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					    Unit 6


ORGANIZING

             1
                  Organizing
 Organization: collection of people working
  together under a division of labor and a
  hierarchy of authority to achieve a common
  goal
- The second managerial function after planning
  process.
- Need large number of workers to require a
  supervisor.
- Organizations facilitate greater accomplishment
  of work by groups.
- Manager develops order, promotes
  cooperation among workers, and fosters
  productivity
- Major component: position, task responsibilities,
  &Relation ships.
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Organization involves:

1.   Defining the agency’s mission and objectives
2.   Establishing policies and plans.
3.   Clarifying the activities necessary to meet the
     objectives.
4.   Organizing for best utilization of available
     human and material resources.
5.   Delegating the responsibility and authority to
     appropriate personnel
6.   Grouping personnel vertically & horizontally
     through information & authority relationships
                                                       3
Organizational structure:
1.    Organizational structure furnishes the
     formal framework in management
     process.
2.   Organizational structure should provide
     an effective work system, & should
     consequently foster job satisfaction




                                           4
Informal & formal organization structures agencies:

   1) Informal organization: personal and social
      relationships do not appear on the organizational
      chart.
   - Based on personal relationships rather than
      positional authority
   - provides social satisfaction, & may gain recognition
   - Informal authority is not commanded through
      organizational assignment.
   - Authority comes from the follower’s natural
      respect for a colleague’s knowledge and abilities
   - Provides social control of behavior

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2) Formal organization structures:
 Formal organizational structure:
  executive decision as a result of planning.
 The relationships among people and their
  positions can be diagramed.
 Describes positions, task responsibilities
  and relationships




                                                6
Nursing Department Utilize One Of
The Following Structural Patterns
A- Line organization and line – and – staff
  organization, are the most common
  structures in large health care facilities:
- Organization’s structure commonly draw in an
  organization chart.
- Line positions shown by either horizontal or
  vertical unbroken lines.
- Horizontal unbroken lines represent
  communication between similar power but
  different functions

                                                 7
Vertical unbroken lines between positions
  means formal paths of communication &
  authority.
- Greatest decision making and authority
  persons are located at the top, and the least
  are at the bottom
*Dotted or broken lines on the organization chart:
-   represent staff position.
-   (advisory, provides information and assistance
    to manager but has limited organizational
    authority)




                                                     8
- specialization that would be impossible for
  any one manager to achieve alone
- Command way indicated by vertical solid
  line between individuals.
- One person / one boss. .
- Line Organizations have no advisory
  positions.
- Line -and- staff have advisory positions
- In these structures authority and
  responsibility are clearly defined with
  simplicity of relationships
                                                9
Disadvantages of formal design:

1.   Often produce monotony and alienate
     workers.‫ينتج عنها ملل ونفور‬
2.   Adherence to chain of command
     restricts upward communication
(Going outside of the chain of command for upward
    communication inappropriate)




                                                    10
B- Functional structure:
   Employees are grouped: similar tasks in
    same group, similar group in the same
    department, & similar departments
    reporting to the same manager.
   Ex. All nursing tasks are under nursing service.

                              CEO
                      Chief executive officer


    Nursing         Dietary              Pharmacy   Storeroom




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* Advantages of functional organizations:
- They use resource efficiently
- Do not duplicate tasks.
- Simplify training. (common tasks grouped
  together for economy of scale)
  *Disadvantages of functional organizations
- Poor coordination across functions.
- Response time is slower.




                                               12
C- Dual management:
   Separates technical and administrative
    responsibilities.
-   One hierarchy for technical professionals
    make technical decisions, & another
    hierarchy for supervisors make decisions
    about management issues e.g. personnel and
    budget.
-   This dual hierarchy gives equal status to
    managers and technical professionals. It
    provides job description for each hierarchy.

                                                   13
D- Self – Contained unit structure:‫هيكلية القسم‬
  * Functions needed to produce a service are
      grouped together in an autonomous division.
      E.g.( large institution)
Strengths:
-     Each division has its specialty & high client
      satisfaction can be achieved
-      High employees coordination across functions
      occurs to meet unit goals & reduce conflict.
weaknesses:
- Coordination across product lines is difficult. division
      operate independently.
- Each service line has its own nursing staff and
      competes with other service lines
                                                         14
E- Matrix structure:
 Structure has a formal vertical as well as
  horizontal chain of command.
 separate executives are responsible for each
  side of the matrix.
 Heads of Departments may receive conflicting
  demands from the matrix managers and often
  must resolve the conflict themselves.




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Advantages: (matrix structure):
- Strong contact between staff of different
    divisions
Disadvantages:
1.   Dual authority frustrating and confusing for
     managers and employees in dept.
2.   Need excellent interpersonal skills for
     involved managers
3.    Time-consuming because frequent meetings
     are required to resolve conflicts



                                                    16
Organizational concepts:

    Charts: drawing shows how the parts of
     an organization are linked.
 -   It depicts the formal organizational
     relationships
 -   Areas of responsibility& accountability,
     and channels of communication




                                                17
Span of Management (Span Of Control)
  Can be determined from the organization
   chart.
 - It is the number of people (subordinates)
   reporting to any manager represents the
   manager’s span of control & determines the
   number of interactions expected of him .
 - Graicunas, a management consultant analyze
   potential relationships between a supervisor
   and his/her subordinates, and among the
   subordinates.



                                              18
-   As the number of subordinates increase
    arithmetically, number of potential
    interactions increased geometrically (single,
    direct group, cross RT)

************************************************
Optimal span of management depends on
    the following considerations:
1. The manager’s abilities
2. The employee’s maturity.
3. Task complexity
4. Geographic location



                                                    19
Decentralization Versus Centralization:

 Centralized: decision making done by a
  manager at the top of the hierarchy
 Decentralized: decision making diffuses
  throughout the organization, and allow
  problem solving at the level at which they
  occur




                                               20
Advantages of decentralization:
1.   Increases morale & promotes interpersonal
     relationships
2.   encourage informality and democracy in
     management
3.   Facilitate local decision making by Managers &
     others
4.   Develops managers by allowing them to
     manage
5.   Increase flexibility.
6.   Releases top managers from the routine
     administration.
7.   Freeing managers for planning, and policy
     development, and systems integration
                                                  21
Disadvantages of decentralization
1.   Divisions may become individualized and
     competitive and work against the best
     interests of the organization.‫تضحية باألهداف العامة لمصلحة ضيقة‬
2.   Increase costs, need more manager and large
     staffs
3.   Division managers may not inform top
     manager of their problems.




                                                                       22
                 Delegation
   Getting work done through others to
    accomplish organizational goals
   process of assigning work from one
    organizational level to another or from superior to
    subordinate
   Delegation Has two legs (Responsibility & Authority)
   Delegation increase subordinate's motivation
    and commitment to accomplish goals.
   The manager concentrates on the
    accomplishment of overall goals and objectives
    rather than the day-to-day details
-   In delegation the manager delegate (authority &
    the power)

                                                       23
Departmentalization:
    Subdivide of the organizational structures.
    Managers specialize within limited ranges of
     activity
1.   Departmentalization by function
2.   Departmentalization by production
3.   Departmentalization by customers
4.   Departmentalization by geographical
     territories.
5.   Departmentalization by project.


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 Authority : The official power to act.
- Given by the organization to direct the
  work of others.
- A manager may have the authority to
  hire, fire, or discipline others .
• Responsibility: is a duty or an assignment
• Accountability: morally internalizing
  responsibility.
- Agreement to accept the consequences of
  your actions.



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posted:10/12/2012
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