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					                                         Module: Coffee




1. Introduction
This module consists of six parts
    a. Exchange form
    b. General information & history
    c. Quick scan about coffee customs
    d. Preparation to the competition
    e. Coffee beans roasting competition
    f. Teacher notes


2. Exchange Form
TO:

Date


Teacher’s name


School


Address



Phone numbers          Telephone:

(inc. dialling code)   Fax:


E-mail address

School website
address


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We understand that your class is studying Coffee. We would like to exchange information and the results
of our own experiments and research.

We look forward to hearing from your class. Please reply.

FROM:

Teacher’s name


School


Address


Phone numbers          Telephone:

(inc. dialling code)   Fax:


E-mail address


School website
address




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3. Information and activity sheets

   a. General information & history

Coffee is a drink prepared from roasted coffee beans. Coffee
beans come from the coffee plant. Coffee beans are found in
coffee cherries, which grow on the coffee plants. These plants
can grow up to 5 meters, and grow large leaves. The flowers
are white in colour, and the berries they produce start off
green, and then turn yellow before turning dark red, and
eventually black. Coffee plants grow in over 70 countries.
They are very common in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and
Africa. Coffee can have a stimulating effect on humans due to
its high caffeine content. It is one of the most consumed drinks
in the world.




Coffee has played an important role in many societies. The
effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been
discovered in Ethiopia. The cultivation of coffee started first
around Arabia.
The earliest evidence of coffee drinking is from the 15th century, in southern Arabia. From the Muslim
world, coffee spread to Italy, and then to the rest of Europe, Indonesia, and to the Americas. Several times
throughout history coffee was banned in countries, either due to political or religious reasons.




The coffee berries, which contain the coffee seed/bean, are produced by several plants from the genus
Coffea. The two most commonly grown are known as Coffea Arabica, and Coffea Canephora. The latter is
resistant to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), a disease affecting coffee plants. Once ripe, the coffee
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berries are picked and dried. The seeds are then roasted at various degrees, depending on the desired
flavour. After the roasting process the coffee beans are ground. Coffee can be prepared and presented in
all sorts of ways.


Degree of roast pictorial



                                                                                 165 °C (329 °F) Drying Phase
                    22 °C (72 °F) Green Beans
                                                                                 As beans roast, they lose water
                    Green coffee beans as they arrive
                                                                                 and increase in size. Arabic
                    at the dock. They can be stored
                                                                                 coffee is prepared using this
                    for up to two years.
                                                                                 roast.



                                                                                 205 °C (401 °F) New England
                    195 °C (383 °F) Cinnamon Roast
                                                                                 Roast
                    The lightest drinkable roast,
                                                                                 Moderate light brown, still acidic
                    immediately before first crack.
                                                                                 but not bready, a traditional roast
                    Light brown, toasted grain
                                                                                 for Northeastern U.S. Coffee, at
                    flavours with sharp acidic tones.
                                                                                 first crack.



                    210 °C (410 °F) American Roast                               220 °C (428 °F) City Roast

                    Medium light brown, the                                      Medium brown, the norm for most
                    traditional roast for the Eastern                            of the U.S., good for tasting the
                    U.S. First crack ending.                                     varietal character of a bean.


                                                                                 230 °C (446 °F) Vienna Roast
                    225 °C (437 °F) Full City Roast
                                                                                 Moderate dark brown with light
                    Medium dark brown with
                                                                                 surface oil, more bittersweet,
                    occasional oil sheen, good for
                                                                                 caramel-y flavor, acidity muted. In
                    varietal character and bittersweet
                                                                                 the middle of second crack.
                    flavors. At the beginning of
                                                                                 Occasionally used for espresso
                    second crack.
                                                                                 blends.

                    240 °C (464 °F) French Roast                                 245 °C (473 °F) Italian Roast

                    Dark brown, shiny with oil, burnt                            Very dark brown and shiny, burnt
                    undertones, acidity diminished. At                           tones become more distinct,
                    the end of second crack. A                                   acidity almost gone, thin body.
                    popular roast for espresso                                   The common roast for espresso
                    blends.                                                      blends.

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                      250 °C (482 °F) Spanish Roast

                      Extremely dark brown, nearly
                      black and very shiny, charcoal
                      and tar tones dominate, flat, with
                      thin body.




b.Quick scan of coffee customs



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  question 1                   Question 2                  Question 3                   Question 4
    1                            1                          1                            1

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  How often do you             Why do you drink            what age group do            would you say that
  drink coffee?                coffee?                     you belong to?               coffee is an important
                                                                                        part of you culture?
                                                                                        please tick one box.
        more than once a             to relax                   under 15
  day
                                   everyone else                15-20
                                                                                             YES
        once a day             around you does it
                                                                20-25                        NO
     more than once a               it is part of your
                                                                30-35                    Vote
  week                         daily routine
                                                                35-40
        once a week                to keep your
                               energy levels up                 40-45
        once a month
                                   you feel you are             45-50
     more than once a
                               addicted to it
  month                                                         over 50
                                     you don't know


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                              why                           Vote
      hardly ever
                                    to socialise
      never
   Vote                            because you like
                              the taste
                               Vote




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  Question 5                  Question 6                  Question 7                    Question 8
    1                           1                           1                            1

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  What would you say is       Would you say that           In what occasion             Do you think coffee is
  your most preferred         coffee is an important       would you say you are        bad for your health?
  coffee brand ?              part of British culture ?    most likely to
                                                           consume coffee?
                                                                                             Yes
        Nescafe                     Yes
                                                                                             No
                                                                When watching
        Espresso                    No
                                                           television                    Vote

        Kenco                   Vote
                                                                After a meal
        Neither                                                 At work
   Vote
                                                                When socialising

                                                               When you have
                                                           nothing else to do
                                                            Vote




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   62df2cbe8191e7    631217

   0                 page

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                    Question 9
   1                 631248

 In your opinion, how often do
 you think you should drink
 coffee?


       more than once a day

       once a day

       more than once a week

       Once a month

       More than once a month

       Hardly ever

       Never
  Vote




 c.    Preparation to the competition- Roasting temperature

As you may know, coffee beans need a certain temperature to roast properly. In this experiment we are
going to try to find the perfect temperature.

Materials:
    Unroasted coffee beans (to buy on internet).
    Three heat resistant metal tins with the same amount of coffee beans
    A Bunsen burner
    Thermometer
    A pair of tweezers

Instructions
    1. Prepare three tins with the same amount of coffee beans.
    2. Number the tins from one to three.
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   3.   Heat the first tin to 200°C.
   4.   Put the beans in the tin and keep shaking them for two minutes.
   5.   Repeat step three and four but now heat to 225°C and 250°C.
   6.   Count all the raw, roasted and burned beans and place the results in the table.




Realize that caffeine content varies by roast level.

Caffeine decreases with increased roasting level: light roast, 1.37%; medium roast, 1.31%; and dark roast,
1.31%

Different grinding and brewing methods can affect the amount of caffeine present.




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Questionnaire:
Which tin has the most raw beans?

Bin:____
Which tin has the most well roasted beans?

Bin:____
Which tin has the most burned beans?

Bin:____
What is the best temperature for roasting coffee beans?
____ °C

Use this temperature for the real roasting process.




 d. The coffee beans roasting competition
All partners have to do these actions:
            Buy unroasted coffee beans on the internet.
            Get yourself a metal, heat resistant tin.
            Search for a pair of heat resistant tweezers.
            Get a bunsen burner.
            Ask your parents for an old coffee grinder.
            Buy some coffee filters and a funnel.
            Fetch some cups to put your roasted beans in when the roasting process is finished and to
               boil water.
Roasting:
            Put the unroasted coffee beans in the metal tin, and start roasting them on a fire (Bunsen
               Burner!) . Make sure that the beans will not get too dark. Therefore, it is very important to
               shake the tin while roasting.
            The roasting may take a few minutes.
            When the beans are brown and you think they are done, remove the coffee beans from the
               tin and throw them into one of your cups.
            Do not keep the beans in the tin! As the tin is still hot, the beans might burn.




      Send some                                                                        roasted beans to

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       each of your partners, preferably in vacuum conditions.




After receiving the beans of the partners you have to grind each sample separately and make coffee of it.

Grinding:
               When the roasting is done, put
                the coffee beans in a coffee
                grinder. (Manual grinders work
                better than electric ones!)
               While grinding, boil water in a cup
                above the bunsen burner. (The
                amount of water you use is up to
                you; it will affect the taste of your
                coffee)
               Now you have coffee powder.




Making coffee:
   Put a coffee filter into a funnel. Place it on top of a beaker.
   Put your coffee powder into a coffee filter..
   Pour hot water (boiled during the grinding process) into the filter. Now
      you are extracting coffee!
   The liquid trickling into the beaker is called coffee!
   Create a tasting panel to judge the coffees of the partners. In the end
      each coffee gets a mark.
       The scheme below can be used:



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After each
participant                                                                                        has
given                                                                                              marks
to the                                                                                             coffees
of the
partners,                                                                                          gather
the marks.




By calculating the average of the results of the partners you will get a winner.  The Royal coffee beans
roasting team




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4.Teachers notes
The strong aspect of this module is the combination of a theoretical part (general information &history) and a
practical part (beans roasting and competition).

        Theoretical part
    no special remarks are needed

        Practical part

        Materials
            The raw beans are offered by many firms on internet and will cost about €20 for one kg.
            The roasting equipment are part of the basic materials of the physic /chemistry lab of schools.
            If a coffee grinder is not available this can be replaced by a vat mortar also from the lab.
            The coffee filter can be derived from a common electric coffee machine.

The roasting process is very delicate, time, temperature and stirring of the beans are very critical and have to be
exercised.



         Organisation

               Competition, do it by means of a group session on Skype. Be inspired by the European Song
                Festival, especially the voting part makes it special and will create much communication, the aim of
                our project.




Look also to our public website:
http://www.itaspg.it/cce/index.htm




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