BY: Andrew Chen
THE GLOBAL DIVIDE
In many parts of the world people are fighting starvation
Many of these people have to fight hunger by using
coping mechanisms –ex: Eritrean woman will strap flat
stones to their stomachs to lessen their hunger
Others live their whole life without even the thought of
A few centuries ago this great division did not exist.
I was not until the Industrial Revolution did the living
standard rise for so many people, but also was not
evenly distributed across the world.
Stratification in the World System
What is Stratification?
Stratification in the World System is the
division of the world’s countries according
Stratification in the World System
One great difference between the “developing” nations
and the “industrial” nations is that in countries like the
U.S and the other elite, the per capita gross national
income is $31,000, compared to the $900 or less in at
least 10 poorer countries (As of 2006).
Also these elite countries are continuing control the
world market through three major forces: the legacy of
colonialism, the advent of multinational corporations,
What are your ideas of what a industrialized
nation is and what a developing nation is
The Legacy of Colonialism
Colonialism has played a huge part on our early histories.
Now even though colonialism has disappeared, many
independent nations are still looking back on their former
providers for support. This lack of independence is due to
the lack of development in these countries, therefore
crippling them for self rule. Since these countries did not
have the development needed to industrialize they called
upon the support of the more industrialized countries. This
new type of dependency system is called neocolonialism
Through the forces of colonialism and neocolonialism a new
world structure has formed. At the heart or core of this
structure is where the power and wealth is held, countries in
the core include the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, and
the U.S. In the other end is the Periphery countries or the
where the resources are taken from. These countries include
Afghanistan, Chad, Egypt, and Haiti. Finally in the middle are
the Semi periphery where the countries have marginal
Even as the lesser countries become more modern they will
still be subservient to the core.
The integration of all these countries is called globalization.
Do you believe that Globalization is a natural
occurrence resulting from the
advancement of technology or as a
process that allows powerful nations to
Multinational Corporations are commercial organizations that are
headquartered in one country but do business throughout the world.
Though Corporations have been trading throughout the world for a long
time, now these powerful companies are not just trading but are producing
in other countries.
These Corporations are so powerful that their total revenues are on par
with the total value of goods services exchanged in some entire nations.
Also over 10 percent of all goods and services produced in the U.S relates
to the export of goods to foreign countries.
Functionalist View- Functionalist believe that Multinational
corporations can actually help the developing nations of the world by
bringing industry to those nations. Basically Multinationals take max
advantage while reducing cost and boosting profits
Conflict View- Conflict theorist believe that the Multinational
Corporations are actually exploiting the workers in search for the cheapest
labor. Companies like Nike changed their factories from country to country
to look for people who are willing to work for less. Also, due to the power
of these corporations many local entrepreneurs are put out of business and
also create economic inequality.
Are you a Functionalist or a conflict theorist
Almost 3 billion people a day subsist on $2 a day
Millennium Project – UN launched project to
eliminate extreme poverty in unfortunate
countries. They planed for Industrial Countries
to set aside 0.7 percent of their gross national
product for aid to the developing nations.
The money that people in the U.S sends back or
remittance is estimated at $199 billion twice the
total foreign aid from all countries.
Modernization is the far-reaching process by which
periphery nations move from traditional or less developed
institutions to those characteristic of more developed
These modern societies tend to be urban, literate, and
industrial. Also the families in these societies are more
nuclear rather than extended.
However this view is quite bias because why should these
countries what to become more like industrialized countries
such as the United States (as viewed from a conflict
Functionalist view Modernization as a good way for
developing nations to improve their lives. While critics see
modernization is just another way for the core nations to
exploit the developing ones further more.
Stratification in Mexico
Every year several hundred Mexicans die in the trek from Sonora in Mexico
to Arizona in America
But Why do all these people risk their lives to cross a border, the answer
lies in the effects of colonialism and neocolonialism.
Just to get an idea of the difference the gross national income of the U.S in
2005 is $41,950 while Mexico’s was only $10,030
In the U.S about 87% of adults have a high school education compared to
the 13 % in Mexico
In the U.S only about 6 out of every 1000 infants die compared to the 21
per 1000 infants in Mexico.
Although most of Mexico is poor it was also the 11th in the world in terms
of amount of the world’s wealthiest people. Making the gap between the
rich and poor extremely large for Mexico. Along with wealth class, race,
religion, gender, as well as age also divide the countries.
Race Relations in Mexico and
Status of Women
The Native Indians which amount to about 14 % of the Mexico’s population
are at a great disadvantage in Mexico. 90% of the Natives live in houses
without sewers and more of the percentage of the Indian population is
illiterate then any other racial group. Along with the Indians are the
descendents of the 200,000 Africans brought over for the slave trade.
On the other end the Criollos which make up 10% of the population are
typically white. They are well educated business owners and intellectuals
whom have ties back to Spain.
In the middle of it all are the mestizos, they make up the majority of the
Mexican population. They are the mix between the high class and the low
Though students are taught that all Mexican’s are equal a change from the
old ways is hard.
Women in Mexico are still not respected members of the work force and
usually receive the lowest ranked job they do make 44% of the labor force
and also 23% of the legislature which is higher then a great amount of
The Borderlands refers to the area Between the U.S and Mexico.
Due to the close relations between the two countries many
maquiladoras (factories) arise on the Mexican side of the border.
Because these factories do not have to pay taxes or give their
worker’s any benefits, it has attracted many North American
Though these factories have some benefits to the economy, conflict
theorist believe that the cost of exploitation of works and sexual
discrimination towards women is more great of the cost to society.
However just like America, due to lower wages in China about 42%
of the 700,000 jobs created by maquiladoras were eliminated from
Mexico. It is due to these losses in jobs and lack of payment do so
many of these workers cross the border to the U.S. They work
extremely hard after they come over and the money they send back
(remittances) are only second to oil, as a source of income for
Universal Human Rights
What Are Universal Human Rights?
Universal Human Rights is defined as the moral rights possessed by all
people because they are human.
The greatest elaboration of human rights was adopt by the UN in 1948 the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This prohibited slavery, torture, and
degrading punishment. As well as promised the establishment of some
Human rights has always been a huge issue since the beginning of our
countries history. During that time America was actually not supporting a
binding obligation to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, due to
segregation at that time. However as segregation disappeared the U.S used
it as a way to promote democracy.
But what is acceptable and what is not when it come to human rights?
Many countries argue that human rights should be different for each
country while the U.S believes that it is the universal law of the world.
Many traditions held by certain countries are considered violations of
human rights, but to the countries that perform these traditions its is not
just part of life, but of culture.
Do you believe that the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights should be implemented throughout the globe or
exceptions should be made?