Frugivory and Avian Seed Dispersal of Silky Dogwood _Cornus by ert554898

VIEWS: 23 PAGES: 33

									                                            Ashley M.Connelly




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Outline
 Significance and purpose of the study

 Background on silky dogwood (C. amomum),

     frugivory and seed dispersal
 Methods and results

 Discussion, interpretations, conclusions
Significance
 Fruit maintains diverse communities of wildlife                                                    (McCarty et al., 2002)

 Especially birds
 Dispersal by winged animals can determine plant
  dispersion (Westcott and Graham, 2000)




                 http://www.jrcompton.com/photos/The_Birds/J/September-07-j/J103761-dark-birds.jpg
Purpose
 Study silky dogwood seed dispersal by passerines




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 Common near streams and wetlands in eastern U.S.
   (Gleason and Cronquist, 1963 as cited by Borowicz, 1988b)


 Fruits from late August to early November                                               (Borowicz, 1988b)



 High levels of carbohydrates, lipids and antioxidants
(Schaefer and Schmidt, 2004; Schaefer et al., 2008; Borowicz, 1988b)




                                                                       http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://ncartmuseum.org/museu
                                                                       mpark/images/park/plants/Dogwood
 Fruit maturation coincides with peak migration                                                               (Stiles,

 1980)


 Fruits important for fat deposits                                         (Stiles, 1980)



 Color most important cue for ripeness                                                      (Schaefer et al., 2007)




           http://www.freewebs.com/merseybirders/Gray%20Catbird%20no1.jpg
 3 types of frugivores:

    gulpers

    discarders

    predators                      (Gosper et al., 2005)


 Removal from parent plant enhances dispersal and survival                                                                         (Stiles, 1980)


 Silky dogwood thickets often create biological corridors                                                                   (Xinhua et al., 2003)




   http://www.bernheim.org/cornus_amomum.html




                                                            http://woodyplants.nres.uiuc.edu/images/plants/cor/corao00.jpg
 The purpose of this study was to determine:


 1.) which species are the most common silky dogwood
  frugivores.

 2.) which species are the most effective seed dispersers.


 3.) the mean silky dogwood seed dispersal.


 4.) if silky dogwood fruits increased in reflectance under UV
  light as they ripened.
 70 acre tract of land in Blooming Valley, Crawford County, PA
 adjacent to Woodcock Creek
 conducted from September 9, 2008 through November 13, 2008




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 The purpose of this study was to determine:


 1.) which species are the most common silky dogwood
  frugivores.

 2.) which species are the most effective seed dispersers.


 3.) the mean silky dogwood seed dispersal


 4.) if silky dogwood fruits increased in reflectance under UV
  light as they ripened
 Birds identified to species


 Species identification, consumption technique and
 distance flown post-consumption were recorded

 Observations were conducted:
   3-4 times per week
   between 9:00 am and 12:00 pm
   along a 425 meter transect adjacent to Woodcock
    Creek
                                         7
Number of Total Frugivory Observations


                                         6
                                         5
                                         4
                                         3
                                         2
                                         1
                                         0                      Total Frugivory Observations




                                             Birds by Species
                                                    Earliest         Latest
    Species         Classification Observations   Observation      Observation
Blackpoll Warbler        M             6          Sept. 23, 2008   Oct. 14, 2008
  Grey Catbird          M/S            5          Sept. 9, 2008    Oct. 6, 2008
 American Robin          PR            4          Sept. 9, 2008    Oct. 29, 2008
Northern Cardinal        PR            3          Oct. 16, 2008    Oct. 29, 2008
 White-throated
    sparrow             M/W            3          Oct. 14, 2008    Oct. 22, 2008
 Bay-breasted
     Warbler             M             1          Sept. 23, 2008        −
Tennessee Warbler        M             1           Oct. 7, 2008         −
  White-crowned
     sparrow             M             1          Oct. 14, 2008         −
  Rose-breasted
    Grosbeak            M/S            1          Sept. 30, 2008        −
  Chestnut-sided
     Warbler            M/S            1          Sept. 9, 2008         –
 Red-eyed Vireo         M/S            1          Sept. 23, 2008        −
  Song Sparrow           PR            1           Oct. 1, 2008         −
 Most frugivores were migrant species
 Most common frugivores:
   Blackpoll warbler
                                             http://www.lloydspitalnikphotos.com/d/3093-
                                             4/blackpoll_warbler_F5R4277-Edit.jpg




   Grey catbird


                                         http://nationalzoo.si.edu/ConservationAndScience/Migr
                                         atoryBirds/Featured_photo/Images/Bigpic/grca5.jpg




   American robin


                                               http://www.surfbirds.com/bird-feeders/amrobinhdr.jpg
 Less frugivory: 2007-67 and 2008-28
 Warmer winters
 “Bumper crop” included black cherry
 Atypical migration




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 The purpose of this study was to determine:


 1.) which species are the most common silky dogwood
  frugivores.

 2.) which species are the most effective seed dispersers.


 3.) the mean silky dogwood seed dispersal


 4.) if silky dogwood fruits increased in reflectance under UV
  light as they ripened
Bird Species             Picked       Swallowed   Ate Seeds

Grey Catbird                                  x
American Robin                                x
Red-eyed Vireo                                x
Rose-breasted Grosbeak                        x
Blackpoll Warbler                 x
Tennessee Warbler                 x
White-crowned sparrow             x
White-throated sparrow            x
Chestnut-sided Warbler            x
Northern Cardinal                                         x
Bay-breasted Warbler
Song Sparrow
Bird Species             Distance
Grey Catbird                 20 m
Song Sparrow                 15 m
American Robin               10 m
Blackpoll Warbler            0m
White-crowned sparrow        0m
White-throated sparrow       0m
Red-eyed Vireo                −
Bay-breasted Warbler          −
Rose-breasted Grosbeak        −
Tennessee Warbler             −
Northern Cardinal             −
Chestnut-sided Warbler        –
 Most effective dispersers:


   Grey catbird




                               http://www.freewebs.com/merseybirders/Gray%20Catbird%20no1.jpg

   American robin




                               http://marciabonta.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/today_robin.jpg
 The purpose of this study was to determine:


 1.) which species are the most common silky dogwood
  frugivores

 2.) which species are the most effective seed dispersers


 3.) the mean silky dogwood seed dispersal distance


 4.) if silky dogwood fruits increased in reflectance under UV
  light as they ripened
 20 seed traps along a hillside transect
 mostly coniferous forest with some deciduous forest
 5 control traps near silky dogwood thickets
 checked once a week for 8 weeks
 Silky dogwood and black cherry seeds recorded
72 meters
 Average silky dogwood dispersal 5.4 meters
 Longest dispersal distance 36 meters
 Black cherry seeds coincide with late migration
 Silky dogwood seeds coincide with atypical peak
 The purpose of this study was to determine:


 1.) which species are the most common silky dogwood
  frugivores.

 2.) which species are the most effective seed dispersers.


 3.) the mean silky dogwood seed dispersal


 4.) if silky dogwood fruits increased in reflectance under UV
  lights as they ripened
 Silky dogwood fruits separated into 5 color
   categories:


 http://farm1.static.flickr.com/138/327                                                              http://www.mdidea.com/products/prop
 161943_6f349e7db6.jpg?v=0                                                                           er/dogwood_fruit01.jpg


     dark blue                      more blue than white half blue/half white more white than blue            white
 UV lights of wavelengths 254 nm and 365 nm


 silky dogwood and flowering dogwood fruits were
   photographed under UV light wavelength 312 nm
                                            http://farm1.static.flickr.com/138/32716
                                            1943_6f349e7db6.jpg?v=0                      http://www.mdidea.com/products/pro
                                                                                         per/dogwood_fruit01.jpg




         silky
    (C. amomum)

                                                                                       Wavelength= 312 nm




flowering
(C. florida)
                 http://www.oplin.org/tree/fact%20pages/dogw
                 ood_flowering/fruit.jpg
 indicates macronutritional rewards                                     (Schaefer et al., 2008)


 affects UV reflectance




        http://farm1.static.flickr.com/138/32716
        1943_6f349e7db6.jpg?v=0




        http://www.mdidea.com/products/pr
                                                   http://www.gizmodiva.com/entry_images/1206/29/stain-detector-light111.jpg
        oper/dogwood_fruit01.jpg
 common silky dogwood frugivores were blackpoll warbler
  (Dendroica striata), grey catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), and
  American robin (Turdus migratorius)

 most effective seed dispersers were grey catbird
  (Dumetella carolinensis) and American robin (Turdus
  migratorius)


 mean seed disperal distance was 5.4 meters and farthest
  distance was36 meters

 silky dogwood fruits increase in reflectance as they ripen
 mutualistc relationship between silky dogwood and
  frugivorous birds

 ecosystems with threatened or endangered frugivorous
  birds

 ecologically depressed regions with silky dogwoods or
  frugivorous birds

 Further research determine if fruit masting hindered silky
  dogwood frugivory and seed dispersal

 Further research explore importance of UV reflectance in
  attracting frugivores
 Thanks to Dr. Wissinger and Dr. Mumme

								
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