Effects of Industrial Revolution on Society by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									Effects of Industrial Revolution on
              Society
       Growth and Urbanization
• Population explosion
  – Declining death rate
  – Rise in birth rate
• Shift from rural to urban
  – More people, more cities
                   Social Classes
• Winners
  – Factory owners, bankers, merchants
  – Professionals, shopkeepers, “white-collar” workers
• Losers
  – Artisans
  – Aristocracy and peasants
  – Urban working classes
     • Longer hours
     • Lower wages
     • Children and women
                     Violence
• Luddites
  – 1811-1812
  – Sabotage a capital offense
• Molly Maguires
  – Exploited miners
• Trade unions
• Chartism
                Economic Liberalism
• Thomas Malthus
   – Population increase by geometric ratio
   – Food supply increases only by arithmetic ratio
      • Nothing can be done
      • Poor themselves are to blame
• David Ricardo
   – Iron Law of Wages
      • Wages remain just above starvation level
   – Labor Theory of Value
      • Value of product equal to labor needed to make it
• Utilitarianism
   – Jeremy Bentham
      • “greatest good for the greatest number”
   – John Stuart Mill
           Utopian Socialism
• Society based on cooperation and community
  NOT competitive individualism
• Robert Owen
  – New Lanark, Scotland
  – New Harmony, Indiana
                    Marxism Socialism
•     Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
•     Communist Manifesto
1.    Economic Interpretation of History
     1.   Society formed around means of production
     2.   Economic history
2.    Class Struggle
     1.   Haves vs. have-nots
3.    Surplus Value
     1.   Source of profit for capitalists
4.    Inevitable Destruction of Capitalism
     1.   Revolt of multiplying working class to establish classless society
5.    Internationalism
     1.   Workers across national boundaries have more in common that
          fellow citizens
     2.   “Workers of the world unite!”

								
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