Chapter 6 Earth resource satellites operating in the optical spectrum

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Chapter 6 Earth resource satellites operating in the optical spectrum Powered By Docstoc
					                     Chapter 6

Earth resource satellites operating in
         the optical spectrum

 Introduction to Remote Sensing
 Instructor: Dr. Cheng-Chien Liu
 Department of Earth Sciences
 National Cheng-Kung University


 Last updated: 28 May 2003
            6.1 Introduction

 Remote sensing + space exploration (RS+SE)
   interest and application over a wider
  range of disciplines
 Current application
 New technology  new or improved
  satellite/sensor  new application
 The most important outcome of RS+SE
 observing earth  earth system
        6.1 Introduction (cont.)

 This chapter  optical range  0.3 m
  m~14 m m
  • Landsat
  • Spot
  • NOAA series
  6.2 Early history of space imaging

 Ludwig Bahrmann (1891): New or
  improved apparatus for obtaining Bird’s
  eye photographic views
 Alfred Maul (1907): gyrostabilization
 Alfred Maul (1912): 41kg, 200mm x 250 mm,
  790m
 1946~1950: V2 rockets
 1960~ : TIROS-1, early weather satellite
  • Not just look at but also look through
 6.2 Early history of space imaging
               (cont.)
 1960s: Mercury, Gemini, Apollo
 •   Alan Shepard, 1961, 70 mm, 150 photos
 •   John Glenn, 1962, 35 mm, 48 photos.
 •   Later Mercury missions: 70 mm, 80 mm
 •   Gemini GT-4 mission: formal experiment
     directed at geology
     Tectonics, volcanology, geomophology.
     1:2,400 1100 photos
 • Apollo 9: 4 camera array, electrically
   triggered. 140 sets of imagery
 6.2 Early history of space imaging
               (cont.)
 Skylab 1973
 • Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP)
   6-camera multi-spectral array
   A long focal length “earth terrain” camera
   A 13-channel multispectral scanner
   A pointable spectroradiometer
   Two microwave systems.
 • 35,000 images
 U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
  (ASTP)
       6.3 Landsat satellite program
                overview
 Earth Resources Technology Satellite
  (ERTS) 1967
  •   ERTS-1, 1972~1978
  •   Nimbus weather satellite  modified
  •   Experimental system  test feasibility
  •   Open skies principle
 Landsat-2, 1975 (ERTS-2)
       6.3 Landsat satellite program
             overview (cont.)
 Table 6.1: Characteristics of Landsat
  1~6
  •   Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera systems
  •   Multispectral Scanner system (MSS)
  •   Thematic Mapper (TM)
  •   Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM)
 Table 6.2: Sensors used on Landsat 1~6
  missions
6.4 Orbit characteristic of Landsat-1,
             -2, and –3
 Fig 6.1: Landsat –1, -2, and –3 observatory
  configuration
  • 3m x 1.5m, 4m width of solar panels, 815 kg, 900 km
  • Inclination = 90
  • To= 103 min/orbit
 Fig 6.2: Typical Landsat-1, -2 and –3 daily
  orbit pattern
  • Successive orbits are about 2760km
  • Swath: 185km
  • Orbital procession  18 days for coverage repetition
    20 times of global coverage per year
6.4 Orbit characteristic of Landsat-1,
          -2, and –3 (cont.)
 Sun-synchronous orbit
 • 9:42 am  early morning skies are generally
   clearer than later in the day
 • Pros: repeatable sun illumination conditions on
   the same day in every year
 • Cons: variable sun illumination conditions
   with different locations and seasons 
   variations in atmospheric conditions
 6.5 Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2
               and –3
 3-Channel RBV
 • 185km x 185 km
 • Ground resolution: 80m
 • Spectral bands: 1: 0.475 mm~0.575 mm (green)
                   2:0.580 mm~0.680 mm (red)
                   3: 0.690 mm~0.830 mm (NIR)
 • Expose  photosensitive surface  scan  video
   signal
 • Pros:
   Greater cartographic fidelity
   Reseau grid  geometric correction in the recording process
 6.5 Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2
           and –3 (cont.)
 3-Channel RBV (cont.)
 • Landsat-1: malfunction  only 1690 scenes
 • Landsat-2  only for engineering evaluation
    only occasionally RBV imagery was
   obtained.
 • Landsat-3
   Single broad band (0.505~0.75 u mm)
   2.6 times of resolution improved: 30m  double f
   Two-camera side-by-side configuration with side-lap and
    end-lap. (Fig 6.4)
   Fig 6.5: Landsat-3 RBV image
 6.5 Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2
           and –3 (cont.)
 4 Channel MSS
 • 185km x 185km
 • Ground resolution: 79m
 • Spectral band:
   Band 4: 0.5 mm ~ 0.6 mm (green)
   Band 5: 0.6 mm ~ 0.7 mm (red)
   Band 6: 0.7 mm ~ 0.8 mm (NIR)
   Band 7: 0.8 mm ~ 0.9 mm (NIR)
   Band 8: 10.4~12.6 um  Landsat-3, failed
   Band 4~7  band 1~4 in Landsat-4, -5
   Fig 6.6: Comparison of spectral bands
 6.5 Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2
           and –3 (cont.)
 4 Channel MSS (cont.)
  • Fig 6.7: Landsat MSS operating configuration
     Small TFOV  use an oscillating scan mirror
  • A-to-D converter (6 bits)
     Pixel width: 56m x 79m  set by the pixel sampling rate (Fig 6.8)
     Each Landsat MSS scene  185km x 185km
          2340 scan lines, 3240 pixels per line, 4 bands
          Enormous data
     Fig 6.9: Full-frame, band 5, Landsat MSS scene
            Parallelogram  earth’s rotation
            15 steps
            Tick marks  Lat. Long.
            Annotation block

  • Color composite: band 4 (b), band 5 (g), band 7(r)
    (Fig 6.6)
 6.5 Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2
           and –3 (cont.)
 Data distribution
  • Experiment  transitional  operational
  • NASA          NOAA             NASA
    USGS          EOSAT            USGS
  Landsat-1,-2,-3 Landsat-4,-5,-6 Landsat-7
  Department of Interior Department of Commerce Department of Defense
  • Data receiving station
  • Data reprocessing
  • Data catalogue
           6.6 Landsat MSS image
                interpretation
 Applications:
  • agriculture, botany cartography, civil engineering,
    environmental monitoring, forestry, geography,
    geology, geophysics, land resources analysis, land use
    planning, oceanography, water resource analysis
 Comparison of Landsat & airborne image
  •   Table 6.4
  •   Resolution
  •   Coverage
  •   Complementary not replacement
  •   2-D, non-stereo mode
        6.6 Landsat MSS image
         interpretation (cont.)
 Characteristics of MSS image
  • Effective resolution  79m, (30m for Landsat-3)
    but linear feature with sharp contrast can be
    seen
  • 1-D displacement relief (in E-W direction)
  • Limited area can be viewed in stereo  study
    topographic
  • High altitude + low TFOV  little RD 
    planimeter map
    E.g. World Bank, USGS. DMA, petroleum company
        6.6 Landsat MSS image
         interpretation (cont.)
 Characteristics of MSS image (cont.)
  • Band 5 (red)  better atmospheric penetration
     detecting cultural features
  • Band 4 (green)  deep, clear water
    penetration
  • Band 6, 7  lineating water bodies (dark)
  • The largest single use of Landsat MSS data 
    geologic studies  band 5.7
             6.6 Landsat MSS image
              interpretation (cont.)
 Fig 6.10 : four Landsat MSS bands
  •   Extent of the urban area (B4, 5, light)
  •   Major road (B4, 5 light, not B6, B7 dark)
  •   Airport
  •   Asphalt-surfaced runways
  •   Four major lakes and connected river (B6, 7 dark)
       mid-July  algae  green  B4: similar to the surrounding
        agricultural land
  • Agricultural field. (B5, 6, 7)
  • Forest (B4, 5 dark)  winter images are preferred
        6.6 Landsat MSS image
         interpretation (cont.)
 Fig 6.11: Landsat MSS band 5
 • December image
   20 cm snow covered  all water bodies are frozen
   Snow covered upland and valley floors  light tone
   Steep, tree-covered valley sides  dark tone
 • September image
   Identify forest area
         6.6 Landsat MSS image
          interpretation (cont.)
 A hit-or-miss proposition
  • Some events leave lingering trace
  • Fig 6.12: Landsat MSS band 7
    July image  200 m3/sec
    March image  1300 m3/sec  once every four years
  • Fig 6.13: Mississippi River Delta
    Silt flow but vague boundary  band 5
    Delineation of the boundary  band 7
  • Fig 6.14: short-lived phenomena
    Active forest fire in Alaska
    Volcanic eruption on Kunashir Island
           6.6 Landsat MSS image
            interpretation (cont.)
 A hit-or-miss proposition (cont.)
  • Fig 6.15: Extensive geologic features visible on MSS
     San Andreas fault, Six solid dots  earthquake > 6.0
  • Fig 6.16: Landsat MSS band 6
     66-km-wide Manicouagan ring  212-million-year-old meteorite
      impact crater
  • Fig 6.17: Landsat MSS images of Mt. St. Helens
    before and after its 1980 eruptions
  • Fig 6.18: Landsat MSS image of Maritoba, Canada,
    showing tornado and hail scar
  • Fig 6.19: Landsat MSS image of East kalimantan,
    Indonesia, showing tropical deforestation
6.7 Orbit characteristics of Landsat-4
               and -5
 Fig 6.20: Sun-synchronous orbit of
  Landsat-4 and –5
  • Altitude: 900  705km
       Retrievable by the space shuttle
       Ground resolutions
  •   Inclination 98.20 T=99min  14.5 orbit/day
  •   9:45 am
  •   Fig 6.21: adjacent orbit space = 2752km
  •   16-day repeat cycle
  •   8-day phase between Landsat-4 and –5 (Fig 6.22)
6.8 Sensors onboard Landsat-4 and -5

 Fig 6.23: Landsat-4 and –5 observatory
  configuration
  • MSS, TM
  • 2000 kg, 1.5x2.3m solar panels x 4 on one side
  • High gain antenna  Tracking and Data Relay
    Satellite system (TDRSS)
  • Direct transmission  X-band and S-band
    MSS: 15 Mbps
    TM: 85 Mbps
6.8 Sensors onboard Landsat-4 and –5
               (cont.)
 MSS
 • Same as previous except for larger TFOV for keeping
   the same ground resolution (79m  82m)
 • Renumber bands
 TM
 •   7 bands (Table 6.4)
 •   DN: 6  8 bits
 •   Ground resolution: 30m (thermal band: 120m)
 •   Geometric correction  Space Oblique Mercator
     (SOM) cartographic projection
6.8 Sensors onboard Landsat-4 and –5
               (cont.)
 TM (cont.)
  • Bi-directional scan  the rate of oscillation of mirror
    dwelling time  geometric integrity signal-to-noise
  • Detector:
     MSS: 6x4=24
     TM: 16x6+4x1=100
  • Fig 6.24: Thematic Mapper optical path and
    projection of IFOV on earth surface
  • Fig 6.25: Schematic of TM scan line correction
    process
6.9 Landsat TM Image interpretation

 Pros:
  • Spectral and radiometric resolution
  • Ground resolution
 Fig 6.26: MSS vs TM
 Fig 6.27: All seven TM bands for a
  summertime image of an urban fringe area
  •   Lake, river, ponds: b1,2 > b3 > b4=b5=b7=0
  •   Road urban streets: b4  min
  •   Agricultural crops: b4  max
  •   Golf courses
6.9 Landsat TM Image interpretation
              (cont.)
 Fig 6.27 (cont.)
  • Glacial ice movement: upper right  lower left
     Drumlins, scoured bedrock hills
     Band 7  resample from 120m to 30m

 Plate 12 + Table 6.5: TM band color
  combinations
  • (a): normal color  mapping of water sediment
    patterns
  • (b): color infrared  mapping urban features and
    vegetation types
  • (c)(d): false color
6.9 Landsat TM Image interpretation
              (cont.)
 Fig 6.28: Landsat TM band 6 (thermal
  infrared) image
  • Correlation with field observations  6 gray
    levels  6T
 Plate 13: color-composite Landsat TM
  image
  • Extremely hot  blackbody radiation 
    thermal infrared
  • TM bands 3, 4 and 7
6.9 Landsat TM Image interpretation
              (cont.)
 Fig 6.29: Landsat TM band 5 (mid-
  infrared) image
  • Timber clear-cutting
 Fig 6.30: Landsat TM band 3, 4 and 5
  composite
  • Extensive deforestation.
 Fig 6.31: Landsat TM band 4 image
  map
  • 13 individual TM scenes + mosaic
  6.10 Landsat-6 planned mission

 A failed mission
 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM)
 • TM+ panchromatic band (0.5~0.9 mm) with
   15m resolution.
 • Set 9-bit A-to-D converter to a high or low gain
   8-bit setting from the ground.
   Low reflectance  water  high gain
   Bright region  deserts  low gain
6.11 Landsat ETM image simulation

 Fig 6.32: Landsat ETM images
            6.12 Landsat-7

 Launch: 1999
 Web site: http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov
 Landsat 7 handbook
 Landsat 7 in orbit
 Depiction of Landsat 7
          6.12 Landsat-7 (cont.)

 Landsat 7 Orbit
  • Orbital paths
  • Swath
  • Swath pattern
 Landsat data
  • http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/main/data.html
          6.12 Landsat-7 (cont.)

 Payload
 • Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)
   Dual mode solar calibrator
   Data transmission
       TDRSS or stored on board.
   GPS  subsequent geometric processing of the data
 • High Resolution Multi-spectral Stereo Imager
   (HRMSI)
   5m panchromatic band
   10m ETM bands 1~4
   Pointable  revisit time (<3 days) Stereo imaging.
   00~380 cross-track and 00~300 along-track
         6.12 Landsat-7 (cont.)

 Application
  • Monitoring Temperate Forests
  • Mapping Volcanic Surface Deposits
  • Three Dimensional Land Surface Simulations
      6.13 SPOT Satellite Program

 Background
 • French+Sweden+Belgium
 • 1978
 • Commercially oriented program
 SPOT-1
 •   French Guiana, Ariane Rocket
 •   1986
 •   Linear array sensor+pushbroom scanning+pointable
 •   Full-scene stereoscopic imaging
6.13 SPOT Satellite Program (cont.)

 SPOT-2
 • 1990
 SPOT-3
 • 1993
6.14 Orbit characteristics of SPOT-1,
              -2 and -3
 Orbit
  •   Circular, near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit
  •   Altitude: 832km
  •   Inclination: 98.70
  •   Descend across the equator at 10:30AM
  •   Repeat: 26 days
  •   Fig 6.33: SPOT revisit pattern at latitude 450
      and 00
       At equator: 7 viewing opportunities exist
       At 450: 11 viewing opportunities exist
  6.15 Sensors onboard SPOT-1, -2
               and -3
 Configuration (Fig 6.34)
  • 223.5m, 1750 kg, solar panel: 15.6m
  • Modular design
 High Resolution Visible (HRV) imaging
  system
  • 2-mode
    10m-resolution panchromatic mode (0.51~0.73mm)
    20m-resolution color-infrared mode. (0.5~0.59mm,
     0.61~0.68mm, 0.79~0.89mm)
  6.15 Sensors onboard SPOT-1, -2
           and –3 (cont.)
 HRV (cont.)
  • Pushbroom scanning
    No moving part (mirror)  lifespan
    Dwell time 
    Geometric error 
  • 4-CCD subarray
    6000-element subarray  panchromatic mode, 10m
    Three 3000-element subarrays  multi-spectral mode, 20m
    8-bit, 25 Mbps
  • Twin-HRV instruments
    IFOV (for each instrument)  4.130
    Swath: 60km  2 - 3km = 117km (Fig 3.36)
    TFOV (for each instrument)  270=0.6045 (Fig 3.35)
  6.15 Sensors onboard SPOT-1, -2
           and –3 (cont.)
 HRV (cont.)
  • Data streams
    Although 2-mode can be operated simultaneously, only one mode data
     can be transmitted  limitation of data stream
  • Stereoscopic imaging
    Off-nadir viewing capability (Fig 6.37)
    Frequency  revisit schedule (Fig 6.33)
    Base-height ratio  latitude
         0.75 at equator, 0.5 at 450

  • Control
    Ground control station  Toulouse, France  observation sequence
    Receiving station  Tordouse or Kiruna, Sweden
         Tape recorded onboard
         Transmitted within 2600km-radius around the station
             6.16 SPOT HRV image
                  interpretation
 Fig 6.38: SPOT-1 panchromatic image
  • 10m-resolution
       Cf: Landsat MSS 80m
       Cf: Landsat TM 30m (Fig 6.26)
       Cf: Landsat ETM 15m (Fig 6.32)
  •   Fig 6.39: SPOT-1 panchromatic image
  •   Plate14: merge of multispectral & panchromatic data
  •   Fig 6.40: SPOT-1 panchromatic image stereopair
  •   Plate 15: Perspective view of Alps
       SPOT stereopair + parallax calculation
       Plate 23
  • Fig 6.41: before and after the earthquake
          6.17 SPOT –4 and –5

 SPOT –4
 • Launched 1998
 • Vegetation Monitoring Instrument (VMI)
   Swath: 2000km  daily global coverage
   Resolution: 1km
   Spectral band: b(0.43~0.47mm), g(0.5~0.59mm),
    r(0.61~0.68mm), N-IR(0.79~0.89mm), mid-IR(1.58~1.75mm)
    6.17 SPOT –4 and –5 (cont.)

 SPOT – 5
 • Launched 2002
 • Vegetation Monitoring Instrument (VMI)
   Swath: 2000km  daily global coverage
   Resolution: 1km
   Spectral band: b(0.43~0.47mm), g(0.5~0.59mm),
    r(0.61~0.68mm), N-IR(0.79~0.89mm), mid-IR(1.58~1.75mm)
     6.18 Meteorological Satellite

 Metsats
  • Coarse spatial resolution  land-oriented
    system
  • Very high temporal resolution of global
    coverage
  • NOAA satellites  sun-synchronous
  • GOES  geostationary  36,000km altitude
  • DMSP
 6.18 Meteorological Satellite (cont.)

 NOAA satellites
  • Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
    (AVHRR)
     NOAA –6 ~ -12. (N-S)
          Even: 7:30AM crossing time
          Odd: 2:30 AM crossing time
     Table 6.6: characteristics of NOAA-6 ~ -12
  • Fig 6.42: Example coverage of the NOAA AVHRR
     Ground resolution: 1.1km at nadir
  • AVHRR data
     LAC
     GAC
  • Fig 6.43: Comparison of Spectral sensitivity
 6.18 Meteorological Satellite (cont.)

 NOAA satellites (cont.)
  • Fig 6.44: AVHRR images
    A: distortion  wide angle of view
    B: geometric correction
  • Plate 16: NOAA AVHRR band 4 thermal image of
    the Great Lakes
  • Fig 6.45: AVHRR images of the Mississippi Delta
    (a): present and past channels, future  Atchafalaya
    (b): Channel–1 (red), silky material  visible
    (c): Channel–2 (Near-IR), light tone  higher & drier
    (d): Channel–4 (thermal –IR) light tone  cooler
         Plumes of cooler river water
 6.18 Meteorological Satellite (cont.)

 NOAA satellites (cont.)
  • Plate 17: springtime NOAA-8 AVHRR color
    composite
  • Applications of AVHRR in monitoring vegetation
    Use Ch-1 (0.58~0.68 mm) and Ch-2 (0.73~1.10 mm)
    A simple vegetation index VI=Ch2-Ch1
    Normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = (Ch2-Ch1)/(Ch2+Ch1)
    Vegetated areas  large VI
     Clouds, water, snow  negative VI
     Rock, Bare soil  VI  0
    For global vegetation  NDVI preferred  compensate the charging
     illumination conditions
    Plate 18: color-coded NDVI
        Select the highest NDVI during that period
 6.18 Meteorological Satellite (cont.)

 NOAA satellites (cont.)
  • Applications of AVHRR in monitoring
    vegetation (cont.)
    Applications: vegetation seasonal dynamics at global and
     continental scale, tropical forest clearance, leaf area index
     measurement, biomass estimation, percentage ground cover
     determination, photosynthetically active radiation
     estimation
    Other factors that might influence NDVI
        Incident solar radiation
        Radiometric response of the sensor
        Atmospheric effect and viewing angle  need further research
 6.18 Meteorological Satellite (cont.)

 GOES (Geostationary Operational
  Environmental Satellites)
 •   NOAA + NASA
 •   1974
 •   36,000km
 •   USRS, ESA, NSDA
 •   Fig 6.46: GOES –2 visible band (0.55~0.7 mm)
 •   Frequency: 2/hour
 •   VI (daytime), IR (day and night)
6.18 Meteorological Satellite (Cont.)

 Defense Meteorological Satellite
  Program (DMSP)
  •   1973
  •   0.4~1.1 mm (VI+N-IR)
  •   Nighttime visible band  tune the amplifiers
  •   Fig 6.47: DMSP nighttime image
  •   Fig 6.48: Maps of population distribution
      6.19 Ocean monitoring satellites

 Ocean  Land
  • 2/3, but comparatively little is know
 Seasat (see §8.9)
 Nimbus –7
  •   CZCS (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) 1978~1986
  •   Proof of concept mission
  •   Table 6.7: CZCS bands  narrow bandwidth
  •   825m resolution at nadir, 1566km swath
  •   Map phytoplankton concentrations and inorganic
      suspended matter
  6.19 Ocean monitoring satellites
              (cont.)
 Japan
 • Marine Observation Satellite (MOS)-1: 1987
 • MOS-1b: 1990
 • Table 6.8: Instruments included in MOS-1 and
   MOS-1b
   4-Channel Multi-spectral Electronic Self-Scanning
    Radiometer (MESSR)
   4-Channel Visible and Thermal Infrared Radiometer
    (VTIR)
   2-Channel Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MSR)
 • 909km altitude, revisit period:17days
      6.19 Ocean monitoring satellites
                  (cont.)
 Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor
  (SeaWiFS)
  •   8-channel across-track scanner (0.402~0.885 mm)
  •   Ocean biogeochemistry
  •   NASA-orbital science corporation (OSC)
  •   1998 – date
  •   Data
       LAC: 1.13km
       GAC: 4.52km
  • 705km altitude, 2800km swath
    6.20 Earth Observing System

 Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE)
 • Aims: providing the observations,
   understanding, and modeling capabilities
   needed assess the impacts of natural events and
   human-induced activities on the earth’s
   environment
 • Data and information system: acquire, archive
   and distribute the data and information
   collected about the earth
 • Further international understanding of the
   earth as a system
6.20 Earth Observing System (cont.)

 EOS (Table 6.9)
  •   ASTER
  •   CERES
  •   MISR
  •   MODIS
  •   MOPITT
 MODIS (Table 6.10)
  • Table 6.10
  • Terra: 2000
  • Aqua: 2002
6.21 Fine-resolution satellite system

 CORONA
 • 1960 – 1972, declassified in 1995
 • KH-1 ~ KH-4B ~ KH-5
   Camera + film
   Band and resolution
 • Web site: http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov
 • Impacts
6.21 Fine-resolution satellite system
               (cont.)
 IKONOS
 • 1999 by Space imaging
 • Bands and resolution
   1m-resolution
       0.45 – 0.90 mm
   4m-resolution
       0.45 – 0.52 mm
       0.52 – 0.60 mm
       0.63 – 0.69 mm
       0.76 – 0.90 mm

 • Orbit: sun-synchronous
 • Repeat coverage: 1.5 (1m) ~ 3 (4m) days
6.21 Fine-resolution satellite system
               (cont.)
 OrbView–3 and –4
 •   http://www.orbimage.com
 •   OrbView-2: SeaWiFS
 •   Will be launched soon!
 •   Similar bands and resolution as IKONOS
 OrbView–4
 • 200 spectral channels in the range 0.45 – 2.5 m
   m at 8m resolution
 6.21 Fine-resolution satellite system
                (cont.)
 QuickBird
 • 2001 by EarthWatch Inc.
 • Bands and resolution
   61cm-resolution
       0.45 – 0.89 mm
   2.44m-resolution
       0.45 – 0.52 mm
       0.52 – 0.60 mm
       0.63 – 0.69 mm
       0.76 – 0.89 mm

				
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posted:10/13/2012
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