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GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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					  GLOBAL
INEQUALITY
  BY: Andrew Chen
          THE GLOBAL DIVIDE
   In many parts of the world people are fighting starvation
   Many of these people have to fight hunger by using
    coping mechanisms –ex: Eritrean woman will strap flat
    stones to their stomachs to lessen their hunger
   Others live their whole life without even the thought of
    hunger.
   A few centuries ago this great division did not exist.
   I was not until the Industrial Revolution did the living
    standard rise for so many people, but also was not
    evenly distributed across the world.
Stratification in the World System
          What is Stratification?
Stratification in the World System is the
division of the world’s countries according
                  to wealth.
    Stratification in the World System
   One great difference between the “developing” nations
    and the “industrial” nations is that in countries like the
    U.S and the other elite, the per capita gross national
    income is $31,000, compared to the $900 or less in at
    least 10 poorer countries (As of 2006).
   Also these elite countries are continuing control the
    world market through three major forces: the legacy of
    colonialism, the advent of multinational corporations,
    and modernizations
             Discussion !
What are your ideas of what a industrialized
 nation is and what a developing nation is
                   ?????
       The Legacy of Colonialism
   Colonialism has played a huge part on our early histories.
    Now even though colonialism has disappeared, many
    independent nations are still looking back on their former
    providers for support. This lack of independence is due to
    the lack of development in these countries, therefore
    crippling them for self rule. Since these countries did not
    have the development needed to industrialize they called
    upon the support of the more industrialized countries. This
    new type of dependency system is called neocolonialism
   Through the forces of colonialism and neocolonialism a new
    world structure has formed. At the heart or core of this
    structure is where the power and wealth is held, countries in
    the core include the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, and
    the U.S. In the other end is the Periphery countries or the
    where the resources are taken from. These countries include
    Afghanistan, Chad, Egypt, and Haiti. Finally in the middle are
    the Semi periphery where the countries have marginal
    economic status.
   Even as the lesser countries become more modern they will
    still be subservient to the core.
   The integration of all these countries is called globalization.
             Discussion !!
Do you believe that Globalization is a natural
        occurrence resulting from the
     advancement of technology or as a
   process that allows powerful nations to
             expand unchecked?
        Multinational Corporations
  Multinational Corporations are commercial organizations that are
   headquartered in one country but do business throughout the world.
  Though Corporations have been trading throughout the world for a long
   time, now these powerful companies are not just trading but are producing
   in other countries.
  These Corporations are so powerful that their total revenues are on par
   with the total value of goods services exchanged in some entire nations.
   Also over 10 percent of all goods and services produced in the U.S relates
   to the export of goods to foreign countries.
VIEWS:
         Functionalist View- Functionalist believe that Multinational
   corporations can actually help the developing nations of the world by
   bringing industry to those nations. Basically Multinationals take max
   advantage while reducing cost and boosting profits

          Conflict View- Conflict theorist believe that the Multinational
    Corporations are actually exploiting the workers in search for the cheapest
    labor. Companies like Nike changed their factories from country to country
    to look for people who are willing to work for less. Also, due to the power
    of these corporations many local entrepreneurs are put out of business and
    also create economic inequality.
             Discussion !!!
Are you a Functionalist or a conflict theorist
                      ??
             Worldwide Poverty
   Almost 3 billion people a day subsist on $2 a day
    or less
   Millennium Project – UN launched project to
    eliminate extreme poverty in unfortunate
    countries. They planed for Industrial Countries
    to set aside 0.7 percent of their gross national
    product for aid to the developing nations.
   The money that people in the U.S sends back or
    remittance is estimated at $199 billion twice the
    total foreign aid from all countries.
                   Modernization
   Modernization is the far-reaching process by which
    periphery nations move from traditional or less developed
    institutions to those characteristic of more developed
    societies.
   These modern societies tend to be urban, literate, and
    industrial. Also the families in these societies are more
    nuclear rather than extended.
   However this view is quite bias because why should these
    countries what to become more like industrialized countries
    such as the United States (as viewed from a conflict
    theorist).
   Functionalist view Modernization as a good way for
    developing nations to improve their lives. While critics see
    modernization is just another way for the core nations to
    exploit the developing ones further more.
            Stratification in Mexico
   Every year several hundred Mexicans die in the trek from Sonora in Mexico
    to Arizona in America
   But Why do all these people risk their lives to cross a border, the answer
    lies in the effects of colonialism and neocolonialism.
   Just to get an idea of the difference the gross national income of the U.S in
    2005 is $41,950 while Mexico’s was only $10,030
   In the U.S about 87% of adults have a high school education compared to
    the 13 % in Mexico
   In the U.S only about 6 out of every 1000 infants die compared to the 21
    per 1000 infants in Mexico.
   Although most of Mexico is poor it was also the 11th in the world in terms
    of amount of the world’s wealthiest people. Making the gap between the
    rich and poor extremely large for Mexico. Along with wealth class, race,
    religion, gender, as well as age also divide the countries.
       Race Relations in Mexico and
            Status of Women
   The Native Indians which amount to about 14 % of the Mexico’s population
    are at a great disadvantage in Mexico. 90% of the Natives live in houses
    without sewers and more of the percentage of the Indian population is
    illiterate then any other racial group. Along with the Indians are the
    descendents of the 200,000 Africans brought over for the slave trade.
   On the other end the Criollos which make up 10% of the population are
    typically white. They are well educated business owners and intellectuals
    whom have ties back to Spain.
   In the middle of it all are the mestizos, they make up the majority of the
    Mexican population. They are the mix between the high class and the low
    class.
   Though students are taught that all Mexican’s are equal a change from the
    old ways is hard.
   Women in Mexico are still not respected members of the work force and
    usually receive the lowest ranked job they do make 44% of the labor force
    and also 23% of the legislature which is higher then a great amount of
    other countries
                  The Borderlands
   The Borderlands refers to the area Between the U.S and Mexico.
   Due to the close relations between the two countries many
    maquiladoras (factories) arise on the Mexican side of the border.
    Because these factories do not have to pay taxes or give their
    worker’s any benefits, it has attracted many North American
    manufacturers.
   Though these factories have some benefits to the economy, conflict
    theorist believe that the cost of exploitation of works and sexual
    discrimination towards women is more great of the cost to society.
   However just like America, due to lower wages in China about 42%
    of the 700,000 jobs created by maquiladoras were eliminated from
    Mexico. It is due to these losses in jobs and lack of payment do so
    many of these workers cross the border to the U.S. They work
    extremely hard after they come over and the money they send back
    (remittances) are only second to oil, as a source of income for
    Mexican family.
          Universal Human Rights
             What Are Universal Human Rights?
   Universal Human Rights is defined as the moral rights possessed by all
    people because they are human.
   The greatest elaboration of human rights was adopt by the UN in 1948 the
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This prohibited slavery, torture, and
    degrading punishment. As well as promised the establishment of some
    fundamental rights.
   Human rights has always been a huge issue since the beginning of our
    countries history. During that time America was actually not supporting a
    binding obligation to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, due to
    segregation at that time. However as segregation disappeared the U.S used
    it as a way to promote democracy.
   But what is acceptable and what is not when it come to human rights?
    Many countries argue that human rights should be different for each
    country while the U.S believes that it is the universal law of the world.
   Many traditions held by certain countries are considered violations of
    human rights, but to the countries that perform these traditions its is not
    just part of life, but of culture.
                Last Discussion
   Do you believe that the Universal Declaration of Human
    Rights should be implemented throughout the globe or
    exceptions should be made?

				
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