The Cairngorms and Loch
Lomond National Parks
• For a named upland glaciated landscape.
– Describe and explain the formation of the main
features found in the area with reference to
specific named examples.
– Describe the Economic and Social opportunities
created by this landscape.
– Describe how opportunities maybe limited in a
landscape like this.
Ice age in Scotland
• Glaciation has had a huge impact on the
scenery of Scotland.
• The West of Scotland consists of a rough
ice-scoured landscape where the
mountains have been heavily dissected by
glacial troughs and valleys.
• The East shows much less evidence of
Why is there more evidence of
Glaciation in the West?
• Glaciers built up faster here because of
the maritime climate and remained for
• Glaciers only existed in the West during
the Loch Lomond re-advance 11 000
• During the ice ages the western part of
Scotland was wetter and the underlying
slopes steeper than in the East.
The Glaciated Landscape of the
• The plateau of the Cairngorm mountains forms
the largest area of land over 1000m in the UK.
• Four summits – Ben Mac Dhui and Cairngorm
being two of the four.
• Glacial features include deep U shaped valleys and
• The adjacent glens support a diverse assemblage
of glacial meltwater features and glacial deposits,
eskers, kames, kettle holes, and moraines.
Stag Rocks, looking down from the
trough head towards Loch Avon
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Glaciated Features in the
Cairngorms National Park
Glaciated Feature Named Example
Glaciated Features in Loch
Lomond National Park
Glaciated Feature Named Example
Opportunities for Social and Economic Land use
in the Cairngorms/Loch Lomond National Park
• Tourism / sightseeing - Glaciation produces high relief (deep valleys and high
rugged mountains) which results in dramatic views. e.g. Cairngorms, Ben
Lomond. Deep U shaped valleys and ribbon lakes attract water based tourism
e.g Loch Lomond.
• Hill walking / mountaineering / rock climbing - Corrie sides and headwalls
provide stiff climbing on their steep and frost shattered slopes. Arêtes and
broader ridges allow walkers access to the more rounded summits. The
variety of landscape provides a test for every level of mountaineer, especially
in winter. e.g. Cairngorms, Ben Nevis Massif, The West Highland Way.
• Winter sports - Alpine skiing / snow boarding- corries gather and hold snow
and provide a variety of slopes from the steep sides to the flatter floor. Cold
climate. Cross country skiing may be available on the lower slopes and valley
floor depending on the snowfall. E.g Aviemore.
• Hunting - Especially in Scotland many of the glaciated uplands are covered in
moor partly because the thin acidic soils do not support many types of plant
and partly because of past deforestation and sheep grazing. This land is used
for rearing grouse and deer to shoot.
• Forestry - Many of the lower slopes were once forested and forestry
remains an economic possibility where the soils are thicker and better
drained and temperatures are not too extreme.
Hydro - Electric Power (HEP) - High rainfall over the mountains.
Corrie lochs and hanging valleys can be used or dammed to hold more
water. Hard crystalline rocks provide firm foundations and prevent
leakage. Steep drop from corrie e.g. Loch Sloy at Loch Lomond hanging
valley provides a good head of water to power turbines.
Farming - Extensive hill sheep on lower slopes. Poor soils and grazing
require very low numbers of sheep per acre. Broader valley bottoms
may have post-glacial alluvial soils allowing some crops to be grown.
Fiords or sea lochs - Fishing. Deep U shaped valleys have been
flooded by the sea when the ice age finished. Deep water terminals
for oil tankers eg Finnart on Loch Long, small fishing industries
Settlement - Usually limited to the heads of sea lochs or broader
parts of lower valleys. Often to the south-facing side of the valley for
Communications - Difficult. Roads and railways often limited to valley
sides and stop at the head of the valley
Economic and Social Opportunities in Upland Glaciated
Opportunity Advantages Named Named Social/
of the Example Examples Economic
landscape Loch Lomond Cairngorms opportunity
Tourism income during
Lake of Aviemore winter season
Created by Menteith and is low.
steep sides Cairngor Generating
mountains. ms. cafes, bars, ski
developed on accommodatio
flat valley n etc.
Restrictions on Opportunities