help users organise random bits of information.
PIMs enable you to enter various kinds of textual notes such as reminders, lists, and dates - and to
link these bits of information together in useful ways. Many PIMs also include calendar, scheduling,
                                               Page | 24
and calculator programs. Software includes Outlook by Microsoft and different version of PIM
software are found on PDAs and advanced mobile phones.

Questions
  102. Name the functions likely to found in PIM software?
  103. What PIM functions are likely to be found on a modern mobile phone?

Objects and Operations of Each class of Software
Class                    Objects                        Operations
Word processing          Characters, words,             Different menus or TABs give you a range of
                         paragraphs, graphic            related functions e.g. File (or Office 20007
                         objects.                       button) for Open, Save, Print a file. Contents
                                                        and Index page, text wrapping, serif and san
                                                        serif fonts.
Desk Top Publishing      Characters, words,             Standard File, Edit, View, Window, Help, also
                         paragraphs, graphic            Layout, Type, Element Utility and a Toolbox.
                         objects.                       Advanced page handling and graphic
                                                        handling. Multi page layout, columns, header
                                                        and footer, pagination (also WP)
Web Authoring            Characters etc, also           Navigation - Pages linked together by
Software                 pages, hyperlinks and          Hyperlinks. Set Home Page, use arrows,
                         links to graphics.             bookmarks, history.
                                                        Individual pages linked to form a site.

Presentation Software    Characters, words, slides,     Navigation – slides viewed and advanced by
                         hyperlinks, graphics,          press of mouse. Rehearsed timings can be
                         audio and video files.         used.
Spreadsheet Software     Cells and groups of cells      File Menu – performed on whole files.
                         containing text, numbers,      Edit Menu – cut, copy and paste.
                         formulas.                      View Menu – including headers and footers.
                                                        Insert Menu – rows, columns, worksheet,
                                                        functions.
                                                        Format Menu – format cells including
                                                        numeric like currency as well as standard text
                                                        formatting.
                                                        Tools Menu – spelling protection and
                                                        macros.
                                                        Data Menu – Sort, filter and pivot tables.
                                                        Window and Help much as in other Windows
                                                        applications.
                                                        Formatting functions are found mostly in the
                                                        format menu and also on the icons on the
                                                        menu line with B I U on it.
                                                        Advanced Functions
                                                        Goal Seeking, Forecasting, Look-up Tables,
                                                        Nested If, Count, Macros.
Project Management       Materials, machines,           Timelining, Resource Allocation, Gant and
                         people and money.              PERTT charts, Optimisation & Critical Path
                                                        Analysis
Personal Information     Text, numbers.                 Contacts, Calendar, Task List, Communication
Management (PIM)


                                            Page | 25
Questions
  104. What are the data objects likely to be found in Word processing Software?
  105. Describe three operations that can be performed on these objects.
  106. Describe three types of formatting that can be applied to these objects.
  107. Describe what is meant by multi-page layout.
  108. How can style sheets be used to help implement a house style?
  109. What is the difference between serif and san serif fonts?
  110. Describe how the use of colour and formatting of text can enhance the appearance of a
       document.




                                            Page | 26
Topic 4 – Implications of ICT

Social Implications

Globalisation
Globalisation is the growing integration of economies and societies around the world. It has been
hotly debated topic in economics.
Positive Aspects of Globalisation - Rapid growth and poverty reduction in China, India, and other
countries that were poor 20 years ago.
Negative Aspects of Globalisation - It has increased inequality, contributed to environmental
degradation and is confined to huge companies as diverse as Oil, Cola and burgers.

Globalisation and Impact of IS on Social Structures
The Impact of Information Systems on Business and Societies is exemplified through multinational
companies as diverse as Cola and Oil technology. They have achieved globalisation through the use
of information systems. Originally this was a few large companies with mainframe computers
confined to major USA and European cities.
Present day examples of Globalisation
Smaller companies can have a global presence. They can communicate via dedicated worldwide
intranet enabling them to publish reports, memos etc & e: mail round the world. They don’t need
mainframe systems but use web and mail servers to communicate.

Questions
  111. Define globalisation.
  112. Describe a positive aspect of globalisation.
  113. Describe a negative aspect of globalisation.
  114. Describe how a company can use ICT and the Web to aid communications if it is operating in
       several countries.

Online retail
The Changing Relationships between Retailer and Customer
Shoppers are becoming intolerant of goods being unavailable or out of stock and very wary of over-
pricing and long delivery times.
Consumers are more willing to go on-line and order from different retailers, need a credit card to
buy on-line and do not need the stress of waiting for goods bought as presents not turning up.
We still maintain relationships with local specialist shops and customers who buy their groceries
on-line and have the same delivery driver every week often build up a good relationship with the
driver.
In General - The two types of shopping can complement each other, opening up new markets to
specialist retailers and giving more choice to customers.

Questions
  115. What are shoppers being intolerant of that is diving them towards on-line shopping?
  116. What do customers need to pay for goods in on-line shopping?
  117. What benefits does on-line shopping give to customers?

The Impact on Business of an IS Driven Business Model
Traditional Businesses have embraced IT with open arms or else they have had IT forced upon them
and adapted.

                                             Page | 27
Modern IS driven businesses are usually Companies without High Street branches. They are often
call centre based companies who advertise heavily on TV. This is much cheaper than running a
network of branches and call centres can bring employment to towns rather than cities.
Questions
    118. Describe how a new type of business is likely to use an IS driven model.
    119. Why will a new type of business use an IS driven model?

Identities and Personas
Using the Internet as a medium of communication is having a dramatic impact on people’s lives.
People have an ability to communicate with anyone regardless of age, sex, location, background etc.
The Internet allows people to develop different identities and personas when communicating. One
can join chat rooms and newsgroups and offer an expert opinion even when not an expert.
The Disadvantages include the Criminal offence of “grooming” via the Internet. Parents are wary of
letting teenagers have use of the Internet. There is a fear of the Internet among certain groups in
society.

Questions
  120. What is an advantage of developing identities and personas on the internet?
  121. What is a disadvantage of developing identities and personas on the internet?

Privacy
Private Communications across the Internet should be secure and safe. We feel we have a right to
this privacy and web sites we visit should be our business.
National Security or Criminal Actions?
Terrorists use e: mail, mobile phones and the Internet to communicate amongst themselves.
Criminals use the Internet to host web sites.
What about our privacy?
Security organisations can scan all e: mail and mobile phone messages looking for tell tale phrases.
The FBI caught thousands of paedophiles across USA and Europe via their IP address and phone
number.

Questions
  122. What are two points supporting the right to private communication over the internet.
  123. Now give two points arguing that that the right to private communication over the Internet
       cannot be sustained any longer.




                                              Page | 28
Legal Implications of Information Systems
The 1998 Data Protection Act
The 8 Data Protection Principles
    Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully.
    Personal data shall be obtained only for lawful purposes,
    Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive.
    Personal data shall be accurate and, kept up to date.
    Personal data shall not be kept for longer than is necessary.
    Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects.
    Appropriate measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of data.
    Personal data shall not be transferred to a country outside Europe.
    Data must be registered with the Data Commissioner.

Unconditional exemptions
There are several organisations that do not ever need to register with the data commissioner. These
include data related to National Security, data which by law has to be made public (e.g. voters’ roll)
and data held by the Police and National Health Service.
Conditional exemptions
These include mailing lists (names and addresses), data used for calculating and paying wages,
information used for club memberships and data used by a data subject at home.

Rights of Data Subjects
Data subjects have the right to see any personal data stored either electronically or manually about
them. The Data controller may ask that a small fee be paid to cover their costs in providing the data.
They have the right to have their data corrected if it is inaccurate and to prevent their data being
used by companies to send them junk mail.

Responsibilities of Data Users
Data users have to register with the Data Protection Registrar if they wished to hold personal
information about data subjects. They must be willing to let data subjects see data held about them,
but must amend any false data without charge. Data Users must also be willing to remove subjects’
names and addresses from mailing lists if asked to.

Changes From 1984 Act
The 1984 DPA had certain shortcomings. It only covered data in electronic form and companies
could circumvent certain provisions. It had no European or worldwide dimension and there was no
obligation on any data user to tell the data subject that they held any data about them.
The 1998 Act covers the transmission of data in electronic form, which was not really an issue in
1984. It harmonised the European Union Data Protection legislation. It also made it a requirement
of the Act to ask for the prior consent of data subjects to have data held about them, and included
paper based records.

Questions
  124. State three principles of the 1988 Data Protection Act.
  125. What are two unconditional exceptions to the Act?
  126. What are two conditional exceptions to the Act?
  127. State two rights of data subjects.
  128. State two responsibilities of data users.
  129. With reference to the Data Protection Act of 1998, describe:

                                              Page | 29
         a) the role of the Information Commissioner;
         b) what is meant by a data subject
Copyright, Designs & Patents Act
Software Licensing
Software can be legally installed on as many computers as the licence allows. Shareware can be used
legally for 30 days then either paid for or deleted. Freeware can be downloaded and used free of
charge.
Computer Applications
Databases can store vast amounts of copyright data. The act covers extracts from computer
databases. It is plagiarism to copy work directly from the Web and in Scotland school pupils can
have their entire diet of exams taken away from for plagiarising even one small part of their
assessed work. Music downloads must be paid for and copyright checked. Software piracy is a
crime.

Questions
  130. What does software licensing allow?
  131. What is the difference between shareware and freeware?
  132. What does the Copyright Designs and patents Act cover in relation to databases?
  133. What conditions must be adhered to for music downloads?

The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000
This act gives powers to Police, Special Branch, GCHQ and MI5. It allows organisations to monitor
employees, e-mail and Web usage. It also provides powers to help combat the threat posed by
rising criminal use of strong encryption to try to break into electronic transactions.
The Act contains 5 parts.
It allows the authorities to monitor our personal e-mail and Internet usage. Businesses, local
authorities and government departments can and do monitor internal e-mails and Internet usage of
staff, students and pupils.
It all sounds very “Big Brother.” It May enrage and disturb many people to realise this but when
terrorists can be anywhere in our society it may be a relief to know that the authorities are taking
such steps to catch them.

Questions
  134. What is the main purpose of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000?
  135. A student discovers that the university authorities monitor her student e-mail account and
       her web usage in the University. Have they the right to do this and if so why?

The Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002
From 1st January 2005 there has been in Scotland a general right of public access to all types of
'recorded' information held by public authorities. The act sets out exemptions from that general
right and places a number of obligations on public authorities.
The Act applies only to 'public authorities' and not to private entities. Public authorities include
Government Departments, local authorities and many other public bodies, and also schools, colleges
and universities. The Act is enforced by the Scottish Information Commissioner.
Responsibilities of public authorities
They are required to adopt and maintain a Publication Scheme. The Act sets out the classes of
information available (e.g. prospectuses, almanacs and websites) and the manner in which they
intend to publish the information and whether a charge will be made for the information.

Questions
  136. How has the Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002 affected how we can find out
       about decisions made by a local authority?
                                              Page | 30
   137. Explain whether or not we can find out from a supermarket decisions made by their board of
        directors.

Health and Safety Regulations
There is now a requirement on employers to carry out a risk assessment. Employers with five or
more employees need to record the significant findings of the risk assessment. Risk assessment
should be straightforward in a simple workplace such as a typical office. The aim is to provide a safe
and secure working environment.

Questions
  138. With regard to health and safety regulations what are employers required to carry out?
  139. What is the aim of risk assessment?

Economic Implications of ICT

The Effect of New ICT on Business
There can be large Costs such as Investing in a new computerised system, which is very expensive.
Staff training can be a major cost.
The Benefits include increased productivity (fewer staff); increased functionality and reports from
the computerised system can save the expense of professionals.

Business and ICT
Business wants to maintain a Competitive advantage compared to their competitors in the same
area of business who have not made a similar investment.
How to gain a Competitive Advantage? This includes employing a systems analyst who
completes a feasibility study covering technical aspects and legal and economic feasibility.
Huge Leap of Faith?
There was a huge leap of faith shown by the first paper based mail order company to move over to a
call centre and telephone ordering. This was to tie in with an “intelligent warehouse”. There was an
exhaustive economic feasibility study to see if they would gain a competitive advantage over their
rivals. They did, but was it an even bigger leap of faith to be the first of these companies to
introduce Internet Ordering?

Business Costs
Initial Costs - There are huge costs to set up a production line, just-in-time ordering or a call centre.
The capital costs include Computers, Software, and Robots etc.
Running Costs - Staff required, Paper, Ink cartridges, back-up media, Software licences and
maintenance contracts.

Questions
  140. What are the major costs to a company introducing ICT?
  141. What are the benefits to a company introducing ICT?
  142. How may a company gain a competitive advantage?
  143. What was the latest “Leap of Faith”?
  144. What are the capital costs involved in setting up ICT in a business?
  145. What are the main ICT based running costs in a business?

Ethical Implications of ICT
Censorship on The Internet.
 Current censorship laws may not be adequate and operators of questionable sites can host sites in
countries without such laws. Controls can hinder freedom of speech.
Now if you visit an illegal site (even if it is legal where it is published) you can be prosecuted.
                                                Page | 31
Should “Spam” be illegal – freedom of speech.
Visiting an illegal site by accident can be a valid defence (where the description bears no
resemblance to the actual contents).

Regulating the content of the Internet
There is dubious material on the Internet and conscious access needs to be made before ‘offensive’
or ‘unacceptable’ material is displayed. Software can be installed that will monitor what accesses
are made from which terminals, when and by whom and internal organisational procedures should
deal with this type of situation.
Contravening Legislation on the Internet
The Internet is no different from other media and one can contravene legislation on sensitive
matters. Successful libel cases were taken out against bulletin board operators for the materials that
were published on their boards. Is the current legislation enough? Presumably only time will tell
and future governments and public opinion will influence new legislation.

Questions
  146. What can be a valid defence to visiting an illegal web site?
  147. What type of legal action can be taken against web site operators other than libel (e.g. music
       downloads)?

Privacy and Encryption
Privacy
Text messages, mobile calls, e-mail and Internet usage can all be monitored by security
organisations. Criminals are using technology to try and intercept and read personal information.
If we are to trust on-line shopping, then the on-line vendors must apply security to their site.
Encryption
A secure system ensures that the card number is encrypted when it leaves the shopper’s computer
until it arrives safely at the vendor’s web site. They can use PGP, Pretty Good Privacy, which uses a
32-bit encryption procedure. This is thought to be unbreakable and is used by good on-line retailers
who will usually advertise the fact. They may also subscribe to a code of practice (like the Which?
Code for Internet shopping) that is based on PGP and 32-bit encryption.

Questions
  148. What must on-line vendors apply to their site if we are to trust them?
  149. To what is encryption applied?
  150. What is a good encryption system and why is it used?

ICT and Global Citizenship
A Study of Citizenship gives pupils and students the knowledge, skills and understanding to play an
effective role in society at local, national and international levels. Global citizenship is generally
thought of as being aware of global issues such as environment, commerce, politics and society in
general.
Use of ICT in Citizenship
If a pupil or student is studying citizenship then the use of the Internet means that information and
discussion papers can be found and studied very easily. Newsgroups exist on a wide range of
citizenship topics and offer informed and serious discussions. Pupils can use e-mail links with
schools in foreign countries.

Questions
  151. What does a study of citizenship generally give pupils?
  152. What is Global Citizenship?
  153. How can a pupil use ICT to help them with a study of citizenship?
                                               Page | 32
Chapter 3 - Applied Multimedia

Topic 1 Contemporary Uses and Means of Delivery
A definition of multimedia
Multimedia is the combination and integration of text, audio, video and graphics in a computer-
based environment. A multimedia PC or personal computer is a computer system that can play back
multimedia applications such as educational CD-ROMs, video and Internet applications. Multimedia
applications use the concept of interactivity, which passes the control of media content to the user.

Multimedia applications: Business
E-commerce
Electronic commerce or e-commerce is concerned with the buying and/or selling of something
electronically, often through online transactions.

The use of e-commerce requires three components:
     a merchant account: this enables the user/seller to take credit card information from a
        prospective customer
     online shopping cart: customers can order 24/7
     transaction software: how the money is actually delivered.

Presentations
Multimedia presentations tend to include a variety of text, graphics, video and audio components,
used to present information on a wide range of subjects, for example:
    an educational lecture
    a new marketing strategy
    an annual meeting for employees.

Teleconferencing
Teleconferencing is a form of interactive communication between people who are at two or more
locations. Teleconferencing includes video conferencing and audio conferencing.
Video conferencing is a collection of different technologies that integrate audio with video and
display the result in real time over a distance. The purpose is to communicate with people over a
large distance. This can be cost effective for a business because it will save the company travel
expenses.
Audio conferencing uses the same principles but uses microphones to exchange information.
Microsoft Net Meeting software is a popular choice at the present time.

Collaborative working
This is work that is undertaken by a group. In a multimedia application it could be the integration of
work by different designers who have the necessary skills for certain media areas. Web-based
software is available that is designed to support the work of virtual teams who are working
separately on different problems. Project management software and applications are also available
which can run on networks. These allow several people to work on complex problems at the same
time, either separately or together.

Questions
    1. What is e-commerce?
    2. What three components are required for e-commerce?
    3. What elements do multimedia presentations usually contain?
    4. What is an advantage of teleconferencing?

                                               Page | 33
    5. What are the main advantages of collaborative working?

Multimedia applications: Training
CBT (Computer Based Training)
Computer Based Training uses multimedia such as applications and animation to educate and
interest the learner. This media is used to implement instruction in an effective manner. CBT
packages (including both CD-based and online packages) are very popular.

Multimedia simulations
For training and education applications, multimedia simulations can be used. These are simulations
in which graphics, photographs, sound and video are deployed to create realistic micro-worlds
where users can attempt to understand and explore certain areas of training and education.

Home entertainment
With the development of broadband and high-speed processors, home entertainment is now a
rapidly expanding multimedia area. Home users can now enjoy online games, video and audio on
demand, as well as video telephony streamed through a television set or home computer system.
Other services include high-speed Internet surfing over TV and messaging (SMS) over TV and e-mail.

Edutainment
Edutainment is defined as an experience that is both entertaining and educational.

Home shopping
There are now numerous Internet sites that offer home shopping. Consumers can now shop in
online supermarkets, and you can buy just about anything online if you have a credit card and a
computer with Internet access.

Questions
    6. What are the main applications of Computer Based training?
    7. What is a multimedia simulation?
    8. What is edutainment?

Multimedia delivery media
This section considers the various different delivery modes for multimedia applications.
CD-ROM (Compact Disk, Read Only Memory)
An optical storage medium available in different formats (ROM, Audio). A CD-ROM provides
approximately 700 MB (megabytes) of read-only data storage.
DVD-ROM (Digital Versatile Disk, Read Only Memory)
This high-capacity storage medium exists in numerous formats, the most popular being the read-
only type of DVD-ROM, which provides seven times the storage capacity of a CD-ROM. Latest
models can hold up to 4.7 Gigabytes of data (single layer), 8.4 Gb (dual layer). These disks can
contain full-length films and are compatible with audio players.
Kiosk
A Kiosk is usually found at public information points. These are essentially computers designed for
stand-alone public use, and are commonly found in museums, ticket outlets in cinemas, train
stations and banks. Emphasis is on hard-wearing robust units because security is an issue. Some
have touch-screen facilities.
WWW (World Wide Web)
World Wide Web is a service provided on the Internet. It is a global network of computers that can
share files, documents and other resources. The technology that is used is HTML (hypertext mark-up
language), HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol), web servers and web browsers (Internet explorer).

                                             Page | 34
The WWW is a cross-platform environment, and has applications in almost every area of technology,
entertainment, education, etc. HTML (web) pages can display text, graphics, sound and video.

Mobile communications
Early mobile phones could only be used for voice and text messages, but WAP (wireless application
protocol) enabled mobile phones to send and receive multimedia data. 3G (third-generation) mobile
phones can provide video calling and WAP at broadband speed. Modern phones like the iPhone
have Mobile Internet and e-mail over wi-fi.

Hybrids
By integrating two or more delivery media it is possible to create a hybrid system. For example, CD-
ROMs are particularly useful for large amounts of static data, while WWW is excellent at producing
smaller amounts of regularly updated information. By creating hyper-links from the CD-ROM to the
WWW, it is possible to run the CD and open up websites throughout the application/presentation.
Therefore some of the information could be delivered by CD and another part could be delivered
across the WWW. This is already integrated into most software help packages and browsers’ update
facilities.

Virtual reality
Can also be known as ‘artificial reality’, this is a visual form of cyberspace and consists of 3D
graphics, with user interaction via a ‘data glove’. This application uses advanced technological
computers and multimedia peripherals to produce a simulated virtual environment. The user wears
a head-set and glove to interact. Users can perceive real objects and events in cyberspace.

Questions
    9. What is normally stored on a CD?
    10. What is normally stored on a DVD?
    11. What is a kiosk?
    12. Where is a kiosk likely to be found?
    13. James buys a computer game on CD but finds when he plays it the game accesses the
         Internet. What kind of media is this?
    14. What special hardware may a user wear to participate in virtual reality?

Advantages and disadvantages of different multimedia delivery media

Media              Data          Transfer     Window        Ease of    Advantages     Disadvantages
                   Capacity      Speed        Size          Update
CD-ROM -           approx        40x gives    depends       cannot     small and      cannot update
                   700 Mb        max 6        on            update     portable;      information as
                                 Mb/s         computer      (read-     cheap          disk is read
                                              monitor       only                      only
                                                            memory)
DVD-ROM            usually 4.3   can be       depends       cannot     large          Cannot
                   Gb            11.8 Mb/s    on            update     storage        update
                                              computer      (read-     capacity;      information as
                                              monitor       only       small and      disk is read
                                                            memory)    portable;      only. Requires
                                                                       cheap.         user to have
                                                                                      DVD drive.
Kiosk              can be        very fast    large, size   can be      user-         prone to
                   very large                 of normal     updated    friendly,      vandalism.
                   as hard                    computer                 excellent
                                              Page | 35
                   disk drives                 screen or                 for on-the-
                   are used                    larger                    spot
                                                                         information
WWW                effectively   limited by    large,       can be       access from   vulnerable to
                   infinite      user’s        browser      updated      anywhere,     network
                                 connection    window       easily on    anytime.      traffic and
                                                            server                     bandwidth
                                                                                       constraints.
Hybrids            unlimited     depends       large        can be       Can deliver   Prone to
(CD/Web)           because       on user’s                  updated      large files   network and
                   linked to     connection                 easily       (CD / Web     bandwidth
                   Inter net                                             Hybrid        constraints.
Mobile             small         slow          very small
communications




Topic 2 - Analysis
The project brief
A project brief will list all the requirements for the type of multimedia application that is to be
designed. Usually there will not be enough details for any implementation to be attempted. This is
more of a proposal and has no legal standing.

Requirements specification
The requirements specification is a formal document that provides the basis of a contract between
the client and the developer. It must provide a clear understanding (for both parties) of exactly what
is required from the multimedia application. The requirements specification should cover all the
following aspects:
      purpose
      user/audience
      content
      delivery media
      hardware and software requirements
      budget
      timescale

Questions
    15. What is a project brief?
    16. What is requirements specification?
    17. What must a requirements specification provide?
    18. Why are hardware and software standards necessary?
    19. Why is a budget important?

Topic 3 - Navigational structures
In any multimedia applications screens will have to be linked in a logical manner, so that the user can
manipulate the application. We will study four different structures:
     linear
     hierarchical
     web
     composite/hybrid
                                               Page | 36
Linear structure
Linear structure usually consists of a number of
different slides or modules, which all follow each
other.

Hierarchical structure
This structure groups each part into topics, with
sub-topics and headings. It is also based on
content designed according to categories and sub-
categories. This structure is far less limiting than
the linear structure. The user can link to any main
area within the structure from the home page.

Web structure
The web structure allows users to follow their own
information flow in a heuristic pattern, which is
unique to each user who will use the application.
This structure is used widely on the WWW, but it
can also be applied to other types of delivery.

Composite/hybrid (mixed) structure
This structure can be part linear and part
hierarchical, which is a useful concept when you
have a lot of topics and sub-topics. Users may
navigate in a free manner (non-linear), but are
linked in a hierarchical or linear fashion for parts of
the presentation / website. It has the least limiting
structure.

Complexity of navigation structures (lost in hyperspace)
When browsing it is easy to get confused with where you are relative to where you started. This is
called being ‘lost in hyperspace’. The following navigational aids can be used to prevent users
getting lost.
Backtracking -This is implemented by using a back button on menu or on toolbar, which will link to
the last node visited.
Highlighting (nodes/links)- This can be achieved by including a ‘sense’ of location by graphically
indicating where the current page is. This is equivalent to a ‘you are here’ mark.
History -This is a complete list of all nodes or links that have been visited. Each previous screen is
represented once in the history file. The user can return by simply clicking on the relevant
highlighted link.
Bookmarks -This is a list of pages that have been selected by the user, as s/he may want to visit
particular links again.
Breadcrumbs- This is essentially a ‘trail’ which has been left and can lead the user back to wherever
they have originated.

Questions
    20. What is a navigational structure?
    21. What is the least limiting structure?
    22. Name three methods which avoid a user getting “lost in hyperspace”?
    23. Explain what is meant by breadcrumbs.

                                                 Page | 37
Use of search facilities
The Internet and other multimedia applications (e.g. encyclopaedias) contain huge amounts of
information. In order to retrieve information it is necessary to use search facilities and specific
criteria. These search criteria work according to the principles of Boolean logic. The primary
operators are:
AND - e.g. Computer AND Printer - narrows the search, fewer matches found
OR e.g. Computer OR Printer – broaden the search, more matches found
NOT - e.g. Computer NOT Printer - eliminates certain terms in your search, and filter out
unimportant sub-categories.

Questions
    24. Why are search facilities necessary on the Internet?
    25. Describe briefly the principles of Boolean logic.

User Interfaces
The way in which a human and a computer exchange information and instructions is through the
user interface. The job of the user interface is to make the program easy to use and understand.
There are four different types of user interface to look at:

CLI (command line interface) - The user enters commands by typing on the keyboard. These
commands are processed by the computer. MS DOS, Linux and BBC Micro. Good for experienced
user, can enter commands quickly, takes up small amount of memory but command language
difficult to learn, error messages can be ambiguous and needs experienced user.

Menu-driven interface - Requires the user to interact with the computer by selecting various
options from a menu. Different types, Scrolling Menus, Pull-Down Menus, Pop-Up Menus,
Hierarchical Menus and User-Defined Menus. Do not need to memorise lots of commands, Easy-to-
use program for beginners/minimal training. However certain operations/options cannot be ‘visual’,
options are limited and can be time consuming.

Form fill-in interface -The user will see a display of related fields and will enter data and
information in the relevant areas (text boxes). This interface is very common on the Internet,
particularly on shopping sites and educational sites. Simple data entry (easy to learn), no need to
remember syntax or commands and requires minimum training but consumes a lot of screen space
and needs efficient validation (for typing errors).

GUI (graphical user interface) - With a GUI the user can interact with the computer by using a
mouse (pointing device), which enables manipulation of windows, icons and menus. Fast
interaction, no commands or memorisation required but difficult to program (therefore costs more).

The Use of Metaphors in Interface Design
Metaphors can be used in interface design to give a visual expression of a function. For word
processing you can use the metaphor of a book, by designing the screen to look like a sheet of
paper; and for navigating by clicking a page-turn icon at the foot of the page. Some other metaphors
include filing cabinets, files, folders, desktop and waste basket etc.

User interface design
The study of this aspect of computing is called ‘human computer interaction’ (HCI). There are many
key principles that have arisen from this study, some of which need exemplifying.
Consistency and standards - The user can transfer familiar skills if a consistent interface is used,
and use skills learned from one application in another. Consistency can be built up using similar
components and consistency of colour throughout.
                                                Page | 38
Differing ability levels - Once the purpose of the application has been defined, the ability levels of
all users will need to be considered. Some important considerations are the kind of environment,
levels of user experience, a disabled environment and ergonomical considerations (similarities and
differences between individuals).
Providing feedback - For every user action, there should be some kind of feedback. Here are some
methods for giving users feedback; changes of colour when a button is clicked, sounds, visual
feedback and confirmation dialogue boxes.
Easy correction of errors- Users may choose the wrong option or enter incorrect data. The
software should always make it possible easily to correct these errors.
Avoiding information overload - A good user interface should avoid presenting the user with too
much information at once, or the user may be become confused, or miss some important
information.

Questions
    26. What is a user interface?
    27. What are the main characteristics of a command line interface?
    28. What are the main characteristics of a menu drive interface?
    29. What are the main characteristics of a graphical user interface?
    30. What is a metaphor?
    31. Give two examples of a metaphor.
    32. Why is providing feedback important?
    33. What is information overload?




                                              Page | 39
Topic 4 - Critical evaluation of screen design
Storyboards
Outline storyboard
The outline storyboard will show the overall structure of the application, but no fine detail. It
should show the main pages and the linking structure between them.

Detailed storyboard - The detailed storyboard will contain all the elements that the finished
prototype should cover, e.g. user interactivity (buttons, menus, dialogue boxes), audio, text (with
details of fonts, styles and size), video/animation/graphics, links and navigation, colours
(backgrounds).

Questions
   34. What is a storyboard?
   35. What is the difference between an outline and a detailed storyboard?

Appearance
Kerning
To improve the visual appearance of grouped characters, sometimes it is necessary to reduce or
increase the gap between adjacent letters. This is called ‘kerning’.

Anti-aliasing
Aliasing is a term used to explain and describe the undesirable effects exhibited when information
and graphics are displayed at a lower resolution. Anti-aliasing will make all objects appear as if they
are of higher resolution. This technique can ‘smooth’ the edges and trick the user into believing that
the piece of information has straight edges and smooth curves.

Complications of using non-standard fonts
Sometimes a designer may wish to use a font that is not widely installed on users’ computers. The
user may substitute an alternative font, spoiling the designer’s intended look and feel. This can be
avoided by use of embedded fonts or graphical text.
Embedded fonts - Font embedding allows fonts that were originally used in the creation of the
document to be embedded in the file / document, guaranteeing the end user the complete original
document (without alterations). Disadvantage is that larger files are created, and this can slow
down page loading.
Graphical text - For small sections of text (e.g. titles or logos), it may be appropriate to use ‘graphical
text’ (like Word Art). This allows the designer to transform dull text into eye-catching or colourful
designs. These should be displayed on the user’s screen exactly as the designer intends.

Colour and graphics (implications)
When creating graphics for a multimedia application, a designer needs to remember that the user’s
display technology may not display the graphic exactly as intended.
Colour- If colours are displayed on an eight-bit (256 bit) display, different web browsers (Netscape,
Internet Explorer) will display and remap colours according to their own characteristic palette. This
may be a problem because it can change the original colour scheme.
Web palettes- At present there are only 216 colours that appear identically on the majority of
browsers and operating systems. This ‘browser-safe web palette’ limits the designer’s choices to 216
different colours out of a possible 256.

                                                Page | 40
Dithering
The process of mixing pixels of two different colours in order to give a colour that is not in the
palette is called dithering. An example might be if you required orange on a graphic, and this was
not available on your system palette; the browser could then give a mix of red and yellow pixels to
compensate.
Gamma correction
If some images or graphics look ‘bleached out’ or ‘too dark’ the input signal (voltage) to the monitor
(vdu) must be ‘gamma corrected’. This dilemma is caused by cathode ray tubes (CRT) that do not
generate light intensity that is proportional to the input voltage. The actual intensity created by the
CRT is proportional to the input voltage raised to the power of ‘gamma’. The value of gamma is
usually approximately 2.5.

Progressive scan (displays) or Interlacing
Graphic files can take a while to download on a web page. With a slow connection, you can see
graphics gradually appearing. A better alternative is to use ‘progressive display’. In this method,
every second line of pixels is downloaded first, so the user quickly sees a rough version of the whole
picture; then the other lines are downloaded, completing the picture. In reality, there may be
several passes rather than just two, so a very rough version appears very quickly, gradually
improving with each pass. This is known as ‘progressive display’ for jpeg images, or ‘interlacing’ for
GIF and PNG images.

Questions
    36. Why might kerning be applied to text?
    37. Explain why anti-aliasing might be used?
    38. What is an embedded font?
    39. Explain what happens when dithering is applied.
    40. Why do the colours of an image change slightly when viewed on different computers?
    41. What can be done to solve this problem?
    42. When may a progressive scan be useful?

Downloading and Streaming Audio and Video
Downloading audio - The downloading method is quite slow as you must wait for the entire file to
be downloaded. Once it has been saved to your hard drive, you can open it in a suitable player, can
play the file as often as required and can fast forward and rewind. However you cannot listen until
fully downloaded and it may take a long time to download.
Streaming audio - The audio is played as it arrives over the Internet in real time. The file is not
preserved on the computer so a network connection must be sustained. This allows radio stations to
transmit audio live, and news channels to stream interviews live. You can listen to the file
immediately and play as it downloads. The disadvantages include cannot fast forward or rewind and
high compression can reduce quality of file.

Implications of using video
When video is embedded into a multimedia application, a designer must ensure the user can control
the video playback. VCR-type controls must be provided (forward, fast forward, rewind, stop, pause,
alter volume, alter size). Just as audio can be downloaded or streamed, so too can video.

Downloading video
After downloading a video from a website, you can save it on to hard disk and play back when
convenient. You can play the file as often as required, can edit the file and can fast forward and
rewind. Even with a fast broadband connection video can take a long time to download and you
cannot listen until fully downloaded.

                                               Page | 41
Streaming video
This method requires connecting to a streaming server. A special player is required to view and play
these video files. Streaming video can be played and downloaded at the same time (similar to
streaming audio). When a user selects a streaming clip, the streaming player contacts the server
and establishes bandwidth and delay information. A small amount of the clip is then downloaded
into buffer storage, the clip is played and more content is downloaded. If the network is clogged the
clip will use up content in the buffer. You can of course play and listen to file immediately as it
downloads. On the downside you do not usually save the file for later and high compression can
reduce the quality of files. You do need a good network connection.

Health issues (video playback)
Flashing sequences in a video or presentation can cause epilepsy (known as photosensitive epilepsy).
This type of epilepsy is triggered by flashing or flickering at a certain frequency. The safe frequency
for flashing sequences is on or below five hertz.

Questions
    43. What are two benefits of downloading audio?
    44. What are two benefits of streaming audio?
    45. How does streaming work for audio files?
    46. What kind of internet connection is necessary for streaming audio and video?
    47. What is the recommended safe frequency for flashing sequences?




                                               Page | 42
Topic 5 - Software for creating and delivering multimedia applications
Presentation and Authoring Software
Presentation software
Presentation software can be used to edit and create linear multimedia presentations. It is possible
to combine text and graphics, and incorporate audio and video files. Transitions between slides, and
animations within slides, can be used. Hyperlinks can be incorporated, but the product is essentially
linear. The most popular package is Microsoft PowerPoint.

Authoring software (icon-based)
Authoring software combines text, graphics, audio, images and video by using either an icon-based
or script-based system. Authoring packages create a user interface where the user can control a cast
of multimedia objects and define how they will react.
In an icon-based authoring package, the developer can build a flow chart of different events by
dragging icons from a pre-defined ‘icon palette’ as the structure is built; text, graphics, animation,
audio and video can be added. Icons can represent audio, video, etc., as well as conditional
statements such as decisions and selections. Certain icons will have properties that describe flow
control and user interaction. Examples of icon-based software are Authorware (professional) and
Hyperstudio (simple). They give an easy-to-follow structure that is easy to edit and update
information but can be difficult to learn.

Authoring software (scripting-based)
Macromedia Director is the recognised software. More advanced authoring software provides a
scripting facility. This uses a time-based tool and a score as the primary authoring metaphor, and
elements are presented in horizontal tracks with vertical columns (timelines). By scripting the
behaviour of each of the cast members you can build a powerful presentation.
Director is suitable for presentations with a lot of animation, and large media- or video-driven
applications. Authoring software such as Macromedia Director is a huge package. It can take a
while to master and previous knowledge of programming can be an advantage. The package is also
very expensive.

 Web-page applications
Dynamic and modern presentations can also be built using a web-page editor. These can be viewed
over the internet thereby increasing the audience. Web-page editors range from basic HTML editors
that allow you to create pages individually, to website managers that will design and handle all
aspects of web management. Some examples are Microsoft Front Page (basic) and Macromedia
Dreamweaver (professional).

Multimedia Players
Once a multimedia application has been created – using a presentation package, authoring package
or web-page editor – it can either be turned into a stand-alone application that requires no
specialised software to view it, or saved in a format that requires a software player. For example, a
developer might create an animation using Macromedia Flash. To view the animation, the user
requires the Flash player to be installed. Fortunately most players (or plug-ins) can be freely
downloaded from the Internet. Web Browsers are effectively players for web based applications.

Questions
    48. What is the difference between presentation and authoring software?
    49. What are the two different kinds of authoring software?
    50. What will sophisticated web design software allow the user to do?

                                              Page | 43
       51. How may a multimedia presentation be viewed if a user does not have the original
           software?

Skills required by personnel
Project manager
The project manager is accountable for ensuring that the development meets the client’s
requirements, is created to a high standard, all within the agreed budget and stipulated deadline.

Multimedia designer
The multimedia designer will specialise in the overall design and in the combination of different
media, and will be responsible for: content, structure, navigation, screen layout and interactivity.
S/he will work closely with all technical staff, and will implement designs by utilising relevant
members of the team.

Subject expert
This individual would have an in-depth knowledge of the particular subject, and will provide content
for the application. The subject expert will play an important role in testing.
Media specialists
These can be video engineers, audio engineers, specific animators, or graphic designers. Each is an
expert at creating media elements within their own area of expertise.
Multimedia programmer
The multimedia programmer is responsible for creating the overall application to the design
provided by the multimedia designers, and incorporating media elements provided by the media
specialists. S/he will be an expert in the chosen software or authoring tool.
Webmaster
This individual should administer the website. If the application is designed for web use, s/he would
be in charge of: web server hardware, web server software, website design and update, monitoring
any feedback and traffic

Questions
    52. In a multimedia development team what is the project manager responsible for?
    53. Why does a team need a subject expert?
    54. What tasks will the media specialists perform?
    55. Who is likely to administer the website?

Topic 6 – Graphic, Audio and Video Files
You need to know some facts about graphic, audio and video files, so that you can make best use of
them.
Graphic file types
Three different graphic file types (TIFF, jpeg, GIF) will be discussed in terms of colour depth( Number
of different colours for each pixe), Resolution (Number of pixels per unit area), File size (Number of
bytes to store graphic), Degree of compression (Can determine image quality (lossy and non-lossy)),
Appropriate uses

File Type     Colour Depth   Resolution File Size    Compression          Uses
TIFF          Any            Any        Large        Various lossless     Scanned images, DTP
                                                     methods
jpeg          High           varies       small      Lossy                Web, Digital cameras

GIF           Small (8bit)   varies       small      lossless             Clip art, graphics with
                                                                          uniform colour.

                                               Page | 44
TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
This format was developed for the purpose of scanned images, and is one of the most widely
supported file formats. It is recognised across many hardware and software applications, and uses
lossless compression.

jpeg (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
Mainly used on the web, principally to reduce size of image and lessen download time, compression
is built into the jpeg format. It is not suitable for images with sharp borders and uses lossy
compression (loss of some of original data), and supports full colour.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
Mainly used on web for images with sharp content such as logos and screenshots. It utilises non-
lossy compression which is built into the format. Interlacing and animationpossible.

Questions
    56. What kind of compression does a TIFF use and how large are its file sizes?
    57. Why are JPEG graphics used on the web?
    58. How many colours are available for a GIF graphic?
    59. Why is compression necessary?

Audio file types
MP3 (Motion Picture Experts Group, Layer 3)
This is a digital audio compression format, and it can reduce an original sound file to ten to fifteen
times smaller than the parent file, by eliminating waveforms that the human ear cannot process. The
small file that is produced is easy and quick to download and is perfect for web use. It is used
extensively on music websites. You will need an MP3 player to listen to the files.

MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
This is essentially a communication standard between electronic musical instruments and
computers. It does not store sampled sound, it stores binary signals (instructions). MIDI files
download fast and take up little space in memory. They are much smaller than digital audio files as
they store instructions on how to recreate sounds. The sound card takes these instructions and plays
the notes from a bank of pre-recorded sounds. The advantage of a MIDI sequencer is that it allows
the user to record and edit a musical performance without using an audio-based input source.

Video file size and quality
Video file size and quality of playback are affected by:
•        frame rate
•        window size
•        compression.

Frame rate
One frame is one complete picture within the reel of a film. Moving pictures need many frames to
be shown in one second in order to produce the effect of motion. The unit of measurement used is
the ‘frame rate’, which is in frames per second. Film has twenty-four frames per second but must be
adjusted to match the display rate of the video system. The higher the frame rate, the smoother the
film will appear to be, but this will also require higher bandwidth for playback and increased storage
(file size). For multimedia and web production the typical frame rate is 15–30 frames per second,
with a key frame included so that the audio and video can be synchronised every 15 frames to
prevent overlap problems. Some formats are shown below:
•         NTSC: 30 frames per second (USA)
•         PAL: 25 frames per second (Europe)
                                                Page | 45
•       Quick Time for Windows: 15 frames per second (.mov)
•       Video for Windows: 15 frames per second (.avi)
•       MPEG: 30 frames per second (international standard).

Window size
Digital video has to store lots of information about each frame. The smaller the window size, the less
time is needed to draw all the pixels. However, if the window size is large, there may not be
sufficient time to display a complete image in a single frame before the next frame appears. So you
will need to choose an appropriate window size that results in a smooth display. By reducing the
window size you will also reduce the amount of data and therefore reduce the file size.
So choose an appropriate window size for efficient display.

Compression
For video to be delivered over the web it is imperative that the file be compressed. Compression will
reduce the video and audio file size to a more realistic delivery size. Large bandwidth and connection
speeds also play a significant role.
As well as reducing window size to compress the file, encoding is used, involving a codec
(compressor/decompress-or). Codecs work by removing data from the file and replacing this data
when it is decompressed at the user’s end.
During compression you will select a quality setting, generally on a scale value of 1–5. A lower
setting will give greater compression and small file size but weaker overall quality. Tables of file sizes
and quality for various codecs can be obtained from digital video websites and magazines.

MPEG (Moving Picture Expert Group) video
MPEG was developed as an international standard for use in CD-ROMs and video games. The files
are large (30 frames per second), and they output high-quality playback. MPEG requires special
hardware to digitise video and specific hardware to playback video. A major disadvantage is that it is
not compatible with the Apple Mac platform whereas Quick Time is, and different computer
manufacturers (Compaq, IBM) have different playback hardware.

Questions
    60. What are the characteristics of an MP3 file?
    61. How is a MIDI file structured?
    62. What is the advantage of a MIDI sequencer?
    63. Explain what the video frame rate is?
    64. How can a window size affect the quality of a video?
    65. What is a CODEC?
    66. Why was MPEG (Video) developed?
    67. What is a limitation of MPEG (Video)?

Structure of a URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
A multimedia application may include hyperlinks to websites. These are identified by a URL – or
uniform resource locator. A URL uniquely specifies the address of a file on the web. The actual URL is
a set of four numbers (209.222.546.888), but these are difficult to use and remember, so each
address is represented in alphanumeric form.
URL format: Protocol://host name/path/filename
For example:
http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/edresources/edu.doc

So the structure of the URL is:
        Protocol = Hypertext Transfer Protocol = http
        Host name = www.ltscotland.org.uk
                                                Page | 46
        Host computer = World Wide Web = www Domain name = ltscotland
        Domain type = organisation in united kingdom = .org.uk
        Path name = edresources
        File = edu.doc

Protocols
Web pages are constructed in HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language). They are served from an http
server.
Host name
The host name includes the host computer, domain name and domain type. There are many domain
types (.com,.co.uk,.ac,.fr(French) etc.)
Path name
This specifies the location of the file on the computer system.
Absolute URL
A URL that has a fully qualified domain name is an ‘absolute URL’, which would include the host
name, and the full path name of the file. The example we looked at previously is an absolute URL:
         http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/edresources/edu.doc
This URL has specified the http service on the system www, which is located at the ltscotland.org.uk
domain, and is asking for file edu.doc which is in the edresources directory.

Relative URL
A relative URL is the location of a file relative to the location of the file being currently used. The
directions refer to where you are starting from, so the relative URL does not need to specify the
protocol or machine name:
         /edresources/edu.doc
This points to the folder edresources; in this folder is the file edu.doc; the relative URL for this
example only needs the folder name and the file name. The browser assumes the current server is
the requested computer system, and this can be embedded in the web page:
<A HREF= “edresourc

Questions
   68. Explain why we use a URL.
   69. Explain the parts of this URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/scottishnews.html
   70. What is an absolute URL?
   71. What is a relative URL?




                                                Page | 47
Topic 7 - Testing
Testing
Testing a multimedia application involves examining each function to check that it meets a specified
performance or quality level. Testing is also used to ensure that all components and functions work
individually and as an ensemble according to the original design.

Four different types of testing will be looked at:
    screen testing
    integration testing
    acceptance testing
    usability testing.

Screen testing
Each separate screen must be tested in the application, to ensure it matches the design and
functions correctly. The criteria are:-.
Layout matches design, buttons and navigational functions work, texts, fonts, colours and sizes
match the original design specification, scroll functions, video and audio clips run without any
problems, non-functioning controls grey out when not needed, visible continuity between screens,
any applets operate correctly, text has been spell-checked.


Integration testing
After testing every screen independently, the purpose of integration testing is to ensure that they all
work together.
Acceptance testing
This will be performed by the client, who will test the finished application to ensure that it does
what the original contract specifies. Satisfying the acceptance test regime will result in the client
‘signing off’ the project, or formally agreeing that the contract has been successfully completed.
Usability testing
This evaluates the application’s ‘usability’. A selected group of users will work on typical tasks that
are relevant to the application. They will evaluate how easily the application allows users to recover
from mistakes, and whether the interface is ‘user friendly’ or aesthetically pleasing. A checklist can
be given to each participant and the results evaluated. In the testing of the application’s usability,
attention must be given to the needs of users with a disability.

Questions
   72. What is the purpose of screen testing?
   73. What is the purpose of Integration testing?
   74. Who carries out acceptance testing?
   75. What will usability testing check for?

Project development documentation
During the development process, various types of documentation should be produced. This falls into
two main groups: project development documentation (for use by the present and future
developers), and user documentation (for use by users of the application).
Project development documentation includes the requirements specification, navigation maps,
storyboards and a record of testing.
Requirements specification
This is the formal document agreed between the client and the developer. This specification can be
used as a checklist to ensure all criteria have been met.
                                                Page | 48
Navigational maps
A navigational map shows the links between screens and should define the structure and flow of the
presentation or application.
Record of testing
A test strategy document should be created at the design stage:
A careful record should be made of all tests carried out, detailing expected and actual results. If
there are any discrepancies these should also be explained.

Questions
   76. What is likely to be found in project development documentation?
   77. Why do you think the requirements specification is revisited at this stage?
   78. What is a navigational map?
   79. Why is a record of testing made?

User Documentation
User Documentation will include hardware and software system requirements, and user
instructions/guide.
Hardware and software system requirements
The hardware and software system requirements describe to the user the minimum requirements to
run the application.
User guide/instructions
Instructions for running the application will have to be included in the finished documentation. This
should include a detailed set of instructions for running the software, and highlighting frequently
asked questions (FAQs).

Questions
   80. What will user documentation include?
   81. What will the hardware and software requirements describe?
   82. What is likely to be found in the user guide?

Evaluation of multimedia application
Every multimedia application should be evaluated in terms of fitness for purpose, accessibility and
clarity of presentation.

Fitness for purpose
•      Does the application do what it is intended to do?
•      Has the designer designed the best solution for the problem?
•      Does the application work in an efficient manner?
•      Is the application robust?
•      Is the application easily maintained?
•      Has a technical and user guide been provided?

Accessibility
Some users may have disabilities, and applications should be designed to reflect the best agreed
practice in this area. These include:

•       Text: Use of clear/resizable fonts
•       Audio: Include captions, avoid conveying information with sound only
•       Audio: Include volume controls
•       Images: Offer best possible resolution
•       Images: Provide a zoom feature

                                              Page | 49
•       Provide full descriptions for graphs and diagrams
•       Avoid flickering on screen
•       Choose good colour combinations.

Clarity of presentation
•       Navigational elements should be always visible
•       Screen should be arranged in a symmetrical manner
•       Each transition should flow coherently
•       Colours should be appropriate to the topic.

Evaluation is an iterative process, and may lead to improvements and development of the
application in future versions.

Questions
   83. What should every multimedia application be evaluated in terms of?
   84. What is the main test of Fitness for Purpose?
   85. What group is covered by accessibility?
   86. Why is evaluation important?


Copyright
Any multimedia application must comply with copyright legislation.
Rigorous attention should be paid to copyright and intellectual property issues. You should be aware
of the laws relating to the use of copyright material in any commercial product.

The Copyright, Design and Patents Act is the most relevant UK legislation. Wherever possible public
domain material (or material where the copyright holder has granted a waiver) should be used.
Failing this, copyright holders should be contacted and permission sought to use their material.

The essence of copyright
Copyright is intended to provide access to works whilst protecting the rights of their original authors.
In other words it encourages people to write, make and play music, create art and digital works like
software and web sites. One is usually charged money to access copyright material (buy a book, CD,
work of art or even pay admission to a concert or gallery) and the originating artist receives money
or royalties when the work is accessed for money.

Copyright Laws
These laws exist to protect the owners of copyright work from anyone who wishes to use their work
and ensure that either they receive due recompense or the user can be prosecuted under the
copyright laws.

Copyright Licences
You can use copyright material if you own a licence to use it. For example anyone can copy up to 5%
of a book. You can buy a licence to use material found in newspapers and magazines but a fair use
policy allows you to quote from books and newspapers and use free of charge a certain percentage
of individual articles. If you want to use other people’s work you must have their permission or in
the case of larger organisations buy a licencse.

Copyright Designs and Patents Act
With the increasing use of computers material can be copied very easily. Increasing use of the
Internet for downloading music, video and images can lead to copyright infringement. Also of

                                               Page | 50
interest to us is the software we use. It is an offence under the CDPA to give a copy of software or
use a copy of software without the appropriate licence.
Freeware is usually free to use without restriction.
Shareware is usually free to use for 30 or 90 days and then either a fee or donation should be given
to the authors if you want to carry on using it.

Protection of your own materials
If you genuinely originate an application then there are parts of a multimedia application that can be
copyrighted. Any part that you originate (original text, photos, videos etc. can be copyrighted.
Copyright is assumed for all original material. The duration of copyright is the length of your lifetime
although published books, music etc. is often copyrighted for 50 or 75 years after the author’s death.

Legal redress
Owners of commercially copyrighted materials can and do sue companies and individuals who break
the copyright. Examples are an organizations using unlicensed software, web sites uploading
thousands of music tracks and giving them away. Damages can be very high in the most serious
cases but individuals are likely to have their computer equipment confiscated and be banned from
the Internet.


Means of tracing copyrighted materials
 Enforced on-line registration
Often when you download software from the Internet and pay for it you find you cannot use it
straight away. The software often goes onto the Internet and makes you register the software,
usually by entering a serial number that has been sent to you in an e-mail.
Digital watermarking is the process of possibly irreversibly embedding information into a
digital signal. The signal may be audio, pictures or video, for example. If the signal is copied, then the
information is also carried in the copy.
In visible watermarking, the information is visible in the picture or video. Typically, the information
is text or a logo which identifies the owner of the media. In invisible watermarking, information is
added as digital data to audio, picture or video, but it cannot be perceived as such (although it is
possible to detect the hidden information). An important application of invisible watermarking is to
copyright protection systems, which are intended to prevent or deter unauthorised copying of digital
media.

Questions
   87. Why is copyright necessary?
   88. What is the essence of copyright?
   89. Why do copyright laws exist?
   90. How does the Copyright Designs and Patents Act relate to the use of software?
   91. How may one obtain legal redress for breaking copyright?
   92. Explain the use of digital watermarking.




                                                Page | 51
Chapter 4 – Focus On The External Exam
The first step in your preparations is to be clear about the structure of the exam.

The Structure of the Exam

The exam is out of 140 marks and is broken down into three sections.

Section I: Short response, core units
This section contains a total of 30 marks on the Database and Using Information units, 15 marks
each. The structure of section 1 is very similar to your NAB questions where the ratio of Knowledge
and Understanding to Problem Solving is roughly 2:1. The level of difficulty is also similar to your
NAB questions.

Section II: Extended Response Core Units
This section contains a total of 60 marks on the Database and Using Information units, around 30
marks each. Here the ratio of Knowledge and Understanding to Problem Solving is roughly 1:2, in
other words the reverse of section I. These questions are more challenging than section I and
around 20 out of 60 of the marks are aimed at candidates looking for an A pass. One of the database
questions will be a normalisation question where you will be given the UNF with a candidate key and
have to find 1NF, 2NF and 3NF with all primary and foreign keys correctly identified. This question
usually takes around 20 of the 30 marks available for database.

Section III: Extended Response, Optional Unit.
This section contains a total of 50 marks on your optional unit, Applied Multimedia. All three
options are represented in the paper but please ignore the other two as you know nothing about
them apart from general knowledge and that will not help you answer the in-depth questions. The
questions here are more challenging than Section I with around 20 out of 50 of the marks being
aimed at candidates looking for an A pass. These questions will usually contain a few marks (usually
5 or 6) on material drawn down from the core units to allow candidates to show they can integrate
the knowledge of the whole course.

The questions in sections II and III may also ask for answers referring to the themes of the course, as
stated in the course outline. The themes of the course are:
     The characteristics of information

       Information in decision making

       An ethos of practical problem solving

       Technological developments in information systems

       Social, professional, ethical and legal implications associated with information systems

Candidates tackle all questions. There are no choices to be made, other that choosing the correct
option in section III to be completed.

The Importance of Your Coursework Mark
At some point in the course your teacher will have given you a piece of coursework, worth 60 marks,
to complete. It is important that you work very hard at this task and be very meticulous and gain as
high a mark as possible because this mark is added to your exam mark out of 140. The total is
                                                Page | 52
halved to get your final percentage. The cut-offs are usually 45% for a D pass, 50% for a C pass, 60%
for a B pass and 70% for an A pass.

Exam Preparation Tips
Now that you know what is involved in the exam, the next step is to consider a few tips on preparing
for the exam.
      Check your resources and make sure you have enough materials for revision (including on-
         line resources such as Moodle and Scholar).
      Use a checklist to make sure you cover all the topics in the exam.
      Learn the definition of all the topics in the books.
      The course is full of jargon and its own use of language. Treat it like learning a foreign
         language where you have to learn everything.
      Check that your knowledge is up to standard by answering all the questions in the book.
      Read the problem solving section carefully, playing close attention to the examples and
         answers to the questions.
      Draw up a revision plan well in advance of the exam, scheduling your revision so that you
         can cover it all without leaving it to the last minute.

Remember: You don’t pass the exam on the day you sit it but in the weeks and months beforehand
when you are preparing yourself by studying and revising.

Focus on Problem Solving
A key part of passing Higher Information Systems is developing your problem solving skills.

The questions in the first part of the exam test your knowledge and understanding of the content of
the units.

Those questions test whether you can, for example, identify, describe, name or state, list, describe,
summarise, interpret the terms in the content grids.

Examples
    Explain the difference between data and information.
    Name the Act of Parliament under which anyone intercepting electronic communications
      can be prosecuted.
    Why are Gantt charts useful in Project Management Software?

The problem solving questions you will have to answer in the course of the examination will test the
more advanced set of skills set out below.

Application of Knowledge
Some questions will test whether you can apply your knowledge to situations that are unfamiliar to
you. These questions will use words like demonstrate, show, relate, explain.

Examples
    The colours of an image change slightly when viewed on different computers. Why is this
      and what can be done to solve the problem?
    Explain why supporting legacy systems and future proofing may help overcome some of the
      problems associated with upgrading computer hardware and software.




                                               Page | 53
Analysis
Other questions test your skills of analysis to see if you can identify pattern or recognise
relationships. These questions often use words like analyse, arrange, order, explain, connect, infer,
compare, categorise.

Examples
    Your 3NF question is the main source of analysis questions in section II.
    Compare a local area network with a wide area network.

Synthesis
This type of question tests whether you can apply your knowledge to draw conclusions, generalise,
create new ideas, bring together from different sources and predict what will happen in given
situations. This type of question asks you to integrate, modify, design, compose, plan, arrange.
Generally speaking pupils find these type of questions very difficult.

Examples
    A quite complex question has been used which paints a scenario and asks you to develop
      either a storyboard or structure (Applied Multimedia).
    A scenario is painted relating to database, for example a library system. The question asks
      to name the tables and fields used in a report or the tables and criteria needed for a query.

Evaluation
Evaluation questions test whether you can make judgements, assess ideas, compare ideas, and
evaluate data. This type of question uses words like judge, evaluate, recommend and justify.

Examples
    Suggest an appropriate multimedia delivery system for a simulation that trains tank drivers.
    Recommend the type of application needed to produce GANTT and PERT charts.




                                              Page | 54
Practice Exam Type Questions.
We will start with 30 marks worth of mostly knowledge and Understanding Section I type questions,
followed by 60 marks worth of more complex problem solving section II questions. Section II usually
starts with a database question asking you to take a UNF to 3NF. This is usually worth around 20
marks. You are always given the correct key to use. Finally we will include 50 marks of typical
Applied Multimedia questions containing a mixture of the two types of question.

Section I

    1.                                                                                            A
         library’s database of members has been created from data in an un-normalised form. The
         diagram below shows three records from a table in the database.

Member              Member           Book                Author         Date Borrowed Date
Number              Name             Name                Name                         Due Back
12314               John Potts       Fly Fishing         J P Hartley    22/04/2009    6/5/09
09721               Emily Bronte     Elegant Dressing    M A Snob       1/5/09        15/5/09
00576               Jim Smith        Management          B DeVere       4/5/09        18/5/09

         (a)                                                                                      Choose
               a suitable primary key for his table. Give one reason for your choice.            2
         (b)                                                                                      Describ
               e one problem with deleting a book from this table.                               2

    2.                                                                                            Explain
         what is meant by a Boolean Data type                                                    2
    3.                                                                                            Explain
         what is meant by entity integrity.                                                      2
    4.                                                                                            Explain
         what is meant by a compound key.                                                        2
    5.                                                                                            What is
         meant by cardinality?                                                                   2
    6.                                                                                            What is
         meant by referential integrity with regard to foreign keys?                             3
    7.                                                                                            Explain
         the difference between data and information.                                            2
    8.                                                                                            State
         two advantages of using a template in presentation software.                            2
    9.                                                                                            Give
         one example of metadata.                                                                1




                                                 Page | 55
10.                                                                                          J
      ane has a problem using her new web design software. State two means by which
      Jane could receive user support for this application.                                 2

11.                                                                                          Explain
      the purpose of an executive management system.                                        2
12.                                                                                           S
      tate two areas of software content covered by the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988.
                                                                                             2

13.                                                                                          A
      bank issues monthly statement to current account holders. These statements show
      each transaction and a balance.

      (a)                                                                                    What is
            the nature of this information?                                                 2
      (b)                                                                                    What is
            the form and type of this information?                                          2
                                                                             Total Marks (30)




                                              Page | 56
Section 2
   14. Aberdon Electrics supplies local customers with electrical goods. Customer orders are
       recorded on an order card as shown. Details of all items are stored on stack cards. Each
       item is obtained from a single supplier. Parts of these cards are shown below.


   Customer No. : 1234
   Customer Name : John McBride
   Address : 57 High Street, Aberdon
   Telephone : 01349 886532
   Order Date : 28/4/09

     Item Number             Number Ordered
     33245                   12
     32456                   4
     26785                   5


                                             Stock Card
   Item      Description        Supplier Name Supplier Address          Supplier         Price
 Number                                                                Telephone
  33245            Freezer          Acme               Industrial     01349 864323      £189.99
                                Refrigeration       Estate, Aberdon
  32456      Tumble Dryer          Ariston           Ariston House,     0120 456        £125.00
                                                      London W24          7432
  26785            Toaster     Beco Industries         Well Road,       0117 256        £11.99
                                                        Blackwell         7123

   (a) The present system can be represented in un-normalised form as:

       Customer No
       Customer Name
       Customer Address
       Customer Telephone
       Order Date
       Item Number
       Number Ordered
       Description
       Supplier Name
       Supplier Address
       Supplier Telephone
       Price

             (i)     Using Customer No as the primary key, transform this un-normalised data to   3
                     first normal form by removing repeating groups.

             (ii) Identify all primary and foreign keys.                                          3

       (b)   (i)     Transform the first normal form to second normal form by removing partial    4
                     dependencies

                                                 Page | 57
                      (ii) Identify all primary and foreign keys.                                         2

              (c)     (i)    Transform this second normal form to third normal form by removing non-      3
                             key dependencies.

                      (ii) Identify all primary and foreign keys.                                         2



      15. Box Stupid rent out TVs to students and pensioners across the country. They use a relational
          database. The data is held in the following tables.

              TV                         Customer                   Rental                Charge
              Identity Number            Customer Number            Customer Number*      Type
              Make                       Customer Name              Identity Number*      Cost per week
              Model                      Customer Address           Date Rented
              Type*                                                 Number of weeks

(a)                 Draw an entity relationship diagram to represent this data model.                     6
(b)                 Each month a report is produced to show the rental income from each model of TV.
                    The report for Sony 32QS is shown below.
                     Date Rented                 Number of Weeks             Income
                     1/10/07                     12                          £48.00
                     3/11/07                     20                          £80.00
                     4/12/07                     10                          £40.00
                                                 Total                       £168.00
       (ii)         Name the tables and fields which would be used to produce this report.                5

       (ii)         State two features of the RDBMS which would be used to calculate the monthly
                    total from the income.                                                                2

      16. Beezer Enterprises uses a network file server to hold the specialist software regularly used
          by each department along with the work of each employee stored in home directories.

              (a)            Describe a suitable backup strategy for this system. Your answer should      5
                             describe a storage method, a recovery method and a rotation method.

              (b)     (i)    The Head office is concerned about the security of the system. Describe      2
                             two ways in which security can be improved.
                      (ii)   New employees need to be trained to use the company’s software.              2
                             Describe two methods of providing training.

                      (iii) The network file server and the computer work stations both require           4
                            versions of the network software. Describe the different versions of the
                            network software.

              (c)            Head office recommends that all word processed documents conform to a
                             house style.

                      (i)    State two features of a house style.                                         2

                      (ii)   Describe the difference between serif and san serif fonts.                   2

                                                        Page | 58
             (iii) Describe the easiest way of enabling users to make use of the house style.       2

17. The way in which shops and customers interact has changed because of the development of
    the Internet.

      (a) Describe two changes brought about by this development                                4
      (b) Schools may block Internet content that they deem inappropriate. Describe two
          implications of this action.                                                          4

18. Identify two characteristics of tactical management.                                        2

                                                                                          Total Marks (60)


Optional Topic – Applied Multimedia

19. A computer manufacturer provides access on its web site to an online photograph of each
    model.

      (a)                                                                                       Th
          e graphics were saved in JPEG format. Give two reasons for choosing JPEG rather than
          TIFF or GIF in this situation.                                                       2
      (b)                                                                                       Th
          e colour in the photographs appears differently on different computers. Why is this and
          what can be done to solve this problem?                                              3
      (c)                                                                                       Th
          e technical details of the Optium XL computer on the web site can be found at:

      http://www.eurocomputers.com/optiumxl/tech.pdf

      (i)                                                                                         Id
               entify and name three parts of the structure of this URL.                         3
      (ii)                                                                                        St
               ate whether this is an absolute or relative URL and justify your choice.          2

20.                                                                                                 A
      tourist board has been given funding to produce a DVD about the area it serves. It was
      originally conceived that the DVD would be mailed to interested members of the public but
      now many people are saying it should be a web site. The DVD and web site will contain
      around 500 pages and the compromise was reached to produce a DVD accessible through a
      web browser and upload the linked HTML pages to a web site.

(a)                                                                                            A
      udience and timescale are two items contained in a contractual requirements specification.
      State three other items found in a contractual requirements specification and give an
      example of each from the paragraph above.                                               6

(b)                                                                                     St
      ate one advantage and one disadvantage that a DVD-ROM has compared to the World Wide
      Web for showcasing tourist attractions.                                          2

(c)                                                                                                 D
                                             Page | 59
       escribe two methods of avoiding getting lost in hyperspace that a user could expect to find in
       a site of such complexity.                                                                4


(d)                                                                                               O
       nce completed the product will be tested.
(i)                                                                                               D
           escribe the screen testing that would be carried out on a sample screen.              2
(ii)                                                                                              St
           ate one form of testing that would normally be carried out by persons outside the
           development team.                                                                     1




                                             Page | 60
       (e)                                                                                               A
              udio clips of tourist talking about the area are to be included in the presentation. The
              developers could use MP3 or MIDI sound files. State a suitable sound file to use and justify
              your choice.                                                                              3

       (f)                                                                                          W
              ith reference to two characteristics of information compare the DVD-ROM and the Website.
                                                                                                   2

21.                                                                                                   A
        shopping web site stores all its products in database that users can browse on-line. When they
        choose goods the goods are placed a shopping cart, symbolised by a trolley. When they move
        to checkout they are taken to a secure area of the web site where they can enter their credit
        card number to pay for the goods.

      (a)                                                                                               A
              metaphor has been used in this web site.
              (i)                                                                                       Ex
                    plain what is meant by a metaphor in multimedia.                                   2
              (ii)                                                                                      D
                    escribe the metaphor used in this case.                                            2

      (b)                                                                                               N
              ame the three elements needed for Internet Shopping.                                     3

      (c)                                                                                               Th
              e colour images of all the products on the site have been stored as JPEG.
       (i)                                                                                               Gi
                  ve one reason for choosing JPEG as a file type rather than TIFF in this case.        2
       (ii)                                                                                              Th
                  e designers could have used a GIF file type but this could have created a problem with
                  colour depth.
                  (A)                                                                                    A
                      GIF file has a lower colour depth than a JPEG. Describe one problem with using a
                      lower colour depth to display photographs.                                       2
                  (B)                                                                                    Di
                      thering can be used to improve the appearance of images with a low colour depth.
                      Explain what is meant by dithering.                                              2

      (d)                                                                                               To
              prevent fraud the Web Site employs certain security methods at the checkout stage.
               (i) Name and describe one security method that the customer will use.                   2
              (ii) Name a security method employed to keep the data safe during transmission.          1

22.                                                                                                 Pr
        eserving copyright can be very important in multimedia so many presentations are fitted with a
        digital watermark.

        (a)                                                                                             W

                                                    Page | 61
      hat is a digital watermark?                                        1
(b)                                                                       St
      ate the main purpose of using a digital watermark.                 2
(c)                                                                       In
      general what is covered by copyright?                              1

                                                           Total Marks (50)




                                          Page | 62
Answers

Questions in the text

Database
   1.    Linked tables
   2.    Data cannot be added due to the absence of linked data.
   3.    If a record is deleted then other data may also be lost.
   4.    Items of data, such as a name and address, can appear many times.
   5.    An entity is a collection of attributes describing a person or object.
   6.    An attribute is a single item of data in an entity.
   7.    Cardinality is the data relationship between two entities.
   8.    A candidate key is a key than can be used to uniquely identify a record.
   9.    A primary key uniquely identifies a record.
   10.   A foreign key is an attribute in one entity that is a primary key in another entity.
   11.   A surrogate key is a key made up when there are too many attributes to make up a unique
         key.
   12.   An attribute cannot exist as a foreign key in one entity unless it already exists as a primary
         key in another entity.
   13.   A compound key.
   14.   A repeating group.
   15.   A repeating group is removed to form a new entity.
   16.   Partial dependencies are removed.
   17.   Non key dependencies are removed.
   18.   Each column must be unique.
   19.   Each row must be unique.

         UNF                        1NF                        2NF                      3NF
Booking Ref                Booking Ref                Booking Ref                Member Number
Member Number              Member Number              Member Number              Member Name
Member Name                Member Name                Member Name                Member Address
Member Address             Member Address             Member Address             Member Telephone
Member Telephone           Member Telephone           Member Telephone           Number
Number                     Number                     Number
Property Ref                                                                     Booking Ref
Property Name              Property Ref               Property Ref               Member Number*
No of Beds                 Booking Ref*               Property Name
No Sleeps                  Property Name              No of Beds                 Property Ref
Date in                    No of Beds                 No Sleeps                  Property Name
No of Nights               No Sleeps                                             No of Beds
User Charge                Date in                    Booking Ref*               No Sleeps
                           No of Nights               Property Ref*
                           User Charge                Date In                    Booking Ref*
                                                      No of nights               Property Ref*
                                                      User Charge                Date In
                                                                                 No of nights
                                                                                 User Charge

   20. Each row is unique.


                                                Page | 63
   21. A data dictionary holds the information about each entity that you need to help you
       implement the database system.
   22. Entity, Attribute, Key, Data, Type, Required, Unique, Format, Validation
   23. A foreign key must always refer to a record that exists in another table.
   24. Presence check, Range Check, Restricted Choice.
   25. Real, currency, date time etc.
   26. Queries are used to interrogate your database.
   27. Forms are used to create a user interface that is better than seeing tables.
   28. Reports are used to allow us to produce printed copy in an atheistic pleasing manner.
   29. Can be used to add control.

Using Information
   1.    Data is raw unprocessed facts and figures that have no context or purposeful meaning.
   2.    Information is processed data that has meaning and a context.
   3.    Data has no context or meaning, information has meaning and a context.
   4.    Knowledge
   5.    Explicit is rules etc. Written down, tacit exists in the mind.
   6.    Metadata is data that describes data.
   7.    A card index system, a data dictionary, the directory of a disk.
   8.    Secondary and quantative.
   9.    Primary and informal.
   10.   Formal, future and annual
   11.   Formal and Qualitative
   12.   Quantative
   13.   Informal and Qualitative
   14.   Top level of Management; long time frame (up to 5 years); mixture of internal and external
         documents.
   15.   Middle level of Management; medium time frame (6 months up to 5 years); mostly internal
         and some external documents.
   16.   Lowest level of organisation; short time frame (daily up to 6 months); mostly internal
         documents.
   17.   The process of deciding, in advance, what has to be done and how it is to be done.
   18.   An objective is something that needs to be achieved.
   19.   A plan contains the activities or actions required to achieve the objective.
   20.   Control is the monitoring and evaluation of current progress against the steps of a
         predefined plan or standard.
   21.   The monitoring of progress against the plan, assessing the suitability of the plan itself and
         predicting future conditions.
   22.   Selecting an action or actions from those possible based on the information available.
   23.   Word processed e-mails or hand written.
   24.   Speech, formal meetings, informal meetings, talking on the phone and voice-mail messages.
   25.   Pictures, charts and graphs, presentations via data projects, DVD’s etc.
   26.   All the transactions made by all customers in a month.
   27.   All the transactions made by one customer in a month.
   28.   Customer balances in a report.
   29.   Valuable information need not cost much. Information costly to obtain may not have much
         value.
   30.   Conciseness and presentation.
   31.   Relevance and reliability.
   32.   Data processing system
   33.   Transactional Processing System that deals with day to day transactions.
   34.   Management information systems.

                                               Page | 64
35. MIS converts data from internal and external sources into information for managers.
36. Executive information system.
37. An EIS provides senior managers with a system to assist in taking strategic and tactical
    decisions.
38. A knowledge base, an inference engine and user interface.
39. A knowledge base stores all of the facts, rules and information needed to represent the
    knowledge of the expert. An inference engine interprets the rules and facts to find solutions
    to user queries. A user interface allows new knowledge to be entered and the system
    queried.
40. To store information in an active form as organisational memory. To create a mechanism
    that is not subject to human feelings, such as fatigue and worry. To generate solutions to
    specific problems that are too substantial and complex to be analysed by human beings in a
    short period of time.
41. A multi-user or network system is used.
42. Much easier to organise, edit, update and back-up the data. Communications are easier.
43. LAN in an office or building, WAN over a large area.
44. Device Sharing. Software Sharing. Data Sharing. Communication.
45. Client-Server Network - Central server stores data files and log-in details. Peer to Peer
    network: No central server, all stations equal. Cheaper, data less secure.
46. Allows the computer to send and receive data around the network.
47. Fibre Optic used to link over longer distances and to carry a very high bandwidth.
48. Server version controls the network, Workstation version connect computer to the network
    and its services.
49. This software keeps a track of network activity. It records user activity and workstation
    activity.
50. Data Security means keeping data safe from physical loss.
51. To keep their data safe from viruses and loss by other means.
52. Data Integrity means the correctness of the stored data.
53. Data Privacy means keeping data secret so that unauthorised users cannot access it.
54. Hacking is gaining unauthorised access to a computer information system. The offence is
    maliciously altering data or stealing information.
55. This involves flooding an organisation’s Internet server with a surprisingly large amount of
    requests for information (traffic).
56. A code of conduct is a set of rules for using a system.
57. Minimum length of 5 characters. Must consist of letters and numbers. Must not contain any
    words. Cannot be the same as the previous password and cannot use easily guessed strings
    of letters or numbers (e.g. 123456 and abcdef).
58. Placed between the server and the Internet connection (router). Can block sections of the
    network.
59. To keep card details secure in transmission.
60. 32 bit encryption.
61. Read – allows users to read files. Allows files to be made read only.
    Write – allows users to write (save) files.
    Create – allows users to create new files.
    Erase – allows users to erase files.
    Modify – allows users to modify files.
62. So that the most recent copy of the data can be recovered and restored in the event of data
    loss.
63. - The process of copying data from hard disk drives to tape or other media for long-term
    storage.
64. Data is saved in a form so that it can be restored to the computer and used by users.
65. The number of times the data is backed up in a period.

                                          Page | 65
66. Incremental or Grandfather, father son.
67. To ensure system has a reasonable life and does not need to be totally replaced too soon.
68. Will older s/w work with new operating systems etc? Will older h/w work with newer
    equipment (e.g. printers with computers)?
69. Any two from :-
 Are the peripheral devices compatible with the hardware and operating system?
 Does the network software support the hardware and operating system?
 Is the application software compatible with the operating system and computer?
 Is the hardware compatible with the operating system?
70. Old information systems running on out of date hardware and operating systems.
71. Software that allows data to be transferred between platforms.
72. Access to greater range of applications that might not be available on the given hardware
    platform.
73. By examining the number of useable features and evaluating against the criteria speed,
    compatibility usability, data migration, reliability, resource requirements and support.
74. Software can run on different computers with different operating systems.
75. Learning via a tutor in the workplace or an on-line tutorial.
76. Small groups of staff, within the company receive a training course delivered by IT staff.
77. Popular application software by a specialist training organisation.
78. Explains to the user what each feature of the software does, run by Internal (end user) and
    external (software vendors). FAQS is file that contains a list of commonly asked user queries
    about a piece of software.
79. Hardware incompatibility – upgraded computers do not run old software.
80. Software may need to be perfected and made bug free.
81. Centralised database is a single server at the heart of the operation, distributed is the
    database spread around on different servers.
82. Easier to manage and control and to back up.
83. Data is separated from the main business and used to predict and review.
84. To make the data used on a daily basis more manageable.
85. The nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information
    from data.
86. It uses machine learning, statistical and visualisation techniques to discover and present
    knowledge in a form, which is easily comprehensible to humans.
87. When a bank takes over another bank and wants to integrate the two systems, when a
    company owns lot of smaller companies each with their own system and wants to
    interrogate the data.
88. Any two from: - WP is used for generating text, while DTP tends to use pre-prepared text.
    DTP manages to handle text and graphics far more easily. WP can deal with multi-page
    documents but DTP handles multi-page documents far better. DTP files tend to be very
    large especially if real pictures are used.
89. Desk Top Publishing
90. Slides can hold a variety of multimedia objects. Slides can be sequenced - jump to using
    hyperlinks. Presentation s/w allows the user to create a slide show.
91. Software allows users to easily make up web pages. Deals easily with hyper-linking. Files
    written as HTML or XML code but WYSIWYG for authors.
92. Web sites can be uploaded to the Internet – worldwide audience, presentations confined to
    room or building.
93. Two from Cash flow forecast, statement of accounts, invoices, sales orders, purchase orders
    etc.
94. Record and analyse marks and results Keeping track of budgets and financial information.
95. A Macro is a sequence of instructions that can be used to automate complex or repetitive
    tasks.
                                          Page | 66
 96. To help manage a project.
 97. Identify activities in the project, assign and schedule activities, output as PERT or GANT
     charts.
 98. Software tools to help match up the materials, machine, people and money.
 99. Gant shows timings of each activity in a chart.
100. PERTT shows relationship between activities.
101. Used for very complicated processes like (managing a production line.
102. Textual notes and calendar, scheduling, and calculator programs.
103. Calendar, notes, reminders, calculator.
104. Characters, words, paragraphs or graphics objects.
105. File open save print, text wrapping round graphics.
106. Style, font and size.
107. Multi-page layout is when the software handles many pages for you.
108. A style sheet can ensure that all users of it use the same fonts, colours etc.
109. Serif fonts are like Times New Roman and have “curly bits” on the ends of letters going
     above or below the line of text. San serif do not have these bits.
110. Colour can enhance a document by making it visually appealing, bold and italic text can be
     used for emphasis.
111. Globalisation is the growing integration of economies and societies around the world.
112. Rapid economic growth and poverty reduction.
113. Increased inequality and produced environmental damage.
114. They can communicate via dedicated worldwide intranet enabling them to publish reports,
     memos etc & e: mail round the world.
115. Goods being unavailable or out of stock and very wary of over-pricing and long delivery
     times.
116. A credit card.
117. Cheaper prices, more choice, faster delivery.
118. They are often call centre based companies who advertise heavily on TV.
119. Much cheaper than staffing branches.
120. Anyone can interact socially with anyone else where they could not do this in person.
121. You run the risk of fraudsters and sexual predators trying to befriend you.
122. We feel we have a right to this privacy and web sites we visit should be our business.
123. Terrorists and criminals use e-mail and the internet to further their activities.
124. Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully, obtained only for lawful purposes,
     adequate, relevant and not excessive accurate and, kept up to date, not be kept for longer
     than is necessary, shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects.
125. Any two from National Security, Police and Health Service.
126. Any two from mailing lists, data for paying wages and club memberships.
127. Right to see any personal data held about them and have it corrected if it is wrong.
128. Data users have to register with the Data Protection Registrar and they must be willing to let
     data subjects see data held about them, but must amend any false data without charge.
129. (a) Registers the data and enforces the data protection act. (b) One who has data held
     about them.
130. Allows software to be legally installed on as many computers as the licence allows.
131. Shareware can be used for a certain period and then must be paid for but freeware can be
     used without charge.
132. Extracts from databases.
133. Music downloads must be paid for and copyright checked.
134. It allows organisations to monitor employees, e-mail and Web usage.
135. They do have the right to and justify it by their duty of care towards students and the fact
     that it is their system and they must protect all users.


                                           Page | 67
  136. We have the right to ask local authorities for minutes of meetings, decisions made and so
       on.
  137. No because a supermarket is a private company. The freedom of information act applies to
       public bodies as they must be transparent and held accountable.
  138. A risk assessment.
  139. The aim is to provide a safe and secure working environment.
  140. Investing in new computer systems and staff training.
  141. Benefits include increased productivity increased functionality and reports from the
       computerised system can save the expense of professionals.
  142. Employ a systems analyst who completes a feasibility study.
  143. Internet Ordering and Shopping.
  144. Computers, Software, Networking and Robots.
  145. Staff required, Paper, Ink cartridges, back-up media, Software licences and maintenance
       contracts.
  146. Visiting an illegal site by accident.
  147. They can be sued for lost revenue by music companies and they can be shut down by their
       ISP.
  148. The on-line vendors must apply security to their site.
  149. Credit card numbers travelling over the Internet.
  150. 32 bit encryption because it is unbreakable.
  151. The knowledge, skills and understanding to play an effective role in society at local, national
       and international levels.
  152. Being aware of global issues such as environment, commerce, politics and society in general.
  153. Newsgroups and e-mail links.

Applied Multimedia
   1. E-commerce is concerned with the buying and/or selling of something electronically, often
       through online transactions.
   2. A merchant account: this enables the user/seller to take credit card information from a
       prospective customer, online shopping cart: customers can order 24/7, transaction software:
       how the money is actually delivered.
   3. Text, Graphics, Video and Audio
   4. Saves time and money on attending meetings.
   5. Several people can work on complex problems at the same time, either separately or
       together.
   6. CD based and on-line packages.
   7. Graphics, photographs, sound and video are deployed to create realistic micro-worlds where
       users can attempt to understand and explore certain areas of training and education.
   8. Edutainment is defined as an experience that is both entertaining and educational.
   9. Up to 700MB of data and music.
   10. Up to 4.3GB of Video, usually full length movies.
   11. Computers designed for stand-alone public use.
   12. Airport, station, shops, museums and banks.
   13. Hybrid
   14. A head-set and glove.
   15. A project brief will list all the requirements for the type of multimedia application that is to
       be designed.
   16. The requirements specification is a formal document that provides the basis of a contract
       between the client and the developer.
   17. A clear understanding (for both parties) of exactly what is required from the multimedia
       application.


                                              Page | 68
18. So that a developer can create a presentation that will play on computers and software
    conforming to those standards.
19. Because the developer has to know the amount that can be spent on the project.
20. The way the screens will have to be linked to make a logical manner.
21. A composite or hybrid structure.
22. History, bookmarks and breadcrumbs.
23. This is essentially a ‘trail’ which has been left and can lead the user back to wherever they
    have originated.
24. Because the Internet contains such a vast amount of unrelated material.
25. AND narrows the search and OR widens the search.
26. The user interface is the way in which a human and a computer exchange information and
    instructions.
27. The user enters commands by typing on the keyboard. These commands are processed by
    the computer.
28. Requires the user to interact with the computer by selecting various options from a menu.
29. With a GUI the user can interact with the computer by using a mouse (pointing device),
    which enables manipulation of windows, icons and menus.
30. Metaphors can be used to give a visual expression of a function.
31. A wastebasket to symbolise deleted files, a picture of a disk to symbolise the hard disk.
32. To tell a user what they have done wrong so they can correct it.
33. When a user is presented with too much information at once.
34. A storyboard shows the design of a screen based presentation.
35. The outline storyboard will show the overall structure of the application whereas the
    detailed storyboard will contain all the elements that the finished prototype should cover.
36. To reduce or increase the gap between adjacent letters.
37. Anti-aliasing will make all objects appear as if they are of higher resolution.
38. Embedded fonts allow fonts that were originally used in the creation of the document to be
    embedded in the file, guaranteeing the end user the complete original document.
39. Dithering is the process of mixing pixels of two different colours in order to give a colour that
    is not in the palette.
40. Cathode ray tubes that do not generate light intensity that is proportional to the input
    voltage cause bleached out or too dark graphics.
41. Gamma correction can be applied.
42. When graphic files take a long time to download.
43. You can open it in a suitable player, can play the file as often as required and can fast
    forward and rewind.
44. You can play and listen to file immediately as it downloads.
45. The audio is played as it arrives over the Internet in real time.
46. Wide bandwidth (e.g. broadband).
47. On or below five hertz.
48. Presentation software can be used to edit and create linear multimedia presentations,
    authoring software allow time based and interactive presentations.
49. Scripting and icon based.
50. Design and handle all aspects of web management.
51. With an appropriate multimedia player.
52. The project manager is accountable for ensuring that the development meets the client’s
    requirements, is created to a high standard, all within the agreed budget and stipulated
    deadline.
53. This individual would have an in-depth knowledge of the particular subject, and will provide
    content for the application.
54. A Media expert is an expert at creating media elements within their own area of expertise.
55. The webmaster

                                           Page | 69
56.   Lossless compression but very large file sizes.
57.   To reduce size of image and lessen download time.
58.   256
59.   To reduce the size of an image and hence reduce download time.
60.   10 to 15 times smaller than original, lossy (removes sounds inaudible to human ear) and
      highly compressed.
61.   They store instructions on how to recreate sounds.
62.   It allows the user to record and edit a musical performance without using an audio-based
      input source.
63.   The number of frames per second in a video.
64.   The larger the window the more pixels needed for each frame and the worse quality the
      video by and large.
65.   Codecs are used in compression and decompression of media files. They are a sort of
      wrapper around a file telling the software what type and format the file is.
66.   MPEG was developed as an international standard for use in CD-ROMs and video games.
67.   Not compatible with Apple Mac hardware.
68.   Because we cannot use the up to 12 digit number that identifies web sites so we use a name
      given to it by the writers.
69.   Protocol http://, host www.bbc.co.uk, pathname news/scottishnews.html
70.   A URL that has a fully qualified domain name is an ‘absolute URL’, which would include the
      host name, and the full path name of the file.
71.   A relative URL is the location of a file relative to the location of the file being currently used.
72.   Each separate screen must be tested in the application, to ensure it matches the design and
      functions correctly.
73.   After testing every screen independently, the purpose of integration testing is to ensure that
      they all work together.
74.   The client.
75.   How easily the application allows users to recover from mistakes, and whether the interface
      is ‘user friendly’ or aesthetically pleasing.
76.   The requirements specification, navigation maps, storyboards and a record of testing.
77.   To check whether or not everything specified has been included and carried out.
78.   Shows the links between screens and should show the structure of the presentation.
79.   So the client can check the testing schedule’s rigour.
80.   Hardware and software system requirements and user guide.
81.   The minimum requirements to run the application.
82.   Detailed instructions for running the application and FAQs.
83.   Fitness for purpose, accessibility and clarity of presentation.
84.   Does the application do what it is intended to do?
85.   Disabled people.
86.   It may lead to improvements and development of the application in future versions.
87.   To protect authors of original work from others using it without recompense to the
      originator.
88.   Copyright is intended to provide access to works whilst protecting the rights of their original
      authors.
89.   To protect the owners of copyright work from anyone who wishes to use their work.
90.   Software can only be used in conjunction with a suitable licence.
91.   Individuals and companies can be sued.
92.   The process of possibly irreversibly embedding information into a digital signal.




                                              Page | 70
Practice Exam Type Questions
Section I
    1.     (a) Member Number as it is unique.
          (b) The member borrowing it may be deleted as well if it is the only book they had
          borrowed.
    2.    A data type that has only 1 of 2 possible values.
    3.    A foreign key in one entity is a primary key in another entity.
    4.    A key constructed of more than one attribute to uniquely identify an item in the entity.
    5.    Cardinality is the data relationship between two entities.
    6.    A foreign key must always refer to a record that exists in another table.
    7.    Data has structure or context, information is data that has been processed and given context
          and meaning.
    8.    It can save a developer a lot of time and all pages will have same structure.
    9.    The data dictionary, a card index in a library etc. (1 of)
    10.   A help desk, FAQs, a reference manual, on-line help (2 of)
    11.   Used by senior management to produce management reports.
    12.   Software must be used with a valid licence, shareware can be used for a certain time before
          paying for it, and freeware can be used free without limit of time.
    13.    (a) Formal, quantitative, present and periodic.
          (b) Written, detailed and aggregated.

Section II
14 Normalisation question – The “trick” here is to realise that Order Date is part of the repeating
group and part of the compound key.

UNF                   1NF                  2NF                 3NF
Customer No           Customer No          Customer No         Customer No
Customer Name         Customer Name        Customer Name       Customer Name
Customer              Customer             Customer            Customer
Address               Address              Address             Address
Customer              Customer             Customer            Customer
Telephone             Telephone            Telephone           Telephone
Order Date
Item Number           Item Number          Item Number*        Item Number*
Number Ordered        Order Date           Order Date          Order Date
Description           Customer No*         Customer No*        Customer No*
Supplier Name         Number Ordered       Number Ordered      Number Ordered
Supplier Address      Description
Supplier Tel          Supplier Name        Item Number         Item Number
Price                 Supplier Address     Description         Description
                      Supplier Tel         Supplier Name       Price
                      Price                Supplier Address    Supplier Name*
                                           Supplier Tel
                                           Price               Supplier Name
                                                               Supplier Address
                                                               Supplier Tel




                                               Page | 71
                   Charge
15 (a)
                                                                            Customer


                  TV



                                      Rental



Marks Customer to Rental 1:M (2), Charge to TV 1:M (2) and TV to rental 1:M (2). Lose 1 for no
notion of 1:M and 1 for each box in wrong order or incorrectly labelled.

(b (i)) From TV, Model and Type, From Rental, Date Rented and Number of Weeks, From Charge
Cost per week. 5 marks – 1 for each correct – must tie in table and correct entity.

(ii) A query to select the Sony 32QS and relevant dates (1mark) and a calculation in the report to
summarise and total the month’s rental (1 mark).

16 (a)            Suitable Storage includes DAT tape, USB or Firewire External hard Drive. (1)
                  Rotation methods describe Grandfather, Father, Son or Full weekly and daily
                  incremental. (2)
                  Recovery describe software required and e.g. “day 3 recover full backup and
                  2 days increments”. (2)                                                          (5)
     (b) (i)      Place a firewall between the server and the Internet(1) and describe
                  username and password system (1).                                                (2)

           (ii)   Describe 2 of on-the-job, on-line tutorial, external training courses.           (2)

           (iii) File server needs software to control and monitor the network (deal with
                 log-ones and file security etc) and workstation needs network software to
                 attach the computer to the network and use the network services (2 marks
                 for each well described)                                                          (4)

     (c)   (i)    Common page layout , same fonts, styles for headings and body text etc.
                  Similar colour schemes throughout etc. (any 2 well explained)                    (2)

           (ii)   Serif fonts have semi-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes
                  that make up letters and symbols. San serif fonts have plain ends of the         (2(
                  strokes.

           (ii)   A template with all the details required for the common page details can be
                  made up and all pages are based on this template.                                (2)

17 (a)            The Internet has made people who shop from home not able to interact with
                  their local shop staff. Home shoppers have a greater choice of goods, can
                  shop 24/7 and often get goods cheaper. 1 mark for each point.                    (4)
     (b)          Schools have no right to act as censors; schools have a right to protect young
                  people from inappropriate internet content.
                                                Page | 72
                   Schools have to balance what they allow and ban with allowing young
                   people to research for their education – why ban You Tube for example.
                   You need a for and against for two marks so twice for four.                          (4)
 18                Any two of middle management, medium term decisions, mixture of internal
                   and external documents.                                                              (2)

                                                                                       Total Marks (60)


Optional Topic – Applied Multimedia

 19 (a)            JPEG – Widely supported, Good colour depth and small file size (1 mark for            (2)
                   each)
      (b)          The colours presented on screen depend on the graphics hardware (1mark).
                   Gamma correction (1mark) is a technique which can adjust the colours specific
                   to the hardware used (1 mark).                                                        (3)
      (c)   (i)    Host name – http (1 mark), system www (1 mark), domain
                   eurocomputers.com (1 mark), path optiumxl (1mark), and file name tech.pdf
                   (1 mark) any 3 for marks.                                                             (3)
            (ii)   Absolute (1 mark) because the whole path name specified and can be linked
                   to from any location (1 mark).                                                        (2)

 20 (a)            Content, Delivery Media and Budget (1 for each)around 500 pages, Web site
                   or DVD, given funding (1 each)                                                        (6)
      (b)          DVD can be played on most modern computers, cheap to produce and light to
                   mail (1 for any one point) content cannot be updated, updates require a new
                   DVD. (1 mark)                                                                         (2)
      (c)          Describe bookmarking, history and breadcrumbs – any 2 but need good
                   description for 2 marks.                                                              (4)
      (d) (i)      Layout matches design, buttons and navigational functions work, texts, fonts,
                   colours and sizes match the original design specification, scroll functions, video
                   and audio clips run without any problems, non-functioning controls grey out
                   when not needed, visible continuity between screens, any applets operate
                   correctly, text has been spell-checked. Only 2 marks but probably need 2
                   points for 1 mark so 4 points for 2.                                                  (2)
            (i)    Acceptance testing                                                                    (1)
      (e)          MP3 (1 mark) Widely used format with lots of support, good compression, no
                   need for special player can use built in media player (any 2 for 2 marks)             (3)
      (f)          Accessibility (need DVD player v computer on the internet), timing
                   (information on DVD will go out of date but web site can be kept up to date
                   and availability etc. can be live). 2 marks for two points well explained.            (2)

 21 (a)     (i)    Metaphors give a visual expression of a function (1 mark) for example (any
                   good example) (1mark)                                                                 (2)
            (ii)   The shopping trolley depicted on the website (1mark) should resemble an
                   actual shopping trolley (1 mark).                                                     (2)
      (b)          A merchant account (retailer), a shopping cart and transaction software.              (3)
      (c) (i)      A jpeg has a very small file size while preserving good colour depth (1 mark)
                   while a TIFF has a very large file size making it slow to download. (1 mark)          (2)
            (ii)   A – A lower colour depth means that much fewer colours are displayed (256
                   for GIF 16million for JPEG) and the image can look weak and washed out.               (2)
                   B – Dithering is when a new colour can be created by taking an average of four

                                                 Page | 73
            surrounding pixels to create a fifth pixel.                                        (2)
   (d) (1) Customer will use username and password (1mark) and/or PIN number to
            access the secure are of the site (1mark)                                          (2)
       (ii) 32 bit encryption                                                                  (1)

22 (a)      the process of possibly irreversibly embedding information into a digital signal   (1)
   (b)      To prevent a music or video file from being downloaded and used or copied
            (1mark) without the copyright being broken (usually paid for) (1 mark)             (2)

   (c)      Original works by artists, authors, musicians, programme makers etc.               (1)


                                                                                Total Marks 50




                                         Page | 74
1NF                                 4       compound key                                3
2NF                                 5       Compression                                45
3NF                                 5       Computer Applications                      29
A definition of multimedia         32       Conciseness                                13
Absolute URL                       46       Conditional exemptions                     28
Acceptance testing                 47       Consistency and standards                  37
Access Rights                      17       content                                    35
Accessibilit                       48       Continuous                                 11
Accuracy                           13       Contravening Legislation on the Internet   31
Addition anomalies                  2       Control                                    12
Advantages to the database being            Conversion                                  8
   centralised.                    15       Copyright                                  49
Aggregate                           8       Copyright Designs and Patents Act          49
Aggregated                         12       Copyright Laws                             49
Annually                           11       Copyright Licences                         49
Anti-aliasing                      39       Copyright, Designs & Patents Act           29
Archive                            18       Cost                                       13
attributes                          3       Daily                                      11
Audio conferencing                 32       Data                                       10
Aural                              12       data dictionary                             6
Authoring software                 42       data inconsistency                          2
Availability / Accessibility       13       Data Integrity                             16
Avoiding information overload      38       Data mining                                21
Backtracking                       36       Data Privacy                               16
Backup Strategy                    18       Data Processing Systems                    14
Bookmarks                          36       Data Security                              16
Boolean                            37       Data verification                          18
Breadcrumbs                        36       Data Warehousing                           20
budget                             35       database                                    2
Business and ICT                   30       database management system                  2
Business Costs                     30       Date & Time can have many formats           8
calculated fields                   8       Decision Support Systems                   14
Calculations                        8       Decision-making                            12
candidate keys                      3       Deletion Anomalies                          2
cardinality                         3       delivery media                             35
CBT (Computer Based Training)      33       Denial of service                          16
CD-ROM                             33       Detailed                                   12
Censorship on The Internet.        30       Detailed storyboard                        39
Centralised database               20       Differences between WP and DTP             22
Centralised Database               15       Differing ability levels                   38
Changes From 1984 Act              28       Digital watermarking                       50
Characteristics of Information     13       Distributed Database                       20
Clarity of presentation            49       Distributed Networks                       15
Classes of Software                22       Dithering                                  39
Client-Server Network              15       Downloading audio                          40
Codes of conduct                   17       Downloading video                          40
Collaborative working              32       duplication of data                         2
Colour and graphics                39       DVD-ROM                                    33
command line interface             37       Easy correction of errors                  38
Completeness                       13       E-commerce                                 32

                                    Page | 75
Education                                    23       History                               36
Edutainment                                  33       Home entertainment                    33
Embedded fonts                               39       Home shopping                         33
Emulation                                    19       Home situation                        23
Encryption                               17, 31       Host name                             46
Enforced on-line registration                50       Hourly                                11
entity                                        3       How to gain a Competitive Advantage   30
Entity Integrity                              3       How Viruses Work                      16
entity relationship diagram                   6       hybrid                                36
essence of copyright                         49       Hybrids                               34
Ethical Implications of ICT                  30       ICT and Global Citizenship            31
Evaluation of multimedia application         48       Identities and Personas               27
Executive Information System                 14       In House                              19
Expert Systems                               14       inference engine                      14
External -                                   19       Informal Communication                11
FAQs                                         20       Information                           10
Financial Application                        23       Initial Costs                         30
Firewalls                                    17       Installation Guide                    19
Fitness for purpose                          48       Integration testing                   47
flat file                                     2       Integration Testing                   18
foreign key                                   3       jpeg                                  44
Form fill-in interface                       37       Kerning                               39
Formal Communication                         10       key                                    3
Format                                        8       Kiosk                                 33
Forms                                         9       Knowledge                             10
Forms of Information                         12       knowledge base                        14
Frame rate                                   44       Lack of functionality                 20
Frequency and Version Control                18       Legacy Systems                        18
Frequency of Information                     11       Level of Detail                       13
Functionality                                19       Levels of Information                 11
Future                                       11       Linear structure                      36
Future Proofing                              18       Local Area Network                    15
Gamma correction                             40       Logical                                8
Gant and PERTT charts                        23       lost in hyperspace                    36
GIF                                          44       Macro Use                             23
Globalisation                                26       Macros                                 9
Globalisation and Impact of IS on Social              Management Information Systems        14
   Structures                                26       Manuals                               19
Graphic file types                           43       Many-to-Many                           3
Graphical text -                             39       Mathematical                           8
GUI (graphical user interface)               37       Media specialists                     43
Hacking                                      16       Menu-driven interface                 37
Hardware & software compatibility            18       Metadata                              10
hardware and software requirements           35       Metaphors                             37
Hardware and software system requirements             MIDI                                  44
                                             48       Mobile communications                 34
Health and Safety Regulations                30       Modelling and Simulation              23
Health issues                                41       Modern IS driven businesses           26
Help Desk                                    20       Monthly                               11
Hierarchical structure                       36       MP3                                   44
Highlighting                                 36       MPEG (                                45
Historic                                     11       Multimedia delivery media             33

                                              Page | 76
Multimedia designer                         43       Protection of your own materials         50
Multimedia Players                          42       Protocols                                46
Multimedia programmer                       43       Providing feedback                       38
Multimedia simulations                      33       purpose                                  35
Nature                                      10       Qualitative Information                  11
Navigational maps                           48       Quantitative Information                 11
Navigational structures                     35       Queries                                   8
Network Adapter Card.                       15       Range Check                               8
Network Auditing and Monitoring Software             Reasons for Expert Systems               14
                                            16       Record of testing                        48
Network Operating System. – 2 parts         16       Recovery                                 18
Network Topology                            15       Reference Manual                         19
Newsgroups                                  20       Referential Integrity                     8
non-key dependencies                         5       Regulating the content of the Internet   31
Normalisation                                4       relational database                       3
Numbers can be formatted as Integer, Real,           relationships                             6
   Currency                                  8       Relative URL                             46
objective                                   12       Relevance / Appropriateness              13
Objects and Operations of Each class of              Reliability or Objectivity               13
   Software                                 24       repeating group                           4
One -to- Many                                3       Reports                                   9
One-to-one                                   3       Requirements specification               35
On-line Help                                20       Resource Allocation                      23
On-line Tutorials                           20       Responsibilities of Data Users           28
On-the-job                                  19       Restricted Choice                         8
Operational                                 11       Rights of Data Subjects                  28
Optimisation & Critical Path Analysis       23       Running Costs                            30
Outline storyboard                          39       Sampled                                  12
partial dependencies                         5       Screen testing                           47
Password guidelines                         17       Search                                    8
Path name                                   46       search facilities                        37
Peer to Peer network                        15       Searching                                 8
Performance                                 19       secondary source                         10
Periodic                                    11       Social Implications                      26
Personal Information Management             23       Software Evaluation                      19
plan                                        12       Software Incompatibility                 20
Planning                                    12       Software Licensing                       29
Presence Check                               8       Software Strategy                        19
Present                                     11       Sort                                      8
Presentation                                13       Sorting                                   8
Presentation software                       42       Spreadshee                               23
Presentations                           22, 32       Statistical Analysis                     23
primary key                                  3       Storage Methods                          18
primary source                              10       Strategic                                11
Print Media                                 22       Streaming audio                          40
Privacy                                     27       Streaming video                          40
Privacy and Encryption                      31       Structure of a URL                       45
Progressive scan                            40       Structured Cabling                       15
project brief                               35       Subject expert                           43
Project development documentation           47       summary fields                            8
Project Management                          23       surrogate key                             3
Project manager                             43       Tactical                                 11

                                             Page | 77
Teleconferencin                            32       Use of ICT in Citizenship     31
Text                                        8       User Documentation            48
The 1998 Data Protection Act               28       User guide/instructions       48
The Changing Relationships between Retailer         user interface                14
   and Customer                            26       User Interfaces               37
The Difference between Value and Cost 13            User Support                  19
The Effect of New ICT on Business          30       user/audience                 35
The Freedom of Information Act (Scotland)           Validation                     8
   2002                                    29       Value                         13
The Impact on Business of an IS Driven              Video conferencing            32
   Business Model                          26       Video file size and quality   44
The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act          Virtual reality               34
   2000                                    29       virus                         16
TIFF                                       44       Virus Protection              17
Time                                       11       Visual                        12
Time lining -                              23       Web Authoring                 22
timescale                                  35       Web palettes-                 39
Timing                                     13       Web structure                 36
Training in Using Software                 19       Webmaster                     43
Tutorial Guide                             19       Web-page applications         42
Types of Information                       12       Wide Area Network             15
Unconditional exemptions                   28       Window size                   45
UNF                                         4       Written                       12
Upgrade Strategy                           18       WWW (World Wide Web           33
Usability testing                          47




                                            Page | 78

				
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