Organization: collection of people working
together under a division of labor and a
hierarchy of authority to achieve a common
- The second managerial function after planning
- Need large number of workers to require a
- Organizations facilitate greater accomplishment
of work by groups.
- Manager develops order, promotes
cooperation among workers, and fosters
- Major component: position, task responsibilities,
1. Defining the agency’s mission and objectives
2. Establishing policies and plans.
3. Clarifying the activities necessary to meet the
4. Organizing for best utilization of available
human and material resources.
5. Delegating the responsibility and authority to
6. Grouping personnel vertically & horizontally
through information & authority relationships
1. Organizational structure furnishes the
formal framework in management
2. Organizational structure should provide
an effective work system, & should
consequently foster job satisfaction
Informal & formal organization structures agencies:
1) Informal organization: personal and social
relationships do not appear on the organizational
- Based on personal relationships rather than
- provides social satisfaction, & may gain recognition
- Informal authority is not commanded through
- Authority comes from the follower’s natural
respect for a colleague’s knowledge and abilities
- Provides social control of behavior
2) Formal organization structures:
Formal organizational structure:
executive decision as a result of planning.
The relationships among people and their
positions can be diagramed.
Describes positions, task responsibilities
Nursing Department Utilize One Of
The Following Structural Patterns
A- Line organization and line – and – staff
organization, are the most common
structures in large health care facilities:
- Organization’s structure commonly draw in an
- Line positions shown by either horizontal or
vertical unbroken lines.
- Horizontal unbroken lines represent
communication between similar power but
Vertical unbroken lines between positions
means formal paths of communication &
- Greatest decision making and authority
persons are located at the top, and the least
are at the bottom
*Dotted or broken lines on the organization chart:
- represent staff position.
- (advisory, provides information and assistance
to manager but has limited organizational
- specialization that would be impossible for
any one manager to achieve alone
- Command way indicated by vertical solid
line between individuals.
- One person / one boss. .
- Line Organizations have no advisory
- Line -and- staff have advisory positions
- In these structures authority and
responsibility are clearly defined with
simplicity of relationships
Disadvantages of formal design:
1. Often produce monotony and alienate
workers.ينتج عنها ملل ونفور
2. Adherence to chain of command
restricts upward communication
(Going outside of the chain of command for upward
B- Functional structure:
Employees are grouped: similar tasks in
same group, similar group in the same
department, & similar departments
reporting to the same manager.
Ex. All nursing tasks are under nursing service.
Chief executive officer
Nursing Dietary Pharmacy Storeroom
* Advantages of functional organizations:
- They use resource efficiently
- Do not duplicate tasks.
- Simplify training. (common tasks grouped
together for economy of scale)
*Disadvantages of functional organizations
- Poor coordination across functions.
- Response time is slower.
C- Dual management:
Separates technical and administrative
- One hierarchy for technical professionals
make technical decisions, & another
hierarchy for supervisors make decisions
about management issues e.g. personnel and
- This dual hierarchy gives equal status to
managers and technical professionals. It
provides job description for each hierarchy.
D- Self – Contained unit structure:هيكلية القسم
* Functions needed to produce a service are
grouped together in an autonomous division.
E.g.( large institution)
- Each division has its specialty & high client
satisfaction can be achieved
- High employees coordination across functions
occurs to meet unit goals & reduce conflict.
- Coordination across product lines is difficult. division
- Each service line has its own nursing staff and
competes with other service lines
E- Matrix structure:
Structure has a formal vertical as well as
horizontal chain of command.
separate executives are responsible for each
side of the matrix.
Heads of Departments may receive conflicting
demands from the matrix managers and often
must resolve the conflict themselves.
Advantages: (matrix structure):
- Strong contact between staff of different
1. Dual authority frustrating and confusing for
managers and employees in dept.
2. Need excellent interpersonal skills for
3. Time-consuming because frequent meetings
are required to resolve conflicts
Charts: drawing shows how the parts of
an organization are linked.
- It depicts the formal organizational
- Areas of responsibility& accountability,
and channels of communication
Span of Management (Span Of Control)
Can be determined from the organization
- It is the number of people (subordinates)
reporting to any manager represents the
manager’s span of control & determines the
number of interactions expected of him .
- Graicunas, a management consultant analyze
potential relationships between a supervisor
and his/her subordinates, and among the
- As the number of subordinates increase
arithmetically, number of potential
interactions increased geometrically (single,
direct group, cross RT)
Optimal span of management depends on
the following considerations:
1. The manager’s abilities
2. The employee’s maturity.
3. Task complexity
4. Geographic location
Decentralization Versus Centralization:
Centralized: decision making done by a
manager at the top of the hierarchy
Decentralized: decision making diffuses
throughout the organization, and allow
problem solving at the level at which they
Advantages of decentralization:
1. Increases morale & promotes interpersonal
2. encourage informality and democracy in
3. Facilitate local decision making by Managers &
4. Develops managers by allowing them to
5. Increase flexibility.
6. Releases top managers from the routine
7. Freeing managers for planning, and policy
development, and systems integration
Disadvantages of decentralization
1. Divisions may become individualized and
competitive and work against the best
interests of the organization.تضحية باألهداف العامة لمصلحة ضيقة
2. Increase costs, need more manager and large
3. Division managers may not inform top
manager of their problems.
Getting work done through others to
accomplish organizational goals
process of assigning work from one
organizational level to another or from superior to
Delegation Has two legs (Responsibility & Authority)
Delegation increase subordinate's motivation
and commitment to accomplish goals.
The manager concentrates on the
accomplishment of overall goals and objectives
rather than the day-to-day details
- In delegation the manager delegate (authority &
Subdivide of the organizational structures.
Managers specialize within limited ranges of
1. Departmentalization by function
2. Departmentalization by production
3. Departmentalization by customers
4. Departmentalization by geographical
5. Departmentalization by project.
Authority : The official power to act.
- Given by the organization to direct the
work of others.
- A manager may have the authority to
hire, fire, or discipline others .
• Responsibility: is a duty or an assignment
• Accountability: morally internalizing
- Agreement to accept the consequences of