Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg / University of Applied Sciences
Master of Business Administration
Module Culture & Politics:
Development – Democracy - Human rights + Democracy promotion (Arabellion
+ Afghanistan) – German Peace and Security Policy
ANOTHER HEARTILY WELCOME!
Prof. Dr. Uwe HOLTZ
9/10 December 2011 1
Road Map for December 9 and 10, 2011
The Meaning of Development – new vision: democracy, equity and
Democracy and Human Rights
Relationship between Democracy, Good Governance and Development
Democracy Promotion – “Arabellion” + Afghanistan (Conference in Bonn,
December 5, 2011)
CDU/CSU/FDP Foreign Policy
Official Development Assistance (ODA)
Development Cooperation by Germany and the EU
Factors responsible for (mal-)development – role of elites
Future of International Relations
Two guest speakers: Bärbel Dieckmann (President of Deutsche
Welthungerhilfe, 9 December) and Ursula Mogg (former MP on Peace and
Security Policy, 10 December)
*1949 Leverkusen; married, 4 children
International Politics and the Role of
NGOs (Deutsche Welthungerhilfe)
Ms. Dieckmann holds a Master of Arts (“Staatsexamen”) in
Philosophy, History and Social Sciences from the Bonn University
Professional experiences as a teacher – lastly as a deputy director
“Studiendirektorin”) of a high school in Bonn
Lord Mayer of Bonn, 1994 – 2009 (U.H.: excellent “ambassador” for
Bonn as a UN City)
Executive President of the Council of European Municipalities and
Regions, Brussels, 2004 – 2009
President of the Deutsche Welthungerhilfe, since 2008
Ursula Mogg (*1953 Koblenz)
on Peace and Security Policy
Ms. Mogg holds a Master of Arts in Political
Science, English Philology and International
Law from the University of Bonn
Professional experiences in an office of an MP
and in the State administration of Rhineland-
Member of the German Bundestag, 1994-2009
(deputy speaker for defense of the SPD
parliamentary group; member of the NATO
Lecturer at the Federal Armed Forces Academy in
In order to achieve the vision of a better world
and a better life for all human beings, the
appropriate development efforts are requested.
But what does it mean: Development?
“South”- oriented definition:
Nyerere Commission 1990*
Development is a a process which enables human beings to realize
their potential, build self-confidence, and lead lives of dignity
and fulfillment. It is a process which frees people from fear of
want and exploitation.
It is a movement away from political, economic, or social
oppression. Through development, political independence
acquires true significance. And it is a process of growth, a
movement essentially springing from within the society that is
Development therefore implies growing self-reliance, both
individual and collective. (…)
External assistance can promote development. But to have this
effect, this assistance has to be integrated into the national effort.”
* The Challenge to the South: Report of the South Commission, Oxford 1990, p. 10-11 6
Sustainable Development / Brundtland Commission 1987
Almost 25 years ago, the report “Our Common Future” from the United Nations World
Commission on Environment and Development (chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland)
placed sustainable development on the political agenda:
Under the label “from One Earth to One World” it pleaded for “sustainable development” in
developed and developing countries defined as
“development that meets the needs of the present without compro-
mising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of needs, in particular
the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority
should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of
technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet
present and future needs.
The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations is the major objective of
The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Oxford – New York 1987, p. 43
UN Conference on Environment and
Development, at Rio de Janeiro in 1992
The Brundtland Report led to the first Earth Summit. The international
community formulated an action programme for the 21st century –
the Agenda 21 with its developmental and environmental objectives
asking for national and international endeavours and for a new
global partnership for sustainable development.
Rio led to new development paradigm of “sustainable human
The United Nations officially recognized the interdependence of climate
change, land degradation and biodiversity, and their relevance for
sustainable development, in the three “Rio Conventions”: the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
(UNFCCC), the United Nations Convention to Combat 8
Desertification (UNCCD); and the Convention on Biological
Rio: Agenda 21 – democracy takes place:
27.1. Non-governmental organizations play a vital role in the shaping
and implementation of participatory democracy.
2.6. Experience has shown that sustainable development requires a
commitment to sound economic policies and management, an
effective and predictable public administration, the integration of
environmental concerns into decision-making and progress towards
democratic government, in the light of country-specific conditions,
which allows for full participation of all parties concerned.
The Millennium Declaration from 2000 and the eight
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out important
guidelines and concrete targets in the area of global sustainability and
Cotonou ACP-EU Agreement, 2000-2020,
favours an integrated, holistic approach of development > the paradigm of
“sustainable development centred on the human person“ (Art. 9 § 1)
U. Holtz: A human being – this animal rationale =
zoon logon echon – is not just a „homo
oeconomicus“, but also a „zoon politicon“ as well 11
as homo socialis, oecologicus and culturalis.
Development is a long term, complex and multi-dimensional
process aiming at the satisfaction of basic human needs and the
realisation of human rights. It must be sustainable.
This is a challenge facing parliaments and governments, non-
governmental organizations, private enterprises, research and
teaching institutions, communities and individuals.
Brundtland Commission, “Our Common Future”, 1987:
The term “sustainable development” is defined as
“…development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
UNCED Rio 1992 > Agenda 21; WSSD Jo’burg 2002 confirmed the
paradigm of “sustainable human development”
Buen vivir for all instead of dolce vita for a few.
(Ecuador y Bolivia han incluido el buen vivir en sus respectivas constituciones como el
objetivo social a ser perseguido por el Estado y por toda la sociedad.)
How to measure development?
The two most prominent figures are given by the
WORLD BANK (GNI per capita)
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (Human
Development Index / HDI)
UNDP’s HDI is a composite index measuring average achievement in
three basic dimensions of human development:
1. a long life (life expectancy)
2. access to knowledge (literacy rate),
3. a decent standard of living (using the power purchasing parity
UNDP (2011): Human Development Report 2011
Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All*
The point of departure is that the remarkable progress in
human development over recent decades that the
Human Development Report has documented cannot
continue without bold global steps to reduce
environmental risks and inequality.
“calls for a new vision that jointly considers equity and
Taking up this challenge will expand choices for people
today and in the future – the hallmark of human
development.” (p. 98)
* Also available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf
Income inequality has deteriorated in most countries and
regions – with some notable exceptions in Latin America
and Sub-Saharan Africa
There is a striking increase in the income share of the
wealthiest groups in much of Europe, North America,
Australia and New Zealand.
Income has also become more concentrated among top
earners in China, India and South Africa. In China,
the Gini coefficient for income inequality rose from
0.31 in 1981 to 0.42 in 2005.*
Over the last decade or so, much of Latin America and
the Caribbean has bucked this trend: within-country
inequality has been falling, especially in Argentina,
Brazil, Honduras, Mexico and Peru.
*A value of 0 represents absolute equality, a value of 1 absolute inequality. 15
OECD (2011), Divided We Stand: Why Inequality
www.oecd.org/els/social/inequality (5 Dec. 2011)
COUNTRY NOTE: GERMANY
Income inequality in Germany has risen sharply since
2000. In the 1980s, German inequality levels were
close to those found in some Nordic countries, but
today they are very close to the OECD average.
The average income of the top 10% of working-age
Germans in 2008 was 57 300 euro (70 000 USD),
nearly 8 times higher than that of the bottom 10%,
who had an average income of 7 400 euro (9 100
USD). This is up from a ratio of 6 to 1 in the mid
Redistribution is stronger in Germany than a typical
OECD country. In 2008, taxes and benefits reduce 16
inequality by nearly 30%.
Notes: The Gini coefficient ranges from 0 (when all people have identical
incomes) to 1 (when the richest person has all the income). Market incomes
are labour earnings, capital incomes and savings. Disposable income is
market income plus social transfers less income taxes. Incomes are 17
adjusted for household size. Data refer to the working-age population.
COUNTRY NOTE: MEXICO
Income inequality among working-age people in
Mexico is the second highest in the OECD,
after Chile, and well above the OECD average,
despite falling since the mid-1990s.
The average income of the top 10% of Mexicans
in 2008 was 228,900 MXN, 26 times higher
than that of the bottom 10%, who had an
average income of 8,700 MXN. The ratio is 9
to 1 in a typical OECD country.
The word democracy originates from the Greek
“demos” = “the people”
“kratein” = “to rule”
democracy = “rule by the people”
(in the Athenian democracy, slaves and women were prohibited from voting)
The classical distinction between governments in terms
of the number of rulers:
government by one man (monarchy or tyranny),
government by the few (aristocracy or oligarchy),
government by the many (democracy).
Distinction between monarchies and republics.
Schemes classifying democracies in terms of their key
US President Abraham Lincoln in his
»Gettysburg Address« (19.11.1863):
“government of the people by the people for
rule emanating from the people (legitimacy)
participatory form of rule (execution)
committed to the people and the public welfare
(normative aspect of rule).
There is much debate on the ability of a democracy
to properly represent both the ‘will of the people’
and to do what is ‘right’, but to refer to Winston
Democracy is the worst form of government
except for all those others that have been tried.
This is because there is no system that can ideally
order society. Traditionally the purpose of
democracy is to prevent tyranny and dictatorship
(the accumulation of too much authority in the
hands of one or a few).
IPU, Universal Declaration on Democracy, 1997:
Democracy “is the only political system that has 23
the capacity for self-correction.”
The triangle of core components of any
1. Free, fair and regular elections with the
possibility to change government
Elections require the freedom of expression and associational
Electoral competition is required for any democracy to thrive and
flourish. In a democracy, multiple political forces/parties compete
inside an institutional framework; parliaments are the heart of
Without inclusion, certain segments of society are not eligible to
participate, leaving a lack of true democratic representation.
Nelson Mandela voting in 1994 elections
Parliamentary Hexagon (U.H.):
The main six functions / powers of Parliaments:
(i) Legislative power; (ii) power of the purse; (iii)
elective power; (iv) power of oversight; (v) treaty and
war power; (vi) power of discourse.
German: Basic Law, Article 21
Political parties shall participate in the formation
of the political will of the people.
They may be freely established.
Their internal organisation must conform to
They must publicly account for their assets and
for the sources and use of their funds.
2. Politics shall be bound by constitutional
law and order
This requires the - at least a minimum of –
separation of powers,
rule of law.
Federal Constitutional Court - Karlsruhe / Germany
3. The respect for, and protection and
promotion of inalienable human rights and
civil and political liberties
Elections and a body of civil rights - both institutions limit the
power of the state: the first by ensuring that the rascals can be
thrown out of office, the second by making sure that the
rascals cannot do certain things even while in office. Civil
rights also protect minorities against the dictatorship of the
European Court of Human Rights / Council of
Strasbourg / France
Democracy – universally recognised?
IPU, Universal Declaration on Democracy,1997:
Democracy is a universally recognised ideal as well as a goal,
which is based on common values shared by peoples
throughout the world community irrespective of cultural,
political, social and economic differences. It is thus a basic
right of citizenship to be exercised under conditions of
freedom, equality, transparency and responsibility, with due
respect for the plurality of views, and in the interest of the
Amartya Sen, 1999:
The recognition of democracy as a universally relevant system,
which moves in the direction of its acceptance as a universal
value, is a major revolution in thinking, and one of the main
contributions of the twentieth century. … Democracy enriches
the lives of the citizens.
Amartya Sen (*1933):
Democracy as a Universal Value (1999)
This recognition of democracy as a universally
relevant system, which moves in the direction of its
acceptance as a universal value, is a major
revolution in thinking.
A country does not have to be deemed fit for
democracy; rather, it has to become fit through
We can distinguish three different ways in which
democracy enriches the lives of the citizens:
a) Intrinsic value
b) Instrumental value
c) Constructive role
www.freedomhouse.org/images/File/fiw/FIW_2011_MOF_Final.pdf, January 2011
Democracy Index 2008 – Economist Intelligence Unit
Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Index of Democracy 2008 34
(http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy Index 2008.pdf - 12.11.10
Democracy and human rights
Democracy, human rights and
development should go hand in hand.
Democracies rarely, or even never, go to
war with one another.
(< Democratic peace theory or liberal democratic
theory – Immanuel Kant)
Kant's theory was that a majority of the people would never
vote to go to war, unless in self defence. Therefore, if all
nations were republics, it would end war, because there
would be no aggressors. (Perpetual Peace, 1795) 35
The International Bill of Human Rights
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by General
Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948,
(Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with
reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.)
the InternationalCovenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights/ICESCR adopted by the General Assembly by its resolution
2200 A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 - entered into force 3 January 1976.
the InternationalCovenant on Civil and Political
Rights/ICCPR adopted by the General Assembly by its resolution
2200 A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 – entered into force 23 March 1976,
and its two Optional Protocols.
The WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS, Vienna, 14-25
June 1993, confirmed:
All human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and 36
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United
Every person – ‘without distinction of any kind, such as
race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or … the
political, jurisdictional or international status of the
country or territory to which a person belongs’ (Article 2)
– should enjoy such rights, including those in the
Cf. Development 53 (2010), p. 451–456, 452 (www.palgrave- 37
- not being ‘subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment’ (Article 5);
- ‘equal protection of the law’ (Article 7);
- not being ‘subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or
exile’ (Article 9);
- ‘a fair and public hearing by an independent and
impartial tribunal’ (Article 10);
- ‘freedom of movement and residence within the
borders of each state … [and] to leave any country
… and to return to his country’ (Article 13);
- ‘take part in the government of [one's] country,
directly or through freely chosen representatives’
- ‘own property alone as well as in association with others’ (Article
- ‘free choice of employment, … just and favorable conditions of
work, … just and favorable remuneration [in work] … and
[freedom] to join trade unions for the protection of [one's interests’
- ‘a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of
[one]self and of [one's] family, including food, clothing, housing
and medical care and necessary social services’ (Article 25);
- ‘freedom of thought, conscience and religion’ (Article 18);
- ‘freedom of opinion and expression … and to seek, receive and
impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of
frontiers’ (Article 19);
-‘freely participate in the cultural life of the community, … enjoy the
arts, and … share in scientific advancement and its benefits’
(Article 27). 39
„New“ Generation of Rights:
Right of peoples to:
• Free use of their wealth and natural resources
• A healthy environment
Other collective rights:
• Rights of national, ethnic, religious and linguistic
• Rights of indigenous peoples
The right to development
The 1986 UN Declaration on the Right to Development
1. “… every human person and all peoples are entitled to
participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social,
cultural and political development, in which all human
rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized”,
2. “The human right to development also implies the full
realization of the right of peoples to self-determination,
which includes, subject to the relevant provisions of both
International Covenants on Human Rights, the exercise of
their inalienable right to full sovereignty over all their
natural wealth and resources.” 41
The right to development is based on the principle of the
indivisibility and interdependence of all human rights and
Equal attention and urgent consideration should be given
to the implementation, promotion and protection of civil,
political, economic, social and cultural rights.
The Millennium Development Goals of September 2000
define the eradication of poverty as the overarching
objective of the development process.
Governments and other duty bearers are under an
obligation to respect, protect and fulfil human rights.
Cf. IPU (2005): Human Rights: A Handbook for Parliamentarians, Geneva
Relationship between development,
democracy and good governance
Good governance is more than good government; it
encompasses good administration.
[In French: “bonne gestion des affaires publiques”]
Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of
the UN, 1997*
“Good governance and sustainable development are
That is the lesson of all our efforts and experiences,
from Africa to Asia to Latin America. Without good
governance -- without the rule of law, predictable
administration, legitimate power, and responsive
regulation -- no amount of funding, no amount of
charity will set us on the path to prosperity.”44
A central prerequisite for sustainable development is good,
legitimate and effective governance.
The EU-ACP Cotonou Agreement (Art 9.3) gives the following
“In the context of political and institutional environment that
upholds human rights, democratic principles and the rule of
law, good governance
is the transparent and accountable management of human,
natural, economic and financial resources for the purposes of
equitable and sustainable development.
It entails clear decision-making procedures at the level of public
authorities, transparent and accountable institutions, the
primacy of law in the management and distribution of
resources and capacity building for elaborating and
implementing measures aiming in particular at preventing and
The international community about the links
WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS, Vienna, June 1993:
Democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
are interdependent and mutually reinforcing.
UNDP‘s HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2002:
The links between democracy and human development are not automatic. Political
freedom and participation are part of human development, both as development
goals in their own right and as means for advancing human development.
COTONOU AGREEMENT, 2000:
The partnership shall actively support the promotion of human rights, processes of
democratisation, consolidation of the rule of law, and good governance.
NEPAD, 2001, art. 71
African leaders have learnt from their own experiences that peace, security,
democracy, good governance, human rights and sound economic management are
conditions for sustainable development.
ACP-EU Partnership Agreement,
signed in Cotonou, 23 June 2000
Essential Elements and Fundamental Element
(1) Cooperation shall be directed towards sustainable
development centred on the human person, who is the
main protagonist and beneficiary of development; this
entails respect for and promotion of all human rights.
Respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms,
including respect for fundamental social rights,
democracy based on the rule of law and transparent and
accountable governance are an integral part of sustainable
(2) The Parties reaffirm that democratisation, development
and the protection of fundamental freedoms and human
rights are interrelated and mutually reinforcing.
International Democracy Promotion
External IDP should contribute to the development and consolidation of
- democracy is a universal value (A. Sen)
- moral obligation
- instrumental rationale grounded in the goals of universal peace, social justice
and global development
IDP – democracy building:
- promoting the (pre-)conditions for development
- assisting the democratisation
- in failed, weak states - for the time being - political stability may be a
A continuum from ‘soft power’ (Joseph Nye) and other non-coercive form of influence
to diplomatic pressure, political conditionalities and (threat of) sanctions (‘hard
power’ - # war) 48
Cotonou Agreement ARTICLE 9
Essential elements regarding human rights, democratic principles
and the rule of law,
and fundamental element regarding good governance
Respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms,
including respect for fundamental social rights, democracy
based on the rule of law and transparent and accountable
governance are an integral part of sustainable development.
The Partnership shall actively support the promotion of human
rights, processes of democratisation, consolidation of the
rule of law, and good governance. These areas will be an
important subject for the political dialogue.
The Community shall provide support for political, institutional
and legal reforms and for building the capacity of public and
private actors and civil society in the framework of strategies
agreed jointly between the State concerned and the
Lise Rakner, Alina Rocha Menocal, Verena Fritz.:
Democratisation’s Third Wave and the Challenges of
Democratic Deepening: Assessing International Democracy
Assistance and Lessons Learned, London 2007
third-wave-and-the-challenges-of.pdf - 7.12.11);
Democracy assistance: Lessons learned and remaining
3.2 Forms of democracy assistance
3.2.1 Electoral assistance.....................................
3.2.2 Assistance to political parties ………………
3.2.3 Justice sector assistance.............................
3.2.4 Assistance to civil society.............................
3.2.5 Assistance to media.....................................
[3.2.6 Assistance to decentralization of a country + to local
- In the 70ies: support to states transitioning from dictatorship to
democracy, incl. Portugal, Spain and Greece. (< German political
- 1993 Copenhagen criteria of the EC for accession countries > good
- Sanctions: apartheid South Africa; Cuba and Zimbabwe (mixed results)
Democracy assistance assessments (so difficult):
- Political foundations: in some countries very successful, in others
helpful (Indonesia, Chile) or poor results (China)
- Evaluation of the EU efforts in Ukraine, Indonesia, Angola and
Guatemala: The impact of external assistance has been modest.
- USAID: more than 100 countries between 1990-2003 achieved higher
scores for democracy, but the overall democracy dividend was itself
small, because the aid commitment has been small
- Other studies (SIDA, DANIDA, GTZ/GIZ, political foundations): both
yes and no (promotion of parties, parliaments, civil society) 51
Since the end of the Cold War, NGOs and INGOs are
playing quite important roles in the development
process (international conferences, advocacy role,
The tendency for donors and international organisations
to engage with civil society and NGOs but to neglect
parliaments is neither acceptable nor prudent.
Donors and international organisations have to engage
with parliaments, who have the last word on laws and
budgets and are the representative institutions
providing the political base for policy and
“It's time, also for the international
community, to try democracy”*
By Vidar Helgesen, IDEA Secretary-General
The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance is an intergovernmental org.
Both the world and the Arab region are changing and, in tandem with
these changes, the demand for democracy appears to be returning
with renewed vitality.
Twenty two years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, seventeen years after
the end of the apartheid regime in South Africa, thirteen years after
the democratic reform in Indonesia, the 2011 democracy wave is
about to engulf the Arab world.
And this time, democracy doesn't come at the point of foreign guns or
as a by-product of other agendas. The seeds are unequivocally and
genuinely home-grown. Men and women are simply determined to
take their future in their own hands. They want to be represented and
have a say in the way their country is governed. 53
* http://www.idea.int/arab_world/time-to-try-democracy.cfm (7.12.11)
While their agenda is domestic, they are at the same time teaching the
international community some lessons:
1. Firstly, the marginal role democracy has played in international relations in
the last decade has not made democracy less central to citizens'
aspirations around the world. The democratic uprising took the world by
surprise: again, democracy defies predictions.
2. Secondly, in the new, multi-polar world, democracy too is becoming truly
global. It can no longer be dismissed as a European or Western cultural
export. There are twice as many people living under democracy in the
global South as the populations of Europe and North America together.
3. Thirdly, the information, awareness-raising and political mobilization
capacity of new media has by far exceeded the capacity of authoritarian
governments to insulate their citizens from regional and global trends.
The multiple social networks are like water streams in a field; they
always find alternative paths and create new ones, often in real time.
4. Last but not least, in the turbulent Arab region, the alibi of authoritarian
regimes as self-appointed guarantors of regional security and stability is
no longer convincing and credible, and hence, should no longer be taken
at face value by other influential international actors. 54
The building of democracy in the Arab region will take time. As
already discovered in earlier transitions, democracy is not what
you find in the pot when you lift the heavy lid of authoritarian
government. While democracy is the best guarantor of stability
in the long run, the process of democratization is often
destabilizing: after all, it is about changing power relations in
society. Those rightly concerned with the danger of instability
and conflict in the Middle East should however realize that by
now, it is delaying democratic change which holds the greater
Citizens of Tunisia, Egypt and other countries of the region have
a long way to go. Mass protest can overthrow a dictatorship,
but cannot build democracy. Changes are required in
constitutions, electoral systems, laws and regulations related to
political parties, the media, the justice system, and not least, in
people's minds. One fundamental such shift required is that of
the place of women in political life in the region.
The International Afghanistan Conference in Bonn
5 December 2011
Afghanistan and the International Community:
From Transition to the Transformation Decade
3. Ten years ago today at the Petersberg, Afghanistan charted a
new path towards a sovereign, peaceful, prosperous and
democratic future, and the International Community accepted
the responsibility to help Afghanistan along that path.
Together we have achieved substantial progress over these ten
years, more than in any other period in Afghanistan’s history.
Never before have the Afghan people, and especially Afghan
women, enjoyed comparable access to services, including
education and health, or seen greater development of
infrastructure across the country. Al Qaida has been disrupted,
and Afghanistan’s national security institutions are
increasingly able to assume responsibility for a secure and
6. Afghanistan reaffirms that the future of its political
system will continue to reflect its pluralistic society
and remain firmly founded on the Afghan
The Afghan people will continue to build a stable,
democratic society, based on the rule of law, where
the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its
citizens, including the equality of men and women,
are guaranteed under the Constitution.
Afghanistan recommits to upholding all of its
international human rights obligations.
Acknowledging that on this path Afghanistan will
have its own lessons to learn, the International
Community fully endorses this vision and commits to 59
supporting Afghanistan’s progress in that direction.
7. We have taken note of statements by Afghan civil society
organisations, including today’s statements by two of their delegates
at this meeting.
We all reaffirm that the human rights and fundamental freedoms
enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, including the rights of women
and children, as well as a thriving and free civil society are key for
Therefore, we underscore the further promotion of civil society
participation, including both traditional civil society structures and
modern manifestations of civic action, including the role of youth, in
the country’s democratic processes.
19. The International Community shares Afghanistan’s aim of
achieving self‐reliance and prosperity through developing its human
and resource potential on its path towards sustainable and equitable
growth and improved standards of living, and welcomes the Afghan
Government’s economic Transition strategy as elaborated in the
document Towards a Self‐Sustaining Afghanistan.
18. Mindful of the relevant UN resolutions, the International
Community concurs with Afghanistan that the peace and
reconciliation process and its outcome must be based on the
(a) The process leading to reconciliation must be
truly Afghan‐led and Afghan‐owned; as well as
inclusive, representing the legitimate interests of all the people of
Afghanistan, regardless of gender or social status.
(b) Reconciliation must contain
the reaffirmation of a sovereign, stable and united Afghanistan;
the renunciation of violence;
the breaking of ties to international terrorism;
respect for the Afghan Constitution, including its human rights
provisions, notably the rights of women.
(c) The region must respect and support the peace process and its
An outcome of the peace process respecting the above principles will
receive the full support of the International Community. 61
The coalition agreement between CDU, CSU and FDP
Through partnership and common responsibility in Europe
and the world
1. Germany in Europe
2. Value-oriented and interest-led foreign policy
3. Germany’s international responsibilities
4. International deployment and instruments within German
5. Modern and efficient German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr)
6. Protecting human rights – promoting the rule of law
7. Cultural relations and education policy
8. Development co-operation
Germany’s future in peace, freedom, security and prosperity is
inextricably linked to political developments in Europe and the
world. We are committed to a policy that both serves the
interests of our country in a unified Europe and contributes to
peace in the world. To this end, we assume a formative role in
the alliances and international organisations with which we
Our political strategies are shaped by the values in the Basic
Law and directed by the goal of protecting the interests of our
country. We are committed to the universality of human rights,
the rule of law domestically and in international relations and
consider human rights an invariable constant of German
foreign and security policy.
We are committed to strong partnerships and effective
multilateral structures. Transatlantic co-operation and
European unification are the centrepieces of our policy. 63
We advocate strengthening the United Nations and
are committed to comprehensive reforms. We are
committed to structures in this global organisation
that reflect present day realities.
In this context we will continue to advocate a
permanent joint EU seat on the Security Council in
the overall reform of the UN and in keeping with the
We will continue to expand Bonn as a location for
the United Nations and international
nongovernmental organisations. 64
We will only engage militarily if we can do so in the
framework of the UN, NATO or the EU and on the basis of
legitimacy under international law. The right to self defence is
not affected. We will continue to be guided by our culture of
Diplomatic efforts have the utmost priority in international
crisis prevention and management; the importance of utilising
civil forces, namely the police and the judiciary, is increasing.
We are committed to the cross-linked security policy
approach. It requires modern and efficient armed forces and
suitable civil instruments for international conflict prevention
and management, and for closer integration and co-ordination.
The federal government will inform the German Bundestag
about the ongoing deployments of German armed forces on a
regular basis thus fulfilling the requirements for adequate
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