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					             Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg / University of Applied Sciences




       Master of Business Administration

                        Module Culture & Politics:
                      International Politics
Development – Democracy - Human rights + Democracy promotion (Arabellion

               + Afghanistan) – German Peace and Security Policy

                     ANOTHER HEARTILY WELCOME!

Prof. Dr. Uwe HOLTZ
9/10 December 2011                                                         1
       Road Map for December 9 and 10, 2011
 The Meaning of Development – new vision: democracy, equity and
  environmental sustainability
 Democracy and Human Rights
 Relationship between Democracy, Good Governance and Development
 Democracy Promotion – “Arabellion” + Afghanistan (Conference in Bonn,
  December 5, 2011)
 CDU/CSU/FDP Foreign Policy

   Official Development Assistance (ODA)
   Development Cooperation by Germany and the EU
   Factors responsible for (mal-)development – role of elites
   Future of International Relations

 Two guest speakers: Bärbel Dieckmann (President of Deutsche
  Welthungerhilfe, 9 December) and Ursula Mogg (former MP on Peace and
  Security Policy, 10 December)
                                                                   2


Cross-cutting: NGOs
               Bärbel Dieckmann
                *1949 Leverkusen; married, 4 children
                                 on

           International Politics and the Role of
           NGOs (Deutsche Welthungerhilfe)

Ms. Dieckmann holds a Master of Arts (“Staatsexamen”) in
Philosophy, History and Social Sciences from the Bonn University
Professional experiences as a teacher – lastly as a deputy director
“Studiendirektorin”) of a high school in Bonn
Lord Mayer of Bonn, 1994 – 2009 (U.H.: excellent “ambassador” for
Bonn as a UN City)
Executive President of the Council of European Municipalities and
Regions, Brussels, 2004 – 2009
                                                                  3

President of the Deutsche Welthungerhilfe, since 2008
     Ursula Mogg (*1953 Koblenz)
  on Peace and Security Policy
Ms. Mogg holds a Master of Arts in Political
  Science, English Philology and International
  Law from the University of Bonn
Professional experiences in an office of an MP
  and in the State administration of Rhineland-
  Palatinate
Member of the German Bundestag, 1994-2009
  (deputy speaker for defense of the SPD
  parliamentary group; member of the NATO
  Parliamentary Assembly)
Lecturer at the Federal Armed Forces Academy in
                                            4

  Koblenz
In order to achieve the vision of a better world
and a better life for all human beings, the
appropriate development efforts are requested.

But what does it mean: Development?




                                                   5
              “South”- oriented definition:
               Nyerere Commission 1990*
   Development is a a process which enables human beings to realize
       their potential, build self-confidence, and lead lives of dignity
       and fulfillment. It is a process which frees people from fear of
       want and exploitation.
   It is a movement away from political, economic, or social
       oppression. Through development, political independence
       acquires true significance. And it is a process of growth, a
       movement essentially springing from within the society that is
       developing.
   Development therefore implies growing self-reliance, both
       individual and collective. (…)
   External assistance can promote development. But to have this
       effect, this assistance has to be integrated into the national effort.”


* The Challenge to the South: Report of the South Commission, Oxford 1990, p. 10-11   6
 Sustainable Development / Brundtland Commission 1987
Almost 25 years ago, the report “Our Common Future” from the United Nations World
      Commission on Environment and Development (chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland)
      placed sustainable development on the political agenda:
Under the label “from One Earth to One World” it pleaded for “sustainable development” in
      developed and developing countries defined as


“development that meets the needs of the present without compro-
mising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of needs, in particular
the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority
should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of
technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet
present and future needs.
The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations is the major objective of
development.”*
                                                                                                        7

The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Oxford – New York 1987, p. 43
         UN Conference on Environment and
        Development, at Rio de Janeiro in 1992
The Brundtland Report led to the first Earth Summit. The international
    community formulated an action programme for the 21st century –
    the Agenda 21 with its developmental and environmental objectives
    asking for national and international endeavours and for a new
    global partnership for sustainable development.

Rio led to new development paradigm of “sustainable human
     development”.

The United Nations officially recognized the interdependence of climate
    change, land degradation and biodiversity, and their relevance for
    sustainable development, in the three “Rio Conventions”: the
    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
    (UNFCCC), the United Nations Convention to Combat                8
    Desertification (UNCCD); and the Convention on Biological
 Rio: Agenda 21 – democracy takes place:
27.1. Non-governmental organizations play a vital role in the shaping
   and implementation of participatory democracy.

2.6. Experience has shown that sustainable development requires a
   commitment to sound economic policies and management, an
   effective and predictable public administration, the integration of
   environmental concerns into decision-making and progress towards
   democratic government, in the light of country-specific conditions,
   which allows for full participation of all parties concerned.



The Millennium Declaration from 2000 and the eight
  Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out important
  guidelines and concrete targets in the area of global sustainability and
  sustainable development.

                                                                      9
10
 Cotonou ACP-EU Agreement, 2000-2020,
 favours an integrated, holistic approach of development > the paradigm of
 “sustainable development centred on the human person“ (Art. 9 § 1)


                                       political



                       cultural                        economic

                                   development



                          environmental             social


U. Holtz: A human being – this animal rationale =
zoon logon echon – is not just a „homo
oeconomicus“, but also a „zoon politicon“ as well                      11

as homo socialis, oecologicus and culturalis.
Holtz:
    Development is a long term, complex and multi-dimensional
    process aiming at the satisfaction of basic human needs and the
    realisation of human rights. It must be sustainable.
    This is a challenge facing parliaments and governments, non-
    governmental organizations, private enterprises, research and
    teaching institutions, communities and individuals.

Brundtland Commission, “Our Common Future”, 1987:
The term “sustainable development” is defined as
“…development that meets the needs of the present without
  compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
  needs.”

UNCED Rio 1992 > Agenda 21; WSSD Jo’burg 2002 confirmed the
  paradigm of “sustainable human development”
Buen vivir for all instead of dolce vita for a few.
(Ecuador y Bolivia han incluido el buen vivir en sus respectivas constituciones como el
   objetivo social a ser perseguido por el Estado y por toda la sociedad.)
                                                                                          12
       How to measure development?
The two most prominent figures are given by the

WORLD BANK (GNI per capita)
and the
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (Human
     Development Index / HDI)

UNDP’s HDI is a composite index measuring average achievement in
   three basic dimensions of human development:
1. a long life (life expectancy)
2. access to knowledge (literacy rate),
3. a decent standard of living (using the power purchasing parity
   exchange rate).
                                                               13
 UNDP (2011): Human Development Report 2011
 Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All*

The point of departure is that the remarkable progress in
  human development over recent decades that the
  Human Development Report has documented cannot
  continue without bold global steps to reduce
  environmental risks and inequality.

“calls for a new vision that jointly considers equity and
  environmental sustainability.
Taking up this challenge will expand choices for people
  today and in the future – the hallmark of human
  development.” (p. 98)

                                                                            14
* Also available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf
Income inequality has deteriorated in most countries and
regions – with some notable exceptions in Latin America
                and Sub-Saharan Africa

 There is a striking increase in the income share of the
   wealthiest groups in much of Europe, North America,
   Australia and New Zealand.
 Income has also become more concentrated among top
   earners in China, India and South Africa. In China,
   the Gini coefficient for income inequality rose from
   0.31 in 1981 to 0.42 in 2005.*
 Over the last decade or so, much of Latin America and
   the Caribbean has bucked this trend: within-country
   inequality has been falling, especially in Argentina,
   Brazil, Honduras, Mexico and Peru.

 *A value of 0 represents absolute equality, a value of 1 absolute inequality.   15
  OECD (2011), Divided We Stand: Why Inequality
                  Keeps Rising
  www.oecd.org/els/social/inequality (5 Dec. 2011)
       COUNTRY NOTE: GERMANY

Income inequality in Germany has risen sharply since
  2000. In the 1980s, German inequality levels were
  close to those found in some Nordic countries, but
  today they are very close to the OECD average.
The average income of the top 10% of working-age
  Germans in 2008 was 57 300 euro (70 000 USD),
  nearly 8 times higher than that of the bottom 10%,
  who had an average income of 7 400 euro (9 100
  USD). This is up from a ratio of 6 to 1 in the mid
  1990s.
Redistribution is stronger in Germany than a typical
  OECD country. In 2008, taxes and benefits reduce     16
  inequality by nearly 30%.
Notes: The Gini coefficient ranges from 0 (when all people have identical
incomes) to 1 (when the richest person has all the income). Market incomes
are labour earnings, capital incomes and savings. Disposable income is
market income plus social transfers less income taxes. Incomes are           17

adjusted for household size. Data refer to the working-age population.
  COUNTRY NOTE: MEXICO

Income inequality among working-age people in
  Mexico is the second highest in the OECD,
  after Chile, and well above the OECD average,
  despite falling since the mid-1990s.

The average income of the top 10% of Mexicans
 in 2008 was 228,900 MXN, 26 times higher
 than that of the bottom 10%, who had an
 average income of 8,700 MXN. The ratio is 9
 to 1 in a typical OECD country.
                                              18
19
Democracy

Human Rights

Good Governance



                  20
 The word democracy originates from the Greek
      “demos” = “the people”
        “kratein” = “to rule”
       democracy = “rule by the people”
      (in the Athenian democracy, slaves and women were prohibited from voting)
The classical distinction between governments in terms
  of the number of rulers:
  government by one man (monarchy or tyranny),
  government by the few (aristocracy or oligarchy),
  government by the many (democracy).
Distinction between monarchies and republics.
Schemes classifying democracies in terms of their key
  institutions:
  parliamentary democracy,
                                                                           21

  presidential democracy.
  US President Abraham Lincoln in his
  »Gettysburg Address« (19.11.1863):
                 Democracy is
 “government of the people by the people for
                 the people”

rule emanating from the people (legitimacy)
participatory form of rule (execution)
committed to the people and the public welfare
  (normative aspect of rule).
                                                 22
There is much debate on the ability of a democracy
 to properly represent both the ‘will of the people’
 and to do what is ‘right’, but to refer to Winston
 Churchill:
 Democracy is the worst form of government
 except for all those others that have been tried.
This is because there is no system that can ideally
 order society. Traditionally the purpose of
 democracy is to prevent tyranny and dictatorship
 (the accumulation of too much authority in the
 hands of one or a few).
IPU, Universal Declaration on Democracy, 1997:
  Democracy “is the only political system that has   23

  the capacity for self-correction.”
       U. Holtz
       The triangle of core components of any
       democracy

1.   Free, fair and regular elections with the
     possibility to change government

Elections require the freedom of expression and associational
   freedom.
Electoral competition is required for any democracy to thrive and
   flourish. In a democracy, multiple political forces/parties compete
   inside an institutional framework; parliaments are the heart of
   democracy.
Without inclusion, certain segments of society are not eligible to
   participate, leaving a lack of true democratic representation.
                                                                 24
Nelson Mandela voting in 1994 elections




                                          25
Parliamentary Hexagon (U.H.):
The main six functions / powers of Parliaments:
(i) Legislative power; (ii) power of the purse; (iii)
elective power; (iv) power of oversight; (v) treaty and
war power; (vi) power of discourse.

German: Basic Law, Article 21
Political parties shall participate in the formation
of the political will of the people.
They may be freely established.
Their internal organisation must conform to
democratic principles.
They must publicly account for their assets and
for the sources and use of their funds.
                                                       26
2. Politics shall be bound by constitutional
   law and order

This requires the - at least a minimum of –
separation of powers,
independent judiciary,
rule of law.



                                               27
Federal Constitutional Court - Karlsruhe / Germany




                                                 28
3. The respect for, and protection and
  promotion of inalienable human rights and
  civil and political liberties


 Elections and a body of civil rights - both institutions limit the
 power of the state: the first by ensuring that the rascals can be
 thrown out of office, the second by making sure that the
 rascals cannot do certain things even while in office. Civil
 rights also protect minorities against the dictatorship of the
 majority.

                                                                  29
European Court of Human Rights / Council of
                  Europe
           Strasbourg / France




                                              30
      Democracy – universally recognised?
IPU, Universal Declaration on Democracy,1997:
Democracy is a universally recognised ideal as well as a goal,
  which is based on common values shared by peoples
  throughout the world community irrespective of cultural,
  political, social and economic differences. It is thus a basic
  right of citizenship to be exercised under conditions of
  freedom, equality, transparency and responsibility, with due
  respect for the plurality of views, and in the interest of the
  polity.

Amartya Sen, 1999:
The recognition of democracy as a universally relevant system,
  which moves in the direction of its acceptance as a universal
  value, is a major revolution in thinking, and one of the main
  contributions of the twentieth century. … Democracy enriches
  the lives of the citizens.
                                                                   31
                                  Amartya Sen (*1933):
                           Democracy as a Universal Value (1999)
                  This recognition of democracy as a universally
indowaves.instablogs.com



                  relevant system, which moves in the direction of its
                  acceptance as a universal value, is a major
                  revolution in thinking.
                  A country does not have to be deemed fit for
                  democracy; rather, it has to become fit through
                  democracy.
                  We can distinguish three different ways in which
                  democracy enriches the lives of the citizens:
               a) Intrinsic value
               b) Instrumental value
                                                                   32
               c) Constructive role
www.freedomhouse.org/images/File/fiw/FIW_2011_MOF_Final.pdf,   January 2011




                                                                              33
 Democracy Index 2008 – Economist Intelligence Unit




Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Index of Democracy 2008   34

(http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy Index 2008.pdf - 12.11.10
   Democracy and human rights
Democracy, human rights and
 development should go hand in hand.

Democracies rarely, or even never, go to
 war with one another.
  (< Democratic peace theory or liberal democratic
  theory – Immanuel Kant)

Kant's theory was that a majority of the people would never
  vote to go to war, unless in self defence. Therefore, if all
  nations were republics, it would end war, because there
  would be no aggressors. (Perpetual Peace, 1795)            35
            The International Bill of Human Rights
      consists of
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by General
     Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948,
(Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with
       reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.)

the InternationalCovenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
      Rights/ICESCR adopted by the General Assembly by its resolution
      2200 A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 - entered into force 3 January 1976.
the InternationalCovenant on Civil and Political
      Rights/ICCPR adopted by the General Assembly by its resolution
      2200 A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 – entered into force 23 March 1976,
      and its two Optional Protocols.

The WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS, Vienna, 14-25
    June 1993, confirmed:
All human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and 36
    interrelated.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United
   Nations, 1948):


Every person – ‘without distinction of any kind, such as
  race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other
  opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or … the
  political, jurisdictional or international status of the
  country or territory to which a person belongs’ (Article 2)
  – should enjoy such rights, including those in the
  following categories:




Cf. Development 53 (2010), p. 451–456, 452 (www.palgrave-           37
    journals.com/development/journal/v53/n4/full/dev201081a.html)
1. Political/Civil:

- not being ‘subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or
     degrading treatment or punishment’ (Article 5);
- ‘equal protection of the law’ (Article 7);
- not being ‘subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or
     exile’ (Article 9);
- ‘a fair and public hearing by an independent and
     impartial tribunal’ (Article 10);
- ‘freedom of movement and residence within the
     borders of each state … [and] to leave any country
     … and to return to his country’ (Article 13);
- ‘take part in the government of [one's] country,
     directly or through freely chosen representatives’
     (Article 23);
                                                            38
2. Economic/Welfare:
- ‘own property alone as well as in association with others’ (Article
    17);
- ‘free choice of employment, … just and favorable conditions of
    work, … just and favorable remuneration [in work] … and
    [freedom] to join trade unions for the protection of [one's interests’
    (Article 23);
- ‘a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of
    [one]self and of [one's] family, including food, clothing, housing
    and medical care and necessary social services’ (Article 25);

3. Social/Cultural:
- ‘freedom of thought, conscience and religion’ (Article 18);
- ‘freedom of opinion and expression … and to seek, receive and
    impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of
    frontiers’ (Article 19);
-‘freely participate in the cultural life of the community, … enjoy the
    arts, and … share in scientific advancement and its benefits’
    (Article 27).                                                  39
     „New“ Generation of Rights:
         Collective Rights
Right of peoples to:
• Self-determination
• Development
• Free use of their wealth and natural resources
• Peace
• A healthy environment

Other collective rights:
• Rights of national, ethnic, religious and linguistic
   minorities
• Rights of indigenous peoples
                                                         40
           The right to development
The 1986 UN Declaration on the Right to Development
   states that:
1. “… every human person and all peoples are entitled to
   participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social,
   cultural and political development, in which all human
   rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized”,
   [and]
2. “The human right to development also implies the full
   realization of the right of peoples to self-determination,
   which includes, subject to the relevant provisions of both
   International Covenants on Human Rights, the exercise of
   their inalienable right to full sovereignty over all their
   natural wealth and resources.”                         41
 The right to development is based on the principle of the
  indivisibility and interdependence of all human rights and
  fundamental freedoms.

 Equal attention and urgent consideration should be given
  to the implementation, promotion and protection of civil,
  political, economic, social and cultural rights.
 The Millennium Development Goals of September 2000
  define the eradication of poverty as the overarching
  objective of the development process.
 Governments and other duty bearers are under an
  obligation to respect, protect and fulfil human rights.

Cf. IPU (2005): Human Rights: A Handbook for Parliamentarians, Geneva
                                                                        42
Relationship between development,
 democracy and good governance

          Democracy promotion


Good governance is more than good government; it
encompasses good administration.
[In French: “bonne gestion des affaires publiques”]
                                                      43
    Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of
            the UN, 1997*
  “Good governance and sustainable development are
    indivisible.

  That is the lesson of all our efforts and experiences,
    from Africa to Asia to Latin America. Without good
    governance -- without the rule of law, predictable
    administration, legitimate power, and responsive
    regulation -- no amount of funding, no amount of
    charity will set us on the path to prosperity.”44

                                                           44

http://mirror.undp.org/magnet/icg97/ANNAN.HTM (7.12.11)
A central prerequisite for sustainable development is good,
  legitimate and effective governance.
The EU-ACP Cotonou Agreement (Art 9.3) gives the following
  defintion:

“In the context of political and institutional environment that
    upholds human rights, democratic principles and the rule of
    law, good governance
is the transparent and accountable management of human,
    natural, economic and financial resources for the purposes of
    equitable and sustainable development.

It entails clear decision-making procedures at the level of public
    authorities, transparent and accountable institutions, the
    primacy of law in the management and distribution of
    resources and capacity building for elaborating and
    implementing measures aiming in particular at preventing and
    combating corruption.”
                                                                     45
        The international community about the links
WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS, Vienna, June 1993:
  Democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
  are interdependent and mutually reinforcing.

UNDP‘s HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2002:
  The links between democracy and human development are not automatic. Political
  freedom and participation are part of human development, both as development
  goals in their own right and as means for advancing human development.

COTONOU AGREEMENT, 2000:
  The partnership shall actively support the promotion of human rights, processes of
  democratisation, consolidation of the rule of law, and good governance.

NEPAD, 2001, art. 71
  African leaders have learnt from their own experiences that peace, security,
  democracy, good governance, human rights and sound economic management are
  conditions for sustainable development.

                                                                                46
           ACP-EU Partnership Agreement,
           signed in Cotonou, 23 June 2000
                          Article 9
          Essential Elements and Fundamental Element
(1) Cooperation shall be directed towards sustainable
   development centred on the human person, who is the
   main protagonist and beneficiary of development; this
   entails respect for and promotion of all human rights.
   Respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms,
   including respect for fundamental social rights,
   democracy based on the rule of law and transparent and
   accountable governance are an integral part of sustainable
   development.
(2) The Parties reaffirm that democratisation, development
   and the protection of fundamental freedoms and human
   rights are interrelated and mutually reinforcing.
                                                             47
    International Democracy Promotion
Objective:
External IDP should contribute to the development and consolidation of
    democracy
Reasons:
- democracy is a universal value (A. Sen)
- moral obligation
- instrumental rationale grounded in the goals of universal peace, social justice
    and global development
IDP – democracy building:
- promoting the (pre-)conditions for development
- assisting the democratisation
- in failed, weak states - for the time being - political stability may be a
    priority
Means, approaches:
A continuum from ‘soft power’ (Joseph Nye) and other non-coercive form of influence
   to diplomatic pressure, political conditionalities and (threat of) sanctions (‘hard
   power’ - # war)                                                                    48
Cotonou Agreement ARTICLE 9
Essential elements regarding human rights, democratic principles
and the rule of law,
and fundamental element regarding good governance
 Respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms,
   including respect for fundamental social rights, democracy
   based on the rule of law and transparent and accountable
   governance are an integral part of sustainable development.
 The Partnership shall actively support the promotion of human
   rights, processes of democratisation, consolidation of the
   rule of law, and good governance. These areas will be an
   important subject for the political dialogue.
 The Community shall provide support for political, institutional
   and legal reforms and for building the capacity of public and
   private actors and civil society in the framework of strategies
   agreed jointly between the State concerned and the
   Community.
                                                               49
Lise Rakner, Alina Rocha Menocal, Verena Fritz.:
   Democratisation’s Third Wave and the Challenges of
   Democratic Deepening: Assessing International Democracy
   Assistance and Lessons Learned, London 2007
(http://www.cmi.no/publications/file/2761-democratisations-
   third-wave-and-the-challenges-of.pdf - 7.12.11);
Democracy assistance: Lessons learned and remaining
   challenges.....................23
3.2 Forms of democracy assistance
3.2.1 Electoral assistance.....................................
3.2.2 Assistance to political parties ………………
3.2.3 Justice sector assistance.............................
3.2.4 Assistance to civil society.............................
3.2.5 Assistance to media.....................................
-----
[3.2.6 Assistance to decentralization of a country + to local
   democracy………………………………………..]                                    50
What worked?
- In the 70ies: support to states transitioning from dictatorship to
   democracy, incl. Portugal, Spain and Greece. (< German political
   foundations).
- 1993 Copenhagen criteria of the EC for accession countries > good
   results
- Sanctions: apartheid South Africa; Cuba and Zimbabwe (mixed results)

Democracy assistance assessments (so difficult):
- Political foundations: in some countries very successful, in others
   helpful (Indonesia, Chile) or poor results (China)
- Evaluation of the EU efforts in Ukraine, Indonesia, Angola and
   Guatemala: The impact of external assistance has been modest.
- USAID: more than 100 countries between 1990-2003 achieved higher
   scores for democracy, but the overall democracy dividend was itself
   small, because the aid commitment has been small
- Other studies (SIDA, DANIDA, GTZ/GIZ, political foundations): both
   yes and no (promotion of parties, parliaments, civil society)      51
Since the end of the Cold War, NGOs and INGOs are
  playing quite important roles in the development
  process (international conferences, advocacy role,
  negotiation partners).

The tendency for donors and international organisations
  to engage with civil society and NGOs but to neglect
  parliaments is neither acceptable nor prudent.

Donors and international organisations have to engage
 with parliaments, who have the last word on laws and
 budgets and are the representative institutions
 providing the political base for policy and
 institutional arrangements.
                                                       52
             “It's time, also for the international
               community, to try democracy”*
By Vidar Helgesen, IDEA Secretary-General
The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance is an intergovernmental org.

Both the world and the Arab region are changing and, in tandem with
  these changes, the demand for democracy appears to be returning
  with renewed vitality.
Twenty two years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, seventeen years after
  the end of the apartheid regime in South Africa, thirteen years after
  the democratic reform in Indonesia, the 2011 democracy wave is
  about to engulf the Arab world.
And this time, democracy doesn't come at the point of foreign guns or
  as a by-product of other agendas. The seeds are unequivocally and
  genuinely home-grown. Men and women are simply determined to
  take their future in their own hands. They want to be represented and
  have a say in the way their country is governed.                  53

 * http://www.idea.int/arab_world/time-to-try-democracy.cfm (7.12.11)
While their agenda is domestic, they are at the same time teaching the
    international community some lessons:

1. Firstly, the marginal role democracy has played in international relations in
      the last decade has not made democracy less central to citizens'
      aspirations around the world. The democratic uprising took the world by
      surprise: again, democracy defies predictions.
2. Secondly, in the new, multi-polar world, democracy too is becoming truly
      global. It can no longer be dismissed as a European or Western cultural
      export. There are twice as many people living under democracy in the
      global South as the populations of Europe and North America together.
3. Thirdly, the information, awareness-raising and political mobilization
      capacity of new media has by far exceeded the capacity of authoritarian
      governments to insulate their citizens from regional and global trends.
      The multiple social networks are like water streams in a field; they
      always find alternative paths and create new ones, often in real time.
4. Last but not least, in the turbulent Arab region, the alibi of authoritarian
      regimes as self-appointed guarantors of regional security and stability is
      no longer convincing and credible, and hence, should no longer be taken
      at face value by other influential international actors.                54
The building of democracy in the Arab region will take time. As
   already discovered in earlier transitions, democracy is not what
   you find in the pot when you lift the heavy lid of authoritarian
   government. While democracy is the best guarantor of stability
   in the long run, the process of democratization is often
   destabilizing: after all, it is about changing power relations in
   society. Those rightly concerned with the danger of instability
   and conflict in the Middle East should however realize that by
   now, it is delaying democratic change which holds the greater
   risk.
Citizens of Tunisia, Egypt and other countries of the region have
   a long way to go. Mass protest can overthrow a dictatorship,
   but cannot build democracy. Changes are required in
   constitutions, electoral systems, laws and regulations related to
   political parties, the media, the justice system, and not least, in
   people's minds. One fundamental such shift required is that of
   the place of women in political life in the region.
                                                                    55
               The International Afghanistan Conference in Bonn
                               5 December 2011
                Afghanistan and the International Community:
                From Transition to the Transformation Decade
                      CONFERENCE CONCLUSIONS*
    3. Ten years ago today at the Petersberg, Afghanistan charted a
       new path towards a sovereign, peaceful, prosperous and
       democratic future, and the International Community accepted
       the responsibility to help Afghanistan along that path.
       Together we have achieved substantial progress over these ten
       years, more than in any other period in Afghanistan’s history.
    Never before have the Afghan people, and especially Afghan
       women, enjoyed comparable access to services, including
       education and health, or seen greater development of
       infrastructure across the country. Al Qaida has been disrupted,
       and Afghanistan’s national security institutions are
       increasingly able to assume responsibility for a secure and
       independent Afghanistan.
                                                                                                             56
* www.auswaertiges-amt.de/cae/servlet/contentblob/603686/publicationFile/162646/Konferenzschlussfolgerung_engl.pdf
                                                                                                     57
www.general-anzeiger-bonn.de/news/bilder/Afghanistan-Konferenz-article575100.html?view=single&i=14
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/47/34/44789608.gif (6.12.2011)
                                                              58
6. Afghanistan reaffirms that the future of its political
   system will continue to reflect its pluralistic society
   and remain firmly founded on the Afghan
   Constitution.
   The Afghan people will continue to build a stable,
   democratic society, based on the rule of law, where
   the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its
   citizens, including the equality of men and women,
   are guaranteed under the Constitution.
   Afghanistan recommits to upholding all of its
   international human rights obligations.
   Acknowledging that on this path Afghanistan will
   have its own lessons to learn, the International
   Community fully endorses this vision and commits to   59

   supporting Afghanistan’s progress in that direction.
7. We have taken note of statements by Afghan civil society
   organisations, including today’s statements by two of their delegates
   at this meeting.
   We all reaffirm that the human rights and fundamental freedoms
   enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, including the rights of women
   and children, as well as a thriving and free civil society are key for
   Afghanistan’s future.
   Therefore, we underscore the further promotion of civil society
   participation, including both traditional civil society structures and
   modern manifestations of civic action, including the role of youth, in
   the country’s democratic processes.
19. The International Community shares Afghanistan’s aim of
   achieving self‐reliance and prosperity through developing its human
   and resource potential on its path towards sustainable and equitable
   growth and improved standards of living, and welcomes the Afghan
   Government’s economic Transition strategy as elaborated in the
   document Towards a Self‐Sustaining Afghanistan.
                                                                    60
18. Mindful of the relevant UN resolutions, the International
   Community concurs with Afghanistan that the peace and
   reconciliation process and its outcome must be based on the
   following principles:
(a) The process leading to reconciliation must be
   truly Afghan‐led and Afghan‐owned; as well as
   inclusive, representing the legitimate interests of all the people of
   Afghanistan, regardless of gender or social status.
(b) Reconciliation must contain
   the reaffirmation of a sovereign, stable and united Afghanistan;
   the renunciation of violence;
   the breaking of ties to international terrorism;
   respect for the Afghan Constitution, including its human rights
   provisions, notably the rights of women.
(c) The region must respect and support the peace process and its
   outcome.
An outcome of the peace process respecting the above principles will
   receive the full support of the International Community.            61
The coalition agreement between CDU, CSU and FDP
                     2009-2013
  SECURING PEACE
  Through partnership and common responsibility in Europe
     and the world
  1. Germany in Europe
  2. Value-oriented and interest-led foreign policy
  3. Germany’s international responsibilities
  4. International deployment and instruments within German
     security policy
  5. Modern and efficient German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr)
  6. Protecting human rights – promoting the rule of law
  7. Cultural relations and education policy
  8. Development co-operation
                                                                     62
 www.cdu.de/en/doc/091215-koalitionsvertrag-2009-2013-englisch.pdf
 Germany’s future in peace, freedom, security and prosperity is
  inextricably linked to political developments in Europe and the
  world. We are committed to a policy that both serves the
  interests of our country in a unified Europe and contributes to
  peace in the world. To this end, we assume a formative role in
  the alliances and international organisations with which we
  cooperate.

 Our political strategies are shaped by the values in the Basic
  Law and directed by the goal of protecting the interests of our
  country. We are committed to the universality of human rights,
  the rule of law domestically and in international relations and
  consider human rights an invariable constant of German
  foreign and security policy.

 We are committed to strong partnerships and effective
  multilateral structures. Transatlantic co-operation and
  European unification are the centrepieces of our policy.      63
 We advocate strengthening the United Nations and
  are committed to comprehensive reforms. We are
  committed to structures in this global organisation
  that reflect present day realities.

 In this context we will continue to advocate a
  permanent joint EU seat on the Security Council in
  the overall reform of the UN and in keeping with the
  Lisbon Treaty.

 We will continue to expand Bonn as a location for
  the United Nations and international
  nongovernmental organisations.                        64
 We will only engage militarily if we can do so in the
  framework of the UN, NATO or the EU and on the basis of
  legitimacy under international law. The right to self defence is
  not affected. We will continue to be guided by our culture of
  restraint.

 Diplomatic efforts have the utmost priority in international
  crisis prevention and management; the importance of utilising
  civil forces, namely the police and the judiciary, is increasing.

 We are committed to the cross-linked security policy
  approach. It requires modern and efficient armed forces and
  suitable civil instruments for international conflict prevention
  and management, and for closer integration and co-ordination.

 The federal government will inform the German Bundestag
  about the ongoing deployments of German armed forces on a
  regular basis thus fulfilling the requirements for adequate
  parliamentary control.
                                                                      65
         Thank you
         very much
for your attention and active
         participation
                            66

				
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