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BRIDGE STRUCTURE

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					BRIDGE STRUCTURE

          BY:
YASHRINA MOHAMAD YASIM
       AA 03058
     BRIDGE STRUCTURE
• Bridges are a tough structure to
  master. Bridges are a great way to
  study structure because all of the
  structural elements are in plain view.
• The elements of a typical bridges
  structure can be classified into two
  primary components, the
  substructure and the superstructure.
Bridge Structure


   Substructure
  Superstructure
           Substructure

The substructure refers to the elements
  of the bridge that transfer the loads
  from the bridge deck to the ground,
      such as abutments or piers.
Substructure


  Abutments
    Piers
           ABUTMENTS

• Abutments is also a vertical bridge
  support. It’s foundation for carrying a
  heavy structural load which is
  constructed in site in a deep
  excavation
• It’s function is same as the pier, to
  transfer load from above to the ground
ABUTMENTS
Abutments in
  process
                PIERS

• Pier is a vertical bridge support. It’s
  foundation for carrying a heavy
  structural load which is constructed
  in site in a deep excavation
• The function is to transfer load from
  the beam to the ground or foundation
PIER
PIERS
         Superstructure

  The superstructure refers to the
   elements of the bridge above the
substructure, including the deck, floor
  system, supporting members, and
               bracing.
      Superstructure

              Deck
Floor system ( beams, stringers )
  Supporting members ( beams,
trusses, girders, arches, cables )
               DECK

Deck is the platform that located at
the side of bridge.
It is also the roadway for pedestrian
used.
           FUNCTION

To make easier for pedestrian to use
the road.
It will make us safety while using or
cross the bridge.
              BEAM

Beam means the long thick piece of
wood or metal or concrete that used in
           construction.
             FUNCTION

• To transfer the load from the bridge
  deck to the column or pier.
• Same with stringer.
• Difference between them is, stringer is
  thin than beam.
BEAM
STEEL BEAM
BEAM
               TRUSSES
• Truss is a structural system composed of
  members designed to resist only axial loads
  (tension or compression).
• Ideally, the members see no bending
  moment or torsion.
• In reality, the members in a truss do see a
  small amount of bending and twisting,
  however these loads are small and the axial
  loads (tension or compression) are
  significant
             FUNCTION
• Make very efficient use of the strength
  of the members.
• They are light and use less materials
  than a comparable moment-resistant
  frame.
            GIRDER

Girder is a main support in structure
  It is a beam built up from boards
  It has a hollow rectangular cross
                section
             FUNCTION
The primary function of the steel girders
   is to provide:
a) Structural strength for supporting
   and joining modules in the barrel
   assembly
b) Rigid housing for the drawers
   containing photomultiplier tubes and
   associated front-end electronics for
   the tile calorimeter readout
For this function alone, 30% of the design
cross-section would give sufficient rigidity:
the maximum stresses involved are about.
In addition, girder provides the magnetic
flux return path for the inner solenoid field
and shields readout electronics and PMTs,
which are housed inside it, from the stray
field of the moun toroids.
Due to constraints imposed by drawers
containing the electronics readout, the
girder is a relatively high precision
machined structure having a steel section
of about 800cm and a free space for the
drawer mechanics of 18x19 cm.
The girders represent a substantial
fraction of the overall detector cost
and about 20% of the weight
Girders, being more stable are also
able to span greater distances and are
often used for longer spans, where I-
beams would not be sufficiently strong
or stable
Girder
             ARCH

    The meaning of arches are the
arrangements of wedge-shaped bricks
         called ‘voussoirs’.
               FUNCTION
Designed to support each other and carry load over
the opening, round a curved profile, to abutments
on either side
Use a curved structure which provides a high
resistance to bending forces
Unlike girder and truss bridges, both ends of an
arch are fixed in the horizontal direction
Thus when a load is placed on the bridge (e.g. a car
passes over it) horizontal forces occur in bearings
of the arch
These horizontal forces are unique to arch and as a
result arches can only be used where ground or
foundation is solid and stable
DESIGN OF
  ARCH
 BRIDGE
CONCRETE
  ARCH
STEEL ARCH
           CABLE-STAYED
Cables are very economical as they allow a slender
and lighter structure which is still able to span
great distances
Though only a few cables are strong enough to
support entire bridge, their flexibility makes them
weak to a force we rarely consider: the wind
Longer span cable-stayed bridges, careful studies
must be made to guarantee the stability of cables
and bridge in the wind
The lighter weight of the bridge, though a
disadvantages in a heavy wind, is a advantage
during an earthquake
However, should uneven settling of the foundations
occur during an earthquake or over time, cable-
stayed bridge can suffer damage so care must be
taken in planning foundations
The modern yet simple appearance of cable-stayed
bridge makes it an attractive and distinct landmark
The unique properties of cables, and the
structure as a whole, make the design of
bridge a very complex task
For longer spans where winds and
temperatures must be considered, the
calculations are extremely complex and
would be virtually impossible without the
aid of computers and computer analysis
The fabrication of cable stay bridges is also
relatively difficult
The cable routing and attachments for the
girders and towers are complex structures
requiring precision fabrication
           CULVERTS

Other bridge elements, which are
subject to corrosion, include guard
railing and culverts
A culvert is a box, conduit or pipe of
large cross section
            FUNCTION

It is used to convey pedestrians, water
  (foul or surface) or services in general
    under a road, canal or some other
           elevated construction
Culverts in
 process
 ~ THE END ~


~ THANK YOU ~

				
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posted:10/13/2012
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