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					 Dog and Cat in
   Research
     Timo Nevalainen
University of Eastern Finland
                     Dog Breeds

Beagle
   not too inbred
   no trimming
   Size
      (semichondrodystrophic)
Alsatian and Labrador
   larger dog
   hip dysplasia
       Dog reproduction
Estrus length     7-13 days
Ovulation type    Spontaneous
Breeding          10-16 days from
                  start of estrus

Gestation         60-66 days
Litter size       4-12
Litters / year    2
Weaning           7-8 weeks
Reproduction
 Estrus every 6-8
 months
 Estrus lasts 21-22
 days
 Ovulation about
 10th day
 Pseudopregnancy
 common
Space req’s (new Appendix A)

Weight of dog   Minimum floor      For each       Minimum height
     kg             area         additional dog         m
                For one or two   add a minimum
                    dogs               of
                     m²               m²
    ≤ 20              4                2                2
    > 20              8                4                2
  Socialization
   Programs
Objective - tractable
adults
        Basic commands
        Novel Situations




Puppies through 12
weeks
     Administrations

SC
Peripheral veins
                Jugular vein



     Cephalic
      vein


     Lateral saphenous
     vein
Administrations and blood samples


IV: superficial veins of
front and rear legs
IM: Thigh muscle
Blood samples
   superficial veins in legs
   jugular vein
          Research Use

Behavior             Aging                Anesthesia
Pulmonary            Neurology            Radiology
Pharmacology         Trauma               Shock
Wound healing        Nutrition            Heart
Dental               Circulatory          GI surgery
Brain                Skeletal             Cancer
Transplantation      Eye                  Diabetes

         Gay: Health Benefits of Animal Research, FBR
    Cardiopulmonary:
    Distinguishing
    Features
 Intracoronary anastomoses
 Left CA blood supply to conduction
system
 Incomplete mediastinum
 Atherosclerosis - limited lesions
     Gastrointestinal
     Tract
Simple stomach and short intestine
Ileocecal valve and caecum
12 hour gut transit time
Fast 12 hours pre-surgery (to avoid
vomiting intra-/pre-anesthesia)
Pharmacologic
Features
 Thiobarbiturates arrhythmogenic
 Ketamine convulsive
 Xylazine hypotensive
 Morphine emetic
Breed
Sensitivities
 Sight hounds – thiobarbiturates
    e.g., Greyhounds, Borzoi, Salukis


 Collies - ivermectin
Diseases of Concern

Rabies
Canine distemper
Infectious hepatitis virus
Infectious tracheobronchitis
         Parainfluenza
         Bordetella
Vaccination Recommendations

Yearly - all dogs
Breeding females
during anestrus
Pup vaccination
     6-16 weeks
     Endotracheal
      Intubation




  To intubate successfully,
the laryngeal structures
must be clearly seen.
       Endotracheal
        Intubation




  Use the arytenoid
cartilages, vocal folds and
laryngeal inlet as your
landmarks.
          Endotracheal
           Intubation
 Never insert a tube
blindly.
    It will end up in the
     esophagus,
      not the trachea.
  Endotracheal Intubation
 To intubate
properly,
     There is no
      substitute for seeing
      the tube as it enters
      the larynx.
Inflation of the Balloon
Tying the
  Tube
Tie the tube in place -
  To either jaw.
  Behind the occiput.


Securing the tube -
  Preserves the airway.
  Protects the trachea

   from trauma if the tube
   / balloon were
   dislodged.
     Anesthesia
      Recovery

Prepare to extubate -
Step 1: Untie the tube.
   Anesthesia
    Recovery
Prepare to extubate -
Step 2: Deflate the tube.
        Anesthesia
         Recovery
  Prepare to extubate -
  Step 3: Wait for dog’s
reflexes.
Extubate -
 Step 4: Extubate before dog
chews the tube.
Euthanasia
Injectable agents - anesthetics

Inhalants - CO2, CO
     Health monitoring

FELASA guidelines
Vaccination:
   distemper
   infectious hepatitis
   parvo
   rabies ?
                 Parasites

Toxocara canis
(intrauterine
infection)
Working with the Laboratory Dog
- Training for the Enhancement
 of Animal Welfare in Research

 http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/TrainingVideos.htm#dog
                    Cat: SPF vs.
                    Conventional

prone to respiratory infections
Cats suffering from respiratory infections are
poor subjects for research
There are SPF (specific pathogen free)
breeders of cats
   Cat: Reproduction Data
Estrus cycle duration   14 days
Estrus duration         3-6 days
Type of ovulation       induced
Mating methods          1M /1-15F
Gestation               64-66 days
Litter size             3-6
Litters / year          2
Weaning age             4-5 weeks
Socialization to Humans

Socialize kittens between 4
and 14 weeks of age.
If socialization to humans is
neglected, they will develop
a natural fear of humans.
Cats not properly socialized
can be dangerous!!
It only takes a few minutes     Only socialized cats
a day.                          make good research
                                subjects.
Cats like comfort.
  Soft beds
  Perches

  Exercise areas

  Toys
Housing
Enrichment
              Cat Handling

Cautions
Bite wounds
Scratches
Temperament


Work safely
Use proper restraint
Avoid stressing the cat
Cat: Common Procedures
 Handling may be difficult
    chemical sedation
    immobilization devices
    Helpful Hints on
       Restraint
Get the cat to cooperate:
 Reassure
 Stroke and pet

 Verbal praise

 Quiet manner

 Respectful attitude
   Helpful Hints on Restraint
 Never over-restrain a cat!

     Too much force makes the cat struggle.

     If you engage in a battle of wills, you will lose.
     If a cat gets over excited, stop and return the cat
     to his cage. Let him relax a while.

 Use the minimum restraint necessary to
do the procedure.
     Persuade (not force) the cat to cooperate.
                     Restraint




       “Pancake Kitty”          Access to jugular vein
e.g. for cephalic vein access
Restraint
  Lateral
recumbency
Restraint
One-handed hold
      Restraint
Scruff Reflex
   Calming effect.

   May help to
    regain control in a
    challenging
    situation.
 Restraint
The “Kitty Burrito”
    Flatten cat on a
     towel.

    Wrap securely.

    Enclose front legs.

    Allows rear access.
     Elizabethan Collars
 Can protect against bites.
 Likely to stress a cat….use only if necessary.

 Eliz. collar and towel combination...
    Cat: Common Procedures
Intravenous injection
requires good
handling
   veins accessible
    (antebrachial and
    femoral) are small and
    fragile, use butterfly
    (23G) needles
Blood samples from
ear or jugular vein
      Cat: Research Use

Aging                Auditory        Digestive
Behavior             Cancer          Endocrine
Circulatory          Genetics        Immune
Hemopoietic          Infectious diseases CNS
Musculoskeletal      Eye             Skin
Respiratory          Teratology      Toxicology


        Gay: Health Benefits of Animal Research.FBR
Cat Bites – Dangerous Infection

   In a full-force bite, canine teeth insert
  dangerous pathogens into the tissues.

   Because these wounds often develop
  serious infections, medical attention
  should be sought immediately after a cat
  bite.
Other Hazards
Unique to Cats
Toxoplasmosis
  Fetuses (pregnant women)
  Wear gloves, wash hands




Cat Scratch Fever
  Bartonella henselae
  Control fleas – transmission

   among cats
  Transmitted to humans via

   bites, scratches, licking
     Cat: Health surveillance

FELASA health monitoring guidelines
Source of cats
Vaccination
   panleukopenia
   rabies
Toxoplasmosis
Deworming
The Feline Diet                Compared to dogs,
                             cats have a higher
                             requirement for –

                                 Protein
                                 Fat

                                 Taurine

                                 Arachidonic acid

                                 Vitamin A

                                 Niacin

                                 Pyridoxin

Cats are strict carnivores, unlike dogs.
Toxicity
Morphine causes dose dependent CNS stimulation
and mania.

 Cats metabolize aspirin and other drugs poorly.

 Acetominophen is toxic.
Feline Infectious Peritonitis

				
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posted:10/13/2012
language:English
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