Ethics in Human Robot Interaction _HRI_ Ethics in Human Robot

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					Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   Evolution of robots (then)
       What can robots do?
       How do they fit into our
       What are the possibilities?
       Dangers?
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   Asimov's laws (1942)
    (1) A robot may not injure a human being or, through
      inaction,                   allow a human being to come
      to harm.
    (2) A robot must obey any orders given to it by human
      beings,                   except where such orders would
      conflict with the First Law.
    (3) A robot must protect its own existence as long as
      such                     protection does not conflict
      with the First or Second Law.
        (Wikipedia :
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   Impact of the robot evolution on roboethics
    What should we consider?
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   Roboethics is a young field – even less has
    been studied about roboethics applied to HRI

   “Good” robotics
       What does this mean?
       What are the implications of more able robots?

   Necessary paradigm shift
       From : Design from the engineer's perspective
       To : Design from the perspective of the end user
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   Facts:
       In 2006, there were 77 reported robot-related accidents in England
        alone, according to the Health and Safety Executive. (Robots: AI
        Methods in Robotics)

       In 2007 a military robot used in the South African army killed nine
        soldiers after a malfunction

       According to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's
        World Robotics Survey, in 2002 the number of domestic and service
        robots more than tripled, nearly outstripping their industrial
        counterparts. ...

       If a robot is autonomous and capable of learning, can its owner/designer
        be held responsible for all its actions?
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   A few basic questions to consider:
       If someone is harmed by a robot or because of a robot's
        actions, who's to blame?
                  If robot is a tool, could we blame the saw
                  manufacturer if somone gets cut?

       If someone is harmed because they use the robot for a
        purpose other than that intended, who is to blame?

       If the robot experiences catastrophic failure, and
        someone is harmed by the robot's inaction, who's to
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   These are diffcult questions to answer
    definitively, but what about unpredictable
       “Emergent behavior” is the sometimes unexpected
        behavior that results from interactions between the
        robots control system and the real world
       Not uncommon!
       How accountable is the designer for emergent robot
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   “Open texture risk”
         Risk occurring from unpredictable interactions in
          unstructured environments.

         Example : getting robots to understand the nuances of
          natural (human) language.
             Ambiguity resulting from interpretation that varies due to
              outside factors.

             Asimov’s Three Laws do not specifically address these

   Ethics are embedded into robots
         Through code designed to resolve issues
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   Executing complex tasks in unstructured and
    dynamic worlds is an immensely challenging

   The most efficient form is the humanoid robot
    form since the real world environment is
    designed to serve dual-armed bipeds (stairs,
    railings, etc...)

   However, merely giving a robot the human
    shape does not make it friendly to humans.
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   Key areas for emerging roboethics include:
       Ensuring human control of robots
       Preventing illegal use
       Protecting data acquired by robots
       Establishing clear identification and traceability of
        the machines
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   Case study : Hospital delivery robot
       What kinds of services could this robot provide?
           Provide directions to specific hospital locations
           Provide efficient delivery of meds, charts, food
           Consult with patients' families regarding diagnosis,
            prognosis and treatment
           Self care (charge battery, etc)
           Stay out of the way!

       What kinds of services should the robot provide?
       How should the robot accomplish these tasks?
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   Ethical issues for robots used in health care
       If the development and use of carebots is driven by
        management motivations will this be the only
        motivationand expected benefit?
       Are carebots also meant to improve the care itself?
       Will they actually improve care?
       Will they enhance the quality of the lives of the
       Will they enhance values such as autonomy?
       Is it ethically desirable or allowed to replace human-
        human interaction with human-robot interaction in
    Ethics in Human Robot Interaction
   A few last thoughts
   Robot use is becoming increasingly pervasive
    in society:
       Assist ill and elderly people by monitoring them
       Assist developmentally disabled adults and children
       Helping stroke patients with rehabilitation
       Deliver drugs, food, mail in hospitals
       Robots in the home – assist with domestic tasks

   How can we prepare?
       Design, develop and test realistic scenarios and

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