The real History of Computer for online earning by yasinseo


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									                             History of Computer

The history of computers is short but very complicated. Computers have been through lot of
changes throughout the past half-century. They also affect our society in many different
ways today. The following paper describes how the computers have changed from 1970 to

During 1970, Intel came out with a chip, which was the best selling semiconductor memory
chip in the world. The chip was called Intel 1103 and it was first DRAM, dynamic Random
Access Memory) chip. D.r. Robet H. Dennard developed it. His team and him had been
working on it since 1966.

The engineers needed to build a new type of chip for a calculator in 1971. So, they came out
with a chip called Intel 4004. It was the first single chip general-purpose microprocessor
built bye Intel. The chip was 4-bit and ran at a rate of 108 kHz and it also contained 2300
transistors. The chip dealt with up to 1 Kb of program memory and up to 4 Kb of data

In the early 70’s lot of new technology was being built. In 1973, IBM came out with the first
hard disk drive. The hard disk used two 30 Mb platters. During the next decade, the hard
disks were used in primary data storage, than in minicomputers and later in the early 80’s in
personal computers. The first personal computer to use a hard disk was IBM PC/XT in 1983.
In 1974, Gary Kildall developed CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers). It was the first
operating system to run on machines. CP/M became the permanent operation system for
software development on small systems, but later the personal chose not to use CP/M. In
1975, MITS Altair was the first personal computer to get attention by a lot of people. It was
made of Intel’s 8-bit 8080 processor. The MITS included 256 bytes of memory, toggle
switches and an LED panel.

Apple II was the beginning of the personal computers. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak
developed the Apple II in 1977. It had a built in keyboard, graphics display and BASIC built in
ROM. It was based on the MOS 6502 processor. Apple used MOS Techonology’s 6502
processor in the personal computers. It contained three 8-bit registers and an 8-bit stack
pointer. It was one of the first personal computers that were useful to people and a new age
of technology.

In 1981, IBM came out with a PC. “The landmark announcement of the IBM PC stunned the
computing world,” (Patterson 1). It was the first PC that surprised the world with its features
and speed. The IBM PC came with a 64 Kb of RAM, a floppy drive and monochrome
graphics, DOS, operating system based on CP/M. The PC was based on Intel’s 8088
processor. It was a 16-bit processor, which contained 8 registers and unique segmented 20-
bit memory architecture capable of addressing 1 Mb of memory. It ran at a speed of 4.77
MHz. So the first IBM PC became pretty popular during the early 80’s.

In 1982, a new computer came into the market with new technology and became very
popular. “An estimated 22 million units were sold. That’s almost as many as all the
Macintosh models put together, and it dwarfs IBM’s top-selling systems,” (Patterson 3). The
Commodore had a 64 Kb of RAM and it was also the first personal computer with an audio
synthesizer chip. In 1983, it came out with a portable version knows as the SX-64. It was the
first color portable computer. It was based on the MOS 6510 and it also had fast color
graphics. The Commodore was a cheap computer for the features it had and people all
around the world bought it.

Later in 1984, Apple came out with a new computer called the Macintosh. The Macintosh
was sold for $2495. It had 128 Kb of RAM, it also had a 3.5” floppy disk drive, which held
more data than the 5.25” disks. Motorola’s 68000 processor powered it. It was a 32-bit
processor and it also contained 60,000 transistors and had 16 registers. This computer
became popular during the 80’s but Commodore was still dominating during the time.

During the mid 1980’s IBM came out with a new and better computer known as the IBM
PC/AT. It had Intel’s fast 80286 processor that ran at 6 MHz, merged with 16-bit busses. The
80286 made the new PC/AT faster than the original PC. It came with a lot more ram 512 or
640 Kb and new floppy disks drives which could hold up to 1.2 Mb.

In the late 80’s Apple came out with a new computer known as the Macintosh II. It was first
color computer by Macintosh. The color was 8 bit deep and it was also available in 24-bit.
The graphics of the Macintosh II inspired Adobe to make a photo editing software called
Photoshop. The Macintosh II had a 14” color monitor. The screen resolution went up to 640
x 480 and it had RAM of 64 Mb. It had a Motorola 68020 processor with 6881 FPU. It was
one of the expensive computers of the time; it costs were $5498 for a standard
configuration, which included 1 Mb of RAM and a 40 Mb hard disk. The Macintosh II was not
a popular computer, customers complained about the price being too high.

After Steve Jobs left Apple he came up with his own computers knows as the NeXT, which
was released in 1989. It had a Motorola 68040 processor; 8 Mb of RAM a built in DSP, digital
signal processor and the first commercial magneto optical drive, which has 256 Mb capacity.
The NeXT had some faults to it. The computer was sold for $10, 000 which was too high.
Another fault in the computer was it used Objective C, a mix of C and Smalltalk instead of
using C++. So it was so expensive for the consumers to by it and the use of wrong type of

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