Glaciated Landscapes

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					Glaciated Landscapes

 The Cairngorms and Loch
  Lomond National Parks

• For a named upland glaciated landscape.
  – Describe and explain the formation of the main
    features found in the area with reference to
    specific named examples.
  – Describe the Economic and Social opportunities
    created by this landscape.
  – Describe how opportunities maybe limited in a
    landscape like this.
        Ice age in Scotland
• Glaciation has had a huge impact on the
  scenery of Scotland.
• The West of Scotland consists of a rough
  ice-scoured landscape where the
  mountains have been heavily dissected by
  glacial troughs and valleys.
• The East shows much less evidence of
  glacial erosion.
 Why is there more evidence of
   Glaciation in the West?
• Glaciers built up faster here because of
  the maritime climate and remained for
• Glaciers only existed in the West during
  the Loch Lomond re-advance 11 000
  years ago.
• During the ice ages the western part of
  Scotland was wetter and the underlying
  slopes steeper than in the East.
    The Glaciated Landscape of the
• The plateau of the Cairngorm mountains forms
  the largest area of land over 1000m in the UK.
• Four summits – Ben Mac Dhui and Cairngorm
  being two of the four.
• Glacial features include deep U shaped valleys and
• The adjacent glens support a diverse assemblage
  of glacial meltwater features and glacial deposits,
  eskers, kames, kettle holes, and moraines.
Stag Rocks, looking down from the
trough head towards Loch Avon
Glen Einich

                                            Page 51 fieldsketch of
                                            Loch Einich - 6k
      Glaciated Features in the
      Cairngorms National Park

Glaciated Feature   Named Example
     Glaciated Features in Loch
       Lomond National Park

Glaciated Feature   Named Example
Opportunities for Social and Economic Land use
 in the Cairngorms/Loch Lomond National Park
•   Tourism / sightseeing - Glaciation produces high relief (deep valleys and high
    rugged mountains) which results in dramatic views. e.g. Cairngorms, Ben
    Lomond. Deep U shaped valleys and ribbon lakes attract water based tourism
    e.g Loch Lomond.
•   Hill walking / mountaineering / rock climbing - Corrie sides and headwalls
    provide stiff climbing on their steep and frost shattered slopes. Arêtes and
    broader ridges allow walkers access to the more rounded summits. The
    variety of landscape provides a test for every level of mountaineer, especially
    in winter. e.g. Cairngorms, Ben Nevis Massif, The West Highland Way.
•   Winter sports - Alpine skiing / snow boarding- corries gather and hold snow
    and provide a variety of slopes from the steep sides to the flatter floor. Cold
    climate. Cross country skiing may be available on the lower slopes and valley
    floor depending on the snowfall. E.g Aviemore.
•   Hunting - Especially in Scotland many of the glaciated uplands are covered in
    moor partly because the thin acidic soils do not support many types of plant
    and partly because of past deforestation and sheep grazing. This land is used
    for rearing grouse and deer to shoot.
• Forestry - Many of the lower slopes were once forested and forestry
  remains an economic possibility where the soils are thicker and better
  drained and temperatures are not too extreme.
  Hydro - Electric Power (HEP) - High rainfall over the mountains.
  Corrie lochs and hanging valleys can be used or dammed to hold more
  water. Hard crystalline rocks provide firm foundations and prevent
  leakage. Steep drop from corrie e.g. Loch Sloy at Loch Lomond hanging
  valley provides a good head of water to power turbines.
  Farming - Extensive hill sheep on lower slopes. Poor soils and grazing
  require very low numbers of sheep per acre. Broader valley bottoms
  may have post-glacial alluvial soils allowing some crops to be grown.
  Fiords or sea lochs - Fishing. Deep U shaped valleys have been
  flooded by the sea when the ice age finished. Deep water terminals
  for oil tankers eg Finnart on Loch Long, small fishing industries
  around Arrochar..
  Settlement - Usually limited to the heads of sea lochs or broader
  parts of lower valleys. Often to the south-facing side of the valley for
  Communications - Difficult. Roads and railways often limited to valley
  sides and stop at the head of the valley
       Economic and Social Opportunities in Upland Glaciated

Opportunity   Advantages     Named       Named        Social/
              of the         Example     Examples     Economic
              landscape      Loch Lomond Cairngorms   opportunity

                             Loch                     Gnerating
Tourism                                               income during
              Winter         Lomond,
                             Lake of     Aviemore     winter season
              Sports –
                                                      when tourism
              Created by     Menteith    and          is low.
              climate and
              steep sides                Cairngor     Generating
                                                      employment in
              mountains.                 ms.          cafes, bars, ski
              Resorts                                 hire,
              developed on                            accommodatio
              flat valley                             n etc.
              floors.                                 Preventing
                                                      esp. of
    Restrictions on Opportunities
•   Communications
•   Population
•   Climate
•   Accessibility

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