Action Research Proposal

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					Action research question

How can I Improve the Drawing Skill of the class IX ‘A’ students in drawing biology
diagrams of Khuruthang Middle Secondary School?


Brenner (2007) said, “Drawing is not about edges, but about shape and forms on a page, the
integration of figure and ground. The edges come last, if one is really organizing visual
phenomena, truly seeing and sensing. Perhaps drawing from the inside out would be apt."

          From my opinion, I find drawing, a very important skill in Biology. Good diagrams
fetch good marks in Biology subject according to my experience or performance in the biology
examination during my high school. So this research will examine and enhance the drawing
skills of the students especially in drawing biological diagrams.

         I intend to do the research to know their present drawing skills and the strategies to be
used to improve their weakness in drawing biological diagrams and as a whole. As Biology is
studied as a separate subject from class nine only, I want to carry out the research with class IX
‘B’ students.

         Before I carry out with my research, I think it’s very important for the researcher to be
familiar with the participants and the school faculty members. I will get myself familiarized with
school staff and environment. So with this, I will collect baseline data by using three data sets,
which are test, observation and questionnaire. After I finish collecting baseline data, I will
analyze it and show the result in the form of graph. Looking at the result known by analyzing
baseline data, I will intervene. This means I have to use different strategies to help them improve
in drawing biological diagrams.

         Finally I will go for post intervention data where I have to collect the data by using
same data sets used to collect baseline data. I will show the result in graph. This time, there
should be change in the graph which means, there should be improvement in their drawing. With
regard to the methodology, I will use the quantitative method.
So by the end of my research, I would find vast improvement in their drawing skills. I could see
beautiful biological diagrams pasted on the wall. I will find their notebook with neat and clean
diagrams when I checked. So I dream of a day when nobody of my biology students feels the
need to say ‘I find difficulties in drawing biology diagrams.’


Reconnaissance is derived from a French word “reconnaitre’ which means to look at. Most
action research models have a form of observations as way to ground the improvement efforts.
Maxwell (2003) has developed a three part model for reconnaissance: situational analysis,
analysis of researcher and analysis of relevant literature.

Situational analysis


Bhutan is landlocked country situated in the eastern Himalayas that lies between the China and
India. It is a mountainous country with 72.5% forest coverage. It has rich culture and tradition.
More importantly, Bhutan is identified globally for its policy of Gross National Happiness


The Royal University of Bhutan (RUB), the only university in the country at present, has ten
member colleges distributed across the country. Samtse College of Education and Paro College
of Education are the two teacher training colleges which fall under RUB.

       Samtse College of Education located in Samtse itself, offers training for both primary and
secondary student teachers. Soon there will be only secondary teachers where by primary
teachers will be trained in the Paro College of Education.


The name of the school is Khuruthang Middle Secondary School located in Punakha
My class

As Biology subject is studied as separate subject from class IX only, the class I chose to conduct
my research was class IX…


The researcher is the student teacher trainee of Samtse College of Education taking Biology and
Chemistry as his major subject. He has some knowledge about the action research and even
carried out conventional research with his colleagues in the college.

His critical friend is also the student teacher trainee of the same college taking Geography and
History as his major subject. He too has some basic knowledge about action research as he too
carried out conventional research in the stay of college with his colleague.

Literature review

I heard lot of people saying 'I can't draw' because they really think that it is either something they
are born with or not. Although to a certain extent some people have a greater talent for drawing
skills than others, I think it is also possible for anyone of us to learn to draw anything to a
reasonable standard.

             What's so mysterious about drawing? It's just a matter of switching off the labeling
and expectations we've been embedded with and allowing your hand to follow what your eye
sees without prejudice. It's a bit presumptuous to assume that to draw well requires a deficiency
elsewhere in one's literacy (Mize, 2007).

Importance of drawing in Biology

The goal of a biological diagram is to represent how different parts of a specimen or biological
diagrams relate to each other, as opposed to what they actually look like. Drawing diagrams
allows biology students to record their observations of a specimen and to refer to the illustration
at a later date in order to recall the important features of a specimen, for example in preparation
for a test. Beginner-level Biology students should familiarize themselves with the correct way of
drawing scientific diagrams (Nikolai, November 28, 2009).
            Paul (2010) discovered that drawing is still a very important skill in Biology.
Drawings help to record data from specimens. Drawings can highlight the important features of a
biological diagrams. Photographs can be very useful for recording data but they are not very
selective - they show more detail of a specimen than you might want. Photographs of biological
diagram and photomicrographs cannot show the whole diagram in focus at once. A drawing is
the result of a long period of observation at different depths of focus and at different
magnifications. One drawing can show features that would take several photographs.

Importance of drawing in the education

As a cornerstone in the education, drawing teaches the ability to convert theoretical progression
into practicality. It plays significant part in recognition, identification and relationships in each
and every interactive subject. There are many children who find the written word frustratingly
hard, and as a result become disaffected and descriptive (Ward, 2008).

        Agarkar (2002) said that it is very important for the students to construct, in their own
mind, the knowledge to be learned. The language for communicating meaning must be, using
words, common to the teacher and the student(s). The teacher must motivate the students for
self-learning, and guide the students’ learning activities. The teaching work must be evaluated
and completed by facilitating application and revision of what is learnt.

Intervention strategies

Being able to sketch is one of the single most important techniques that I use when I am drawing.
Use this technique to improve the speed and quality of drawing, and the best part is that this is
one of the most painless elements of drawing. I’ve written this so that it is valuable to people of
any skill level. So, how can you use this information to improve the way your draw? It's simple.
By quickly sketching out your ideas you can come up with a lot of ideas quickly. Once you have
quickly put down a bunch of your ideas onto paper, you can then evaluate the drawings and
choose the best one (Paul, 2010).
Paul (2010) suggested following guidelines to be followed while drawing biology diagrams.

    Observe the general appearance first.
    Identify the most significant features (only include detail which is necessary in your
    Determine which part or parts you are going to draw.
    Use a sharp HB (medium grade) pencil.
    Use white, unlined paper for drawing.
    Make a large, clear drawing, it should occupy at least half a page
    Keep looking back at your diagram while you are drawing.

Gubalke (2009) said that disciplines, Consistency and Practice are key to become good in
drawing.” It means one needs to Practice drawing daily . . . just like a pianist needs to play daily
or a ballerina does her daily exercises, one needs to practice drawing in order to become good in
drawing diagrams. Practice drawing without using any guidelines. This is one of the techniques
to become a good in drawing.

Aksana (2009) suggested following Instructions to be followed while drawing biology diagrams.
    Use a pencil and unlined paper when drawing a biological diagram. Position the diagram
       at the center of the page. Draw only what you actually observe, as opposed to what you
       think you should be seeing.
    Use sharp single lines to represent an object. Do not use soft lines characteristic of
       sketches. Make the illustration large so that various parts of the specimen are easily
    Represent darker areas of an object with stippling or dots. Do not shade any areas of the
    Do not use the plural form when identifying a single part or object. Draw a straight line
       from each label to the part or object it describes. Make sure that these lines do not cross
       or overlap.
    Keep in mind that the first part of a scientific name, or the genus name, must be
       capitalized. The second portion, or the species name, begins with a lower case letter--
       except when used in the diagram title. Underline scientific names.
    Write the title of the diagram in capital letters and center it. Remember that the title must
       be concise and accurately explain the subject of the illustration.
    Draw scale bars indicating the length and width of a specimen. A scale bar is a straight
       line that represents the relationship between space on your page and the actual space
       occupied by the diagram.
    Use sharp single lines to represent an object. Do not use soft lines characteristic of
       sketches. Make the illustration large so that various parts of the specimen are easily

According to Habib (2009), to become a really good artist takes time and patience and having the
motivation to practice. It also means you should read the following steps which will have you
on the right road to successful drawing:

            Drawing takes time. Allow enough time to be able to enjoy the whole process.
              Build up the drawing a little at a time and feel the satisfaction growing as the
              drawing begins to take shape. Let yourself become absorbed in your work, this
              will make a big difference to the outcome.
            Take on simple projects at first. Being too ambitious may make you feel worse if
              your pencil drawing does not come out quite the way you were hoping. All artistic
              endeavors require a great deal of focus and technique, so prepare to invest in your
              learning process.
            When copying, focus on the actual subject and do not keep looking at your own
              drawing as this can make you less focused if your own drawing does not look like
              the same.
            Remember to shade and tone and for this you will need different types of pencils.
              It is worth investing in some good quality pencils so that your pencil drawing can
              become amazing with a little practice.
            Finally, believe in yourself. The road to becoming a great artist is a fairly tricky
              one however; the greatest skill that is required in pencil drawing is that of
              dedication and determination.
Lin Stepp (2010) said that although there is an aspect of inherent giftedness involved, the key to
drawing well is to, primarily, draw a lot. As a psychologist, I constantly see the data to support
the 'use it or lose it' aspect in any area of development. Individuals with limited means of
expression, may, in turn, draw extensively until their skills become highly developed.

Action research plan (2011)

Month     Week                         Activity              Tools or Resources            Remarks
 Feb.        3rd             Familiarization of school
           week               staff.
                             Identification of my

March        1st                                               Test                   Have to bring the
           week             Baseline data collection           Observation            data to the
                                                               Questionnaire          college

                         Analysis of baseline data


 April     April    Intervention
             1st         Draw a lot (practice)
             week              without following
                  to           principles or elements of
             May               drawing.
              3rd          Making them to sketch
             week              their ideas.
                           Follow the guidelines
                               suggested by Paul (2010).
                           Follow the guidelines
                               suggested by Aksana
                           Follow the guidelines
                               suggested by Habib
 May        4th                                             Test            Have to bring the
            week       Collection of post intervention      Observation     data to the
                       data.                                Questionnaire   college

Data sets

      Test
      Observation
      Questionnaire
(lickert scale)

(Note: SA-strongly agree, A-agree, SDA-strongly disagree, DA-Disagree.)

 Sl #                             Item                      SA        A   SDA   DA
1.       Drawing skill is important in Biology.
2.       Good diagram fetch good marks in Biology.
3.       I opt for question to be answered in diagrams in
         the biology examination.
4.       I am good in drawing biological diagrams.
5.       Sketching our ideas helps in improving drawing
         biology diagrams.
6.       Consistency and Practice are key to become good
         at drawing in Biology.
7.       Being able to sketch helps in improving our
         drawing skill
8.       The key to drawing well is to, primarily, draw a
9.       Biology is the subject which deals with the
         drawing of live specimens.

Gordon,N.,&Wood,H.(2005). Unexpected development of artistic talents.

        Post graduate medical journal.81(62), Retrieved October 28, 2010, from:

 Happe,F.,&Vital, P.(2009). What aspects of autism predispose to talent?
         Retrieved October 28, 2010, from:

Happe,F.,&Frith.U.(2009). The beautiful otherness of the autistic mind.

        Retrieved October 28, 2010, from:

Habib,M.(2009). Pencil Drawing - Become a Great Artist in 5 Easy Steps.

     Retrieved on 1st October from

Paul, N. (2010). Drawing in biology

     Retrieved on 4th October from

Nikolai, A. (2009).How to draw a Biological Diagram

     Retrieved on 10th October from

Ward, B. (2008). Teaching children to learn. (1st ed). Chennai: Chennai micro


Aksana, D. (2009). Instructions to be followed while drawing Biology diagrams.

     Retrieved on 15th October from

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