Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment Ultimate by u2iYRnM

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 46

									SECTOR ASSESSMENT FEEDBACK FORM
Organophosphate and carbamate use in fodder and
forage production

Introduction
In this assessment the EPA has documented what it understands is the current state of the fodder
and forage industry in New Zealand (your sector), based on publicly available information and
feedback from the sector. When complete, this sector assessment will form part of the EPA’s formal
application for reassessment of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides.

To help complete the assessment, we need your input.

This document contains:
 A profile of your sector
 Some information on your sector’s use of organophosphates and carbamates and alternatives you
   may use
 A preliminary assessment of the risks
 Possible options for managing risks

We acknowledge this document is not complete. Where there are gaps in our data please
include information to help us fully understand the current situation. We have put some
specific questions in grey boxes throughout the document for you to answer.

We need you to:
 Correct inaccuracies and provide us with additional information about your sector by editing this
   document using “tracked changes” or printing the document out and writing onto it.
 Change or add information about yield, sales values, employment figures, major pests, and
   insecticide use patterns, in the tables that we have started to populate.
 Answer the questions about your research, pest management programmes, proposed controls,
   and the impacts the loss of organophosphates and carbamates would have on your sector.
 Suggest additional or alternative management options (controls) that would be practical and
   effective.




    April 2012
                                                                                                        2


                                                             APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment




Sector profile
This sector assessment covers fodder and forage crops, there is a separate assessment for pasture.
We need to know the size and characteristics of your sector to help us understand the extent of the
impact if organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were restricted or removed. The tables below
contain the information we already have. Please add anything that you feel is missing or incorrect.



Size of the sector
                                 1
    Table 1: Sector statistics

      Year                                   2007       2008             2009              2010
        Hectares planted                 300,000       300,000          300,000           300,000

        Yield (tonnes)

        Main growing region/s


    Table 2: Crop sales value ($ millions)

         Year                                 2007         2008             2009              2010
         Exports (FOB)

         Domestic sales

         Total sales




Sector demographics

    Table 3: Sector demographics

      Year                               2007           2008             2009               2010
      Number of growers
      Number of employees (directly
      employed )
      Number of employees in
      supporting businesses (e.g.
      packhouses , rural contractors)



Arable farms generally grow a range of grain crops in any one year, as well as vegetable crops,
forage crops and most also graze livestock. Fodder and forage crops support the New Zealand meat,
                             2
wool and dairy industries.




    May 2012
                                                                                                            3


                                                                APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment




Specialist forage crops such as maize and brassicas support grass-based pasture production in many
localities especially during winter and summer when pasture growth may be limited. There are more
than 40 hybrid maize cultivars for grain or silage production, and a similar number of forage brassica
cultivars. Forage brassica production is estimated to extend over 300,000 hectares in most years.
                                              1
Other forage crops include barley and oats.

Much of New Zealand’s pastoral land can be regarded as intensively managed pasture, especially
those on flat to rolling land where cultivation is possible. Pasture renewal typically follows a rotation of
old pasture to short rotation ryegrass in autumn for winter green feed, to forage brassicas for summer
green feed to autumn-sown perennial ryegrass/clover permanent pasture. Forage crops used in
rotations vary with the production system and locality, e.g. in the North Island turnips and maize (for
silage) dominate supplementary feed for dairy cows, while kale is the dominant forage crop for dairy
cows in the South Island. The management of pests, weeds and diseases is often integrated with the
pasture renewal cycle, as the establishment of forage crops and permanent pasture can be severely
                              1
affected by pest organisms.



Approach to pest management
Pest management systems
It is important to understand how the sector manages insecticide use.

      1. Describe the management systems you have in place to regulate insecticide use.
         Comment on any sector-wide programmes or private standards used by growers, and
         estimate what percentage of your sector follows these practices. Please reference or
         attach your sources.




Organophosphate and carbamate use
We are interested in the pests for which organophosphate and/or carbamate use is critical to your
sector. Table 4 lists the active ingredients registered for use in your sector, as well as other uses you
have told us about. Please indicate which of these active ingredients you are and are not using, and
add rows to include information for other organophosphates and carbamates that are being used but
are not captured in the table.

Do you use any organophosphates/carbamates on your crop post harvest? If so, please add
this information into Table 4 below, and provide use information by updating Table 6.



    May 2012
                                                                                                          4


                                                              APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment




We also need you to tell us for which pests the use of organophosphates and carbamates is critical,
and which are able to be managed using alternatives.

Please highlight the pests that are of most concern to your sector. We may have already highlighted
some where we have information to suggest they are significant pests to your industry.

                                                                         3
    Table 4: Organophosphates and carbamates used on fodder and forage

                      Chemical     Active                                       Active in      Critical
      Insect pests                                 Examples of products
                      group        ingredient                                   use (Y/N)       (Y/N)
      Aphids          Carbamate    *Pirimicarb     Dovetail

                      OP           *Chlorpyrifos   Chlorpyrifos EC

                                   *Dimethoate     Dimethoate

                                   *Fenitrothion   Caterkil 1000

                                   *Maldison       Fyfanon 440EW

                                   *Phorate        Phorate

                                   *Pirimiphos-
                                                   Attack
                                   methyl

                                   *Terbufos       Counter 20G

      Argentine
                      OP           Chlorpyrifos    Chlorpyrifos EC
      stem weevil

      Armyworm        OP           *Diazinon       Dew 600

      Australian
      soldier fly

      Biting or
      sucking         OP           Diazinon
      insects

      Black bean
                      Carbamate    Pirimicarb
      aphid

      Black beetle

      Black field
      cricket

      Blue lucerne
                      Carbamate    Pirimicarb
      aphid

      Blue-green
                      OP           Dimethoate
      lucerne aphid

      Cabbage
                      Carbamate    Pirimicarb
      aphids




    May 2012
                                                                                                    5


                                                        APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment




                 Chemical    Active                                       Active in      Critical
 Insect pests                                Examples of products
                 group       ingredient                                   use (Y/N)       (Y/N)
 Caterpillars    OP          *Dichlorvos     Divap, Nuvos

                             *Maldison       Fyfanon 440EW

                             Methamidoph
                                             Metafort 60SL
                             os

 Cereal aphid    Carbamate   Pirimicarb

 Clover
 casebearer

 Corn earworm

 Diamondback
                 Carbamate   *Pirimicarb     Dovetail
 moth

                 OP          *Diazinon       Dew 600, Diazinon EC

                             Dimethoate      Dimethoate

                             *Maldison       Fyfanon 440EW

                             Methamidoph
                                             Metafort 60SL
                             os

                             *Pirimiphos-
                                             Attack
                             methyl

 Grain aphid     Carbamate   Pirimicarb

 Grass grub      OP          *Diazinon       Dew 600

 Greasy
 cutworm

 Green peach
                 Carbamate   Pirimicarb
 aphid

 Green
 vegetable bug

                             *Pirimiphos-
 Leafminer       OP                          Attack
                             methyl

 Looper                      Methamidoph
                 OP
 caterpillars                os

                                             Chlorpyrifos EC,
 Nysius          OP          *Chlorpyrifos
                                             Rampage Encaps

                             Fenitrothion    Caterkil 1000

                             *Phorate        Phorate




May 2012
                                                                                                     6


                                                         APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment




                   Chemical    Active                                      Active in      Critical
 Insect pests                                  Examples of products
                   group       ingredient                                  use (Y/N)       (Y/N)
                               *Pirimiphos-
                                               Attack
                               methyl

                               *Terbufos       Counter 20G

 Pea aphid         Carbamate   Pirimicarb

 Plant parasitic
 nematodes

 Porina

 Potato aphid      Carbamate   Pirimicarb

 Red-legged
 earthmites

 Root knot
                   OP          *Fenamiphos     Canyon, Nemacur
 nematode

 Rose aphid        Carbamate   Pirimicarb

 Rose-grain
                   Carbamate   Pirimicarb
 aphid

 Sitona weevil     OP          Chlorpyrifos

                               *Fenitrothion   Caterkil 1000

                                               Chlorpyrifos EC,
 Springtails       OP          *Chlorpyrifos
                                               Rampage Encaps

                                               Dew 600, Diazinon EC,
                               *Diazinon       Diazol, Hortcare Diazinon
                                               500 EW

                               *Dimethoate     Dimethoate

                               *Fenitrothion   Caterkil 1000

                               *Phorate        Phorate

                               *Pirimiphos-
                                               Attack
                               methyl

                               *Terbufos       Counter 20G

 Thrips

 Wheat bug
 mirids

 Weevils           OP          *Fenitrothion   Caterkil 1000

                               *Phorate        Phorate




May 2012
                                                                                                                         7


                                                                         APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment




                        Chemical           Active                                          Active in          Critical
      Insect pests                                          Examples of products
                        group              ingredient                                      use (Y/N)          (Y/N)
                                           *Terbufos        Counter 20G

      White butterfly   Carbamate          *Pirimicarb

                        OP                 *Maldison        Fyfanon 440EW

                                           Methamidoph
                                                            Metafort 60SL
                                           os

                                           Pirimiphos-
                                                            Attack
                                           methyl

      Whitefly          Carbamate          Pirimicarb       Dovetail

      Woolly apple
                        Carbamate          Pirimicarb
      aphid


    *Registered for use on this crop



Non organophosphate and carbamate use
Table 5 lists the non-organophosphate/carbamate insecticides used on fodder and forage against the
same pests as the organophosphates and carbamates listed in Table 4. These substances are
considered to be possible alternatives. Please indicate which active ingredients you are and are not
using, and add information for those that are being used but are not captured in the table.

                                                                                                          3
    Table 5: Non-organophosphates/carbamates used on fodder and forage against identified pests

                             Chemical                                                                   Active being
      Insect pests                                 Active ingredient      Examples of products
                             group                                                                      used (Y/N)

                                                   *Lambda-
      Diamondback            Anthranilic           cyhalothrin &
      moth                   diamide               chlorantraniliprole    Ampligo

                             Macrocyclic                                  Success Naturalyte Insect
                             lactone               *Spinosad              Control

                             Synthetic
                             pyrethroid            *Deltamethrin          Deltamethrin

                                                   *Lambda-
                                                   cyhalothrin            Halex CS

                                                   *Lambda-
                             Anthranilic           cyhalothrin &
      Leafminer              diamide               chlorantraniliprole    Ampligo

      Springtails            Chloronicotinyl       *Clothianidin          Poncho




    May 2012
                                                                                                              8


                                                                APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                      Chemical                                                                 Active being
 Insect pests                             Active ingredient      Examples of products
                      group                                                                    used (Y/N)

                      Neonicotinoid       *Thiamethoxam          Cruiser 600 FS

                                          *Lambda-
                      Anthranilic         cyhalothrin &
 White butterfly      diamide             chlorantraniliprole    Ampligo

                      Macrocyclic                                Success Naturalyte Insect
                      lactone             *Spinosad              Control

                      Synthetic
                      pyrethroid          *Deltamethrin          Deltamethrin

                                          *Lambda-
                                          cyhalothrin            Halex CS

 Whitefly             Biopesticide        *Biopesticide          Vertiblast

                                          *Beauveria
                      Biopesticide        bassiana conidia       Beaugenic


*Registered for use on this crop



 2. What is the basis of your choice of active ingredients to manage your critical pests?
    Be specific about the efficacy and cost differences between options.
 Here’s what you have said to date, but we need more specific information.

 Insecticides have many distinct advantages over other methods of control for pasture and forage pests.
 These advantages include:
 A broad range of registered insecticide products for most common pasture and forage crop pests.
 A range of formulations and types of action from which specific products can be selected to effectively
 control specific types of pests under a range of different production systems and conditions.
 Highly effective protection of pasture and forage crops during establishment.
 Quick action by most insecticides (except growth regulators) that can affect rapid control following
 application and thereby limit pest outbreaks.
 When used effectively insecticides provide good economic returns. However, the longer term availability
 of many insecticides is uncertain.
 Contact and systemic insecticides can be used to protect establishing forage crops and pastures from
 larval damage during autumn. Granular and liquid formulations, either broadcast or direct drilled, may also
 be applied to protect established pastures. A granular formulation of a bacterial insecticide can provide
                                                  4
 long term suppression of grass grub populations .
 There are alternative products to OP’s for use in the forage brassica market. New products such as
 Ampligo is a direct substitute for OP’s in this market, however growers do require OP’s for the control of
                                                                                     5
 springtail unless a seed treatment product is used (eg Cruiser, Poncho or Gaucho) .




May 2012
                                                                                                          9


                                                               APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment




      3. Tell us about pest control research undertaken by your sector, and any trials
         underway or completed that would reduce your reliance on organophosphates and
         carbamates. This could include a description of cultural or chemical control methods
         that have been tried in the past and met with mixed success, or that are being
         investigated currently. If you have identified alternatives please give us a timeline for
         when they will be available for use (Reference or attach sources).
      Example: Collectively New Zealand growers spend $x each year on research of which $y is spent
      researching pest control. Currently projects are underway to establish the potential for...




      4. List pests that are likely to pose a future threat to your sector, and comment on what
         is being used to combat them elsewhere. This could include existing and potential
         pests.




Modelling risks on current use
Table 6 summarises our understanding of your sector’s use patterns for organophosphates and
carbamates. These use patterns are the basis for our preliminary risk assessment. Use patterns were
drawn from label statements as well as from industry feedback.

The EPA has only assessed the risks for the use patterns it has information about. Uses will
be restricted to those described in Table 6 unless we receive further information.

If your use patterns are different to those shown in Table 6, please amend the table. Please indicate
which rows are incorrect or not relevant to your sector. If rows in Table 6 are incomplete, please
complete them. If you have use patterns not covered by any of the rows in the table, please add extra
rows to describe the additional use pattern.




    May 2012
                                                                                                                                                            10


                                                                                                                  APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment


           Table 6: Organophosphate and carbamate use data in fodder and forage production

      In the final column please indicate whether the scenario is relevant in your sector.
      Key: Indicate Relevant , Not relevant X, Relevant as modified ().
      You may modify a scenario using tracked changes so that we can see how it differs from the original, or add a row into the table.

                                                                                                            Applicatio                              Relevanc
                                                                     Source of
                                                                                               Applicatio   n            Applicatio   Applicatio    e to
Use scenario                                            Applicatio   use          Formulatio
                   Pest            Active ingredient                                           n rate       frequency    n interval   n area        sector
number                                                  n method     informatio   n type
                                                                                               (g/ha)       (per         (days)       (ha/day)
                                                                     n
                                                                                                            season)

Fodder/forage1     Aphids          Chlorpyrifos         Aerial       Label        Liquid       200          1                         50

Fodder/forage2     Aphids          Chlorpyrifos         Aerial       Industry     Liquid       Unknown      1                         50
                                                                     data

Fodder/forage3     Aphids          Chlorpyrifos         Boom         Label        Liquid       200          1                         20

Fodder/forage4     Aphids          Chlorpyrifos         Boom         Label        Liquid       220          1                         20

Fodder/forage5     Aphids          Chlorpyrifos         Boom         Industry     Liquid       500          2            7            20
                                                                     data

Fodder/forage6     Aphids          Chlorpyrifos         Boom         Industry     WSB          500          2            7            20
                                                                     data

Fodder/forage7     Aphids          Chlorpyrifos         Unknown      Industry     Liquid       Unknown      1                         0
                                                                     data

Fodder/forage8     Aphids          Chlorpyrifos         Unknown      Industry     Liquid       Unknown      3            60           0
                                                                     data

Fodder/forage9     Aphids          Chlorpyrifos         Unknown      Industry     Liquid       Unknown      3            60           0
                                                                     data




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                   11


                                                                                                         APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment

                                                                                                   Applicatio                              Relevanc
                                                            Source of
                                                                                      Applicatio   n            Applicatio   Applicatio    e to
Use scenario                                   Applicatio   use          Formulatio
                  Pest     Active ingredient                                          n rate       frequency    n interval   n area        sector
number                                         n method     informatio   n type
                                                                                      (g/ha)       (per         (days)       (ha/day)
                                                            n
                                                                                                   season)

Fodder/forage10   Aphids   Dimethoate          Boom         Label        Liquid       400          1                         20

Fodder/forage11   Aphids   Dimethoate          Boom         Industry     Liquid       500          1                         20
                                                            data

Fodder/forage12   Aphids   Fenitrothion        Boom         Label        Liquid       600          1                         20

Fodder/forage13   Aphids   Maldison            Aerial       Label        Liquid       1500         4            7            50

Fodder/forage14   Aphids   Phorate             Drill        Label        Granule      1000         1                         20

Fodder/forage15   Aphids   Phorate             Drill        Label        Granule      1000         1                         20

Fodder/forage16   Aphids   Pirimicarb          Aerial       Label        WSG          125          1                         50

Fodder/forage17   Aphids   Pirimicarb          Aerial       Industry     WSG          Unknown      Unknown      Enter        50
                                                            data                                                appl'n
                                                                                                                frequency

Fodder/forage18   Aphids   Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        Liquid       125          4            7            20

Fodder/forage19   Aphids   Pirimicarb          Boom         Industry     Liquid       125          2            14           50
                                                            data

Fodder/forage20   Aphids   Pirimicarb          Boom         Industry     Liquid       250          2            7            20
                                                            data

Fodder/forage21   Aphids   Pirimicarb          Boom         Industry     Liquid       250          2            0            20
                                                            data

Fodder/forage22   Aphids   Pirimicarb          Boom         Industry     WSG          125          6            21           20




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                        12


                                                                                                              APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment

                                                                                                        Applicatio                              Relevanc
                                                                 Source of
                                                                                           Applicatio   n            Applicatio   Applicatio    e to
Use scenario                                        Applicatio   use          Formulatio
                  Pest          Active ingredient                                          n rate       frequency    n interval   n area        sector
number                                              n method     informatio   n type
                                                                                           (g/ha)       (per         (days)       (ha/day)
                                                                 n
                                                                                                        season)

                                                                 data

Fodder/forage23   Aphids        Pirimicarb          Boom         Industry     WSG          125          6            21           20
                                                                 data

Fodder/forage24   Aphids        Pirimicarb          Boom         Industry     WSG          125          6            21           20
                                                                 data

Fodder/forage25   Aphids        Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          1                         50

Fodder/forage26   Aphids        Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50

Fodder/forage27   Aphids        Pirimicarb          Unknown      Industry     Liquid       Unknown      2            0            0
                                                                 data

Fodder/forage28   Aphids        Pirimiphos-methyl   Aerial       Label        Liquid       475          4            14           50

Fodder/forage29   Aphids        Pirimiphos-methyl   Boom         Label        Liquid       475          4            14           20

Fodder/forage30   Aphids        Terbufos            Drill        Label        Granule      600          1                         20

Fodder/forage31   Argentine     Chlorpyrifos        Aerial       Industry     Liquid       600          1                         50
                  stem weevil                                    data

Fodder/forage32   Argentine     Chlorpyrifos        Boom         Industry     Liquid       600          1                         20
                  stem weevil                                    data

Fodder/forage33   Armyworm      Diazinon            Boom         Label        Liquid       600          4            7            20

Fodder/forage34   Armyworm      Diazinon            Boom         Label        Liquid       600          4            7            20

Fodder/forage35   Biting or     Diazinon            Boom         Industry     Liquid       1200         2            25           20



           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                          13


                                                                                                                APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment

                                                                                                          Applicatio                              Relevanc
                                                                   Source of
                                                                                             Applicatio   n            Applicatio   Applicatio    e to
Use scenario                                          Applicatio   use          Formulatio
                  Pest            Active ingredient                                          n rate       frequency    n interval   n area        sector
number                                                n method     informatio   n type
                                                                                             (g/ha)       (per         (days)       (ha/day)
                                                                   n
                                                                                                          season)

                  sucking                                          data
                  insects

Fodder/forage36   Black bean      Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50
                  aphid

Fodder/forage37   Blue lucerne    Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50
                  aphid

Fodder/forage38   Blue-green      Dimethoate          Boom         Label        Liquid       200          1                         20
                  lucerne aphid

Fodder/forage39   Cabbage         Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50
                  aphids

Fodder/forage40   Caterpillars    Dichlorvos          Boom         Label        Liquid       750          4            7            3

Fodder/forage41   Caterpillars    Maldison            Boom         Label        Liquid       1496         4            7            3

Fodder/forage42   Cereal aphid    Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50

Fodder/forage43   Diamondback     Diazinon            Boom         Label        Liquid       600          4            7            20
                  moth

Fodder/forage44   Diamondback     Diazinon            Boom         Label        Liquid       600          4            7            20
                  moth

Fodder/forage45   Diamondback     Dimethoate          Boom         Industry     Liquid       400          1                         20
                  moth                                             data

Fodder/forage46   Diamondback     Dimethoate          Unknown      Industry     Liquid       Unknown      1                         0



           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                        14


                                                                                                              APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment

                                                                                                        Applicatio                              Relevanc
                                                                 Source of
                                                                                           Applicatio   n            Applicatio   Applicatio    e to
Use scenario                                        Applicatio   use          Formulatio
                  Pest          Active ingredient                                          n rate       frequency    n interval   n area        sector
number                                              n method     informatio   n type
                                                                                           (g/ha)       (per         (days)       (ha/day)
                                                                 n
                                                                                                        season)

                  moth                                           data

Fodder/forage47   Diamondback   Maldison            Aerial       Label        Liquid       1500         4            7            50
                  moth

Fodder/forage48   Diamondback   Methamidophos       Boom         Plant and    Liquid       900          2            7            3
                  moth                                           Food
                                                                 Report

Fodder/forage49   Diamondback   Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        Liquid       125          4            7            20
                  moth

Fodder/forage50   Diamondback   Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50
                  moth

Fodder/forage51   Diamondback   Pirimiphos-methyl   Aerial       Label        Liquid       475          4            14           50
                  moth

Fodder/forage52   Diamondback   Pirimiphos-methyl   Boom         Label        Liquid       475          4            14           20
                  moth

Fodder/forage53   Diamondback   Pirimiphos-methyl   Boom         Industry     Liquid       475          1                         20
                  moth                                           data

Fodder/forage54   Grain aphid   Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50

Fodder/forage55   Grass grub    Diazinon            Aerial       Label        Liquid       2400         1                         50

Fodder/forage56   Grass grub    Diazinon            Boom         Industry     Liquid       2400         1                         20
                                                                 data




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                         15


                                                                                                               APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment

                                                                                                         Applicatio                              Relevanc
                                                                  Source of
                                                                                            Applicatio   n            Applicatio   Applicatio    e to
Use scenario                                         Applicatio   use          Formulatio
                  Pest           Active ingredient                                          n rate       frequency    n interval   n area        sector
number                                               n method     informatio   n type
                                                                                            (g/ha)       (per         (days)       (ha/day)
                                                                  n
                                                                                                         season)

Fodder/forage57   Grass grub     Diazinon            Drill        Industry     Granule      Unknown      1                         20
                                                                  data

Fodder/forage58   Green peach    Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50
                  aphid

Fodder/forage59   Leaf miners    Pirimiphos-methyl   Aerial       Label        Liquid       475          4            14           50

Fodder/forage60   Leaf miners    Pirimiphos-methyl   Boom         Label        Liquid       475          4            14           20

Fodder/forage61   Looper         Methamidophos       Boom         Plant and    Liquid       900          2            7            3
                  caterpillars                                    Food
                                                                  Report

Fodder/forage62   Nysius         Chlorpyrifos        Aerial       Label        Liquid       600          1                         50

Fodder/forage63   Nysius         Phorate             Drill        Label        Granule      1000         1                         20

Fodder/forage64   Nysius         Pirimiphos-methyl   Aerial       Label        Liquid       475          4            14           50

Fodder/forage65   Nysius         Terbufos            Drill        Label        Granule      600          1                         20

Fodder/forage66   Nysius fly     Chlorpyrifos        Boom         Label        Liquid       600          1                         20

Fodder/forage67   Nysius fly     Fenitrothion        Boom         Label        Liquid       600          1                         20

Fodder/forage68   Nysius fly     Pirimiphos-methyl   Boom         Label        Liquid       475          4            14           20

Fodder/forage69   Nysius fly     Pirimiphos-methyl   Unknown      Industry     Liquid       Unknown      1                         0
                                                                  data

Fodder/forage70   Pea aphid      Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50



           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                          16


                                                                                                                APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment

                                                                                                          Applicatio                              Relevanc
                                                                   Source of
                                                                                             Applicatio   n            Applicatio   Applicatio    e to
Use scenario                                          Applicatio   use          Formulatio
                  Pest            Active ingredient                                          n rate       frequency    n interval   n area        sector
number                                                n method     informatio   n type
                                                                                             (g/ha)       (per         (days)       (ha/day)
                                                                   n
                                                                                                          season)

Fodder/forage71   Potato aphid    Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50

Fodder/forage72   Root knot       Fenamiphos          Boom         Label        Liquid       10000        1                         20
                  nematode

Fodder/forage73   Rose aphid      Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50

Fodder/forage74   Rose-grain      Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50
                  aphid

Fodder/forage75   Sitona weevil   Chlorpyrifos        Boom         Label        Liquid       400          1                         20

Fodder/forage76   Sitona weevil   Fenitrothion        Boom         Label        Liquid       600          1                         20

Fodder/forage77   Springtails     Chlorpyrifos        Aerial       Industry     Liquid       100          1                         50
                                                                   data

Fodder/forage78   Springtails     Chlorpyrifos        Boom         Label        Liquid       100          1                         20

Fodder/forage79   Springtails     Chlorpyrifos        Unknown      Industry     Liquid       Unknown      1                         0
                                                                   data

Fodder/forage80   Springtails     Diazinon            Boom         Plant and    Liquid       275          2            7            20
                                                                   Food
                                                                   Report

Fodder/forage81   Springtails     Diazinon            Boom         Label        Liquid       275          1                         20

Fodder/forage82   Springtails     Diazinon            Boom         Label        Liquid       276          1                         20

Fodder/forage83   Springtails     Diazinon            Boom         Label        Liquid       276          1                         20




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                            17


                                                                                                                  APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment

                                                                                                            Applicatio                              Relevanc
                                                                     Source of
                                                                                               Applicatio   n            Applicatio   Applicatio    e to
Use scenario                                            Applicatio   use          Formulatio
                  Pest              Active ingredient                                          n rate       frequency    n interval   n area        sector
number                                                  n method     informatio   n type
                                                                                               (g/ha)       (per         (days)       (ha/day)
                                                                     n
                                                                                                            season)

Fodder/forage84   Springtails       Diazinon            Boom         Label        Liquid       280          1                         20

Fodder/forage85   Springtails       Dimethoate          Boom         Label        Liquid       400          1                         20

Fodder/forage86   Springtails       Fenitrothion        Boom         Label        Liquid       600          1                         20

Fodder/forage87   Springtails       Phorate             Drill        Label        Granule      1000         1                         20

Fodder/forage88   Springtails       Pirimiphos-methyl   Aerial       Label        Liquid       95           4            14           50

Fodder/forage89   Springtails       Pirimiphos-methyl   Boom         Label        Liquid       95           4            14           20

Fodder/forage90   Springtails       Terbufos            Drill        Label        Granule      600          1                         20

Fodder/forage91   Unknown           Chlorpyrifos        Aerial       Industry     Liquid       600          1                         50
                                                                     data

Fodder/forage92   Unknown           Chlorpyrifos        Boom         Industry     Liquid       600          1                         20
                                                                     data

Fodder/forage93   Unknown           Methamidophos       Boom         Plant and    Liquid       900          3            7            20
                                                                     Food
                                                                     Report

Fodder/forage94   Weevils           Fenitrothion        Boom         Label        Liquid       600          1                         20

Fodder/forage95   Weevils           Phorate             Drill        Label        Granule      1000         1                         20

Fodder/forage96   Weevils           Terbufos            Drill        Label        Granule      600          1                         20

Fodder/forage97   White butterfly   Maldison            Aerial       Label        Liquid       1500         4            7            50




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                               18


                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment

                                                                                                               Applicatio                              Relevanc
                                                                        Source of
                                                                                                  Applicatio   n            Applicatio   Applicatio    e to
Use scenario                                               Applicatio   use          Formulatio
                    Pest               Active ingredient                                          n rate       frequency    n interval   n area        sector
number                                                     n method     informatio   n type
                                                                                                  (g/ha)       (per         (days)       (ha/day)
                                                                        n
                                                                                                               season)

Fodder/forage98     White butterfly    Methamidophos       Boom         Plant and    Liquid       900          2            7            3
                                                                        Food
                                                                        Report

Fodder/forage99     White butterfly    Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        Liquid       125          4            7            20

Fodder/forage100    White butterfly    Pirimiphos-methyl   Aerial       Label        Liquid       475          4            14           50

Fodder/forage101    White butterfly    Pirimiphos-methyl   Boom         Label        Liquid       475          4            14           20

Fodder/forage102    Whitefly           Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            20

Fodder/forage103    Woolly apple       Pirimicarb          Boom         Label        WSG          125          4            7            50
                    aphid


           EC emulsifiable concentrate

           EW emulsion, oil in water

           SC suspension concentrate

           WSG water soluble granule

           WSB water soluble bag




           May 2012
                                                                                                       19


                                                             APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



Risks
Overview
The EPA has evaluated the risks to operators, re-entry workers, bystanders, the aquatic environment,
birds and bees from using these substances. All risk assessment results in this document should be
considered preliminary as they may change with additional feedback. The final risk assessment
results will be presented in the reassessment application.

Results are described as risk quotients (RQs) which compare predicted exposures and maximum
concentrations that will not cause adverse effects. All risk quotients have been normalised so that
RQs above 1 exceed the EPA’s Level of Concern where effects are likely to be seen.



Data gaps
There are significant data gaps that affect our understanding of the risks that fenamiphos pose to both
human health and the environment. Our risk assessment for fenamiphos could be refined if additional
data about its dermal absorption was provided. In the absence of information the EPA has assumed
that 50% of the fenamiphos in both the product and the spray would be absorbed through skin.



      5. Please provide information about the dermal absorption of fenamiphos, and reference
         or attach your sources.




    May 2012
                                                                                                            20


                                                                  APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



Risk modelling
This section summarises our understanding of the risks of organophosphates and carbamates based
on modelling of the risks to human health and the environment.

Figures 1 and 2 show the maximum and minimum risk quotients for your sector’s use of each active
ingredient. Both figures depict risks assuming that operators wear full Personal Protective Equipment
(chemical resistant gloves, coveralls, sturdy footwear, a hood and visor), that re-entry workers do not
enter the crop for 24 hours after spraying and that Good Agricultural Practice is followed.

    Figure 1: Maximum Risk Quotients (the black line indicates the level of concern)




    Figure 2: Minimum Risk Quotients (the black line indicates the level of concern)




    May 2012
                                                                                                       21


                                                             APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



Quantitative estimates of risk to operators, re-entry workers, bystanders, the aquatic environment,
birds and bees have been made for all use scenarios except where the risks are assumed to be
negligible, namely:
 Re-entry workers, bystanders and environmental risks arising from drilling granules (phorate,
   terbufos and diazinon).


Maximum RQ values across your sector’s range of use scenarios are shown in Figure 1. These are
worst-case scenarios generally indicating high application rates and frequency. If the maximum RQ is
less than one, no additional risk management is needed, but if the RQ is greater than one, risk
management will be needed for at least some uses.

The minimum RQs depicted in Figure 2 indicate the best-case scenarios across your sector’s use of
these substances i.e. the lowest rates and safest formulations. Substances for which the minimum
RQ is greater than one for one or more endpoints require risk management.

Information and assumptions used for modelling risks can be found in the accompanying Background
Document.



Possible risk management options
It is possible that additional controls could help to manage the risks posed by organophosphates and
carbamates. The EPA has evaluated some possible controls to help reduce risks for each of the use-
scenarios. This could mean that for some substances uses with low risks would be retained while
others may require additional risk management.

Possible risk management options are listed in Table 7. Appendix A describes the possible options in
more detail and defines terms used in Table 7. Existing controls will continue to apply to a substance.




    May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                  22


                                                                                                                        APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment


Table 7: Possible options for reducing risks for organophosphate and carbamate use on fodder and forage

                                                                                                                 Re-entry
                         General         Operator                                                                             Bystander/Aquatic
                                                                                                                 worker
                                                                                                                                                      Concerns still
 Substance               Chemical        RPE (in     Closed         Closed                         Maximum
                                                                                 Minimisation                                                         exist for:
                         class           addition    mixing /       cab                            application   Re-entry
                                                                                 of dust or fine                              Buffer zone (m)
                         identificatio   to full     loading        applicatio                     rates (g      interval
                                                                                 particles
                         n               PPE)        system         n                              a.i./ha)

 Chlorpyrifos (aerial,
                         Yes                                                                       600                        Yes                     Aquatic Bees
 liquid)

 Chlorpyrifos (boom,
                         Yes                                                                       600                        Yes                     Aquatic Bees
 liquid)

 Chlorpyrifos (boom,
                         Yes                                                                       500                        Yes                     Aquatic Bees
 WSB)

                                                                                                                                                      Operator, even
                                                                                                                                                      with additional
 Diazinon (aerial,
                         Yes             Yes                                                       2400          24 h         Yes                     controls Re-
 liquid)
                                                                                                                                                      entry Aquatic
                                                                                                                                                      Birds Bees

                                                                                                                                                      Re-entry
 Diazinon (boom,
                         Yes             Yes         Yes            Yes                            2400          24 h         Yes                     Aquatic Birds
 liquid)
                                                                                                                                                      Bees

 Diazinon (drill,
                         Unknown application rate – unknown risks
 granule )

                                                                                                                                                      Re-entry
 Dichlorvos (boom,
                         Yes                                                                       750           24 h         Yes                     Aquatic Birds
 liquid)
                                                                                                                                                      Bees




May 2012
                                                                                                                                                           23


                                                                                                                 APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment


                                                                                                          Re-entry
                       General         Operator                                                                        Bystander/Aquatic
                                                                                                          worker
                                                                                                                                               Concerns still
 Substance             Chemical        RPE (in    Closed     Closed                         Maximum
                                                                          Minimisation                                                         exist for:
                       class           addition   mixing /   cab                            application   Re-entry
                                                                          of dust or fine                              Buffer zone (m)
                       identificatio   to full    loading    applicatio                     rates (g      interval
                                                                          particles
                       n               PPE)       system     n                              a.i./ha)

 Dimethoate (boom,
                       Yes                                                                  500           48 h         Yes
 liquid)

                                                                                                                                               Operator, even
                                                                                                                                               with additional
                                                                                                                                               controls Re-
 Fenamiphos
                       Yes             Yes        Yes        Yes                            10000         48 h         Yes                     entry
 (boom, liquid)
                                                                                                                                               Bystander
                                                                                                                                               Aquatic Birds
                                                                                                                                               Bees

 Fenitrothion (boom,
                       Yes                                   Yes                            600           48 h         Yes                     Bees
 liquid)

 Maldison (aerial,
                       Yes                                                                  1500          24 h         Yes                     Aquatic Bees
 liquid)

 Maldison (boom,
                       Yes                                                                  1496          24 h         Yes                     Aquatic Bees
 liquid)

                                                                                                                                               Operator, even
 Methamidophos                                                                                                                                 with additional
                       Yes             Yes        Yes        Yes                            900           48 h         Yes
 (boom, liquid)                                                                                                                                controls Re-
                                                                                                                                               entry Aquatic

 Phorate (drill,                                                                                                                               Operator, even
                       Yes             Yes                   Yes          Yes               1000
 granule)                                                                                                                                      with additional



May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                    24


                                                                                                                          APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment


                                                                                                                   Re-entry
                            General         Operator                                                                            Bystander/Aquatic
                                                                                                                   worker
                                                                                                                                                        Concerns still
      Substance             Chemical        RPE (in     Closed       Closed                          Maximum
                                                                                   Minimisation                                                         exist for:
                            class           addition    mixing /     cab                             application   Re-entry
                                                                                   of dust or fine                              Buffer zone (m)
                            identificatio   to full     loading      applicatio                      rates (g      interval
                                                                                   particles
                            n               PPE)        system       n                               a.i./ha)

                                                                                                                                                        controls Birds

      Pirimicarb (aerial,
                            Yes                                                                      125                        Yes
      WSG)

      Pirimicarb (boom,
                            Yes                                                                      250                        Yes
      liquid)

      Pirimicarb (boom,
                            Yes                                                                      125                        Yes
      WSG)

      Pirimiphos-methyl
                            Yes                                                                      475           24 h         Yes                     Aquatic
      (aerial, liquid)

      Pirimiphos-methyl
                            Yes                                                                      475           24 h         Yes
      (boom, liquid)

                                                                                                                                                        Operator, even
      Terbufos (drill,
                            Yes             Yes                      Yes           Yes               600                                                with additional
      granule)
                                                                                                                                                        controls

For your sector our preliminary risk assessment indicates there are substances which are still of concern for human health and the environment even after
additional controls have been considered.

The risk management options in Table 7 are based on an assessment of the substances’ risks alone. Data you provide on actual use patterns, alternative
risk information and additional controls will help us to re-evaluate this risk assessment.




    May 2012
                                                                                                                                                               25


                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment


We know that many of these substances have significant benefits, and the final decision on their future use will consider their risks, costs and benefits.
However, if the benefits are not shown to outweigh the risks phase out may be triggered for some uses.




    May 2012
                                                                                                                  26


                                                                       APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



What is the impact?
We need your input about the practicality of the possible risk management options and, if these
controls are impractical, we are asking you to suggest alternatives to manage the risks.

When answering the questions below please consider what the impact on your sector would be if the
options above were applied. Please supply information to support your assessment.

         6. Which of the possible risk management options in Table 7 would be workable if they
            were implemented in your sector? Please describe how you could make them work in
            the field.
         Example: We always apply downwind buffer zones when applying these substances. Or: Wearing
         respirators during application could reduce risks in a similar way to closed cab application, and is a
         cheaper option for us.




         7. If you think that any of the possible risk management options in Table 7 are not
            workable please explain why.
         Example: The maximum application rate is too low to control XYZ insect populations. Or: We often need
         to re-enter fields during the summer within the first 24 hours to apply irrigation.




Be specific
In the questions below we are asking you to indicate what economic impact the possible risk
management options would have e.g. how a lower application rate would affect your costs or, if the
controls are unworkable, what effect the phase out of a substance would have.

Much of the feedback that we have received to date has included generalisations such as, “without
organophosphates our crop would be decimated”, and localised facts like, “without organophosphates
my farm would lose $70,000 per year”. This feedback is useful to give us an idea of the nature and
extent of the problem, but we need more information to help us understand the effect of the changes
on your sector.

Please include the type of information provided in the example below when responding to questions 7
to 10.




    May 2012
                                                                                                       27


                                                             APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment


Hypothetical example
If our industry were not able to use diazinon and fenamiphos then we estimate that the cost of control
would increase by $200/hectare on an average annual basis. Approximately 80% of the fodder and
forage crops growing area would be affected. As well as the additional cost of control we believe that
the production levels would reduce by 10%. This would be a long term effect (probably 10 years)
while alternative products were developed and registered for use.

      8. How would the loss of any of the substances in Table 7 affect you? We are
         particularly interested in those substances that are critical to the profitable
         production of your crop. Please provide information separately for each substance.




      9. How would the possible risk management options affect your production costs?




      10. Please describe how employment in your industry would be affected if the risk
          management options were implemented and if high risk uses of some substances
          were phased out. If possible indicate changes to on-farm and off-farm employment
          separately.




      11. How would the possible options affect production/yield, and your income or the value
          of your sector? Include information for the possible loss of high risk uses requiring
          the substitution of alternatives. Please quote average per annum figures and show
          your workings.




    May 2012
                                                                                                                 28


                                                                   APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



      12. Comment on how any impacts would change with time. Would the impact on yield
          and value of implementing the possible risk management options be short term or
          long term, and would the effects increase or decrease over time?
      Example: If application rates were reduced we would see little difference in yield short term, but over time
      pest pressure would increase along with costs. Yield and value may reduce in the mid-term until effective
      alternatives were available.




Alternative options to manage risks
In Table 7 we have outlined a range of possible options for managing the risks of organophosphate
and carbamate use on fodder and forage. We are interested in any alternative measures to manage
these risks which may be more appropriate. You may have existing obligations under product
stewardship or good agricultural practice schemes that you think address the concerns that we have
identified. Less toxic alternatives may have been identified which the sector is planning to adopt. It
may also be possible to reduce the levels of exposure through use of specific technology like
recapturing application equipment which applies less substance within a treatment area. There may
also be alternative management strategies that you might use.

      13. Please suggest other control measures to reduce the risks of using
          organophosphates and carbamates. Provide us with specific details which will enable
          us to evaluate the impact of your proposals. For example include details of reduced
          exposure that would be achieved by lowering application rates to a specified amount,
          reducing applications to an identified number, or using recapture technology. Explain
          what mix of management techniques and/or alternative substances you would prefer
          to use. Make sure that you explain which substances the controls would apply to, and
          if they are stand-alone measures or implemented as a suite of controls.
      Substance     Proposed risk management option                            How this would reduce risks




      14. How effective would your alternative management strategy be in terms of pest
          control?




    May 2012
                                                                                                  29


                                                        APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment




      15. How would your alternative options affect production/yield, costs, employment and
          your income or the value of your sector? Please show your workings and use
          average per annum figures.




      16. Comment on how any impacts of your alternative risk management strategy would
          change with time. Would the impact on yield and value of implementing your strategy
          be short term or long term, and would the effects increase or decrease over time?




We welcome all feedback.

Please respond by 31 July 2012 either:
 Through your industry body, or
 Directly to the EPA by emailing reassessments@epa.govt.nz or
 faxing to OP Reassessment 04 914 0433




    May 2012
                                                                                                          30


                                                               APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



Sources
1
    Chapman, R. Bruce. A review of insecticide use on pastures and forage crops in New Zealand.
    AgResearch, 2010.
2
    Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry website http://www.maf.govt.nz/agriculture/pastoral/dairy.aspx
3
    New Zealand Novachem Agrichemical Manual website www.novachem.co.nz
4
    Chapman, R. Bruce. A review of insecticide use on pastures and forage crops in New Zealand.
    Insect Science Ltd: Christchurch
5
    Syngenta feedback on the Environmental Protection Authority Call for Information on the
    reassessment of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides.




       May 2012
                                                                                                                   31


                                                                    APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



Appendix A
Tables 8 and 9 provide explanations of the possible options and definitions of the terms used.

    Table 8: Descriptions of possible options for reducing risks

                                         Description

                                         A restriction on the permitted application methods is applied so that the
                                         substance may only be applied using [application method]. This
                                         requirement must be stated on the label.
      Application equipment              In circumstances where a particular application method poses high risks,
                                         a restriction may be imposed to prohibit that use. Alternatively, in order
                                         to retain a particular use pattern (such as a critical use), use of a specific
                                         application method may be specified.

                                         Application of the substance is only permitted in conjunction with a buffer
                                         zone as described in NZS 8409:2004 The Management of
                                         Agrichemicals, which is available from Standards New Zealand
      Buffer Zone                        (www.standards.co.nz or call 0800 STANDARDS). This requirement
                                         must be stated on the label.
                                         A Buffer Zone is the minimum separation distance downwind of an area
                                         where a substance is applied and a sensitive area.

                                         Application of the substance is only permitted using a vehicle equipped
                                         with a fully enclosed closed operator cab, where the cab air intake is
                                         fitted with chemical filters. This requirement must be stated on the label.
      Closed cab application             A reduction in the exposure of a person applying a substance can be
                                         achieved by using application equipment where the operator is within a
                                         fully enclosed cab, fitted with chemical filters to ensure that the air-
                                         supply for the operator is not contaminated with chemicals.

                                         The substance must be loaded into the application equipment using a
                                         closed system. This requirement must be stated on the label.
                                         Closed mixing and loading systems can be used in order to remove the
      Closed loading systems             exposure to operators during this phase of the substance lifecycle.
                                         Liquids may be charged to the spray tank using closed pumping systems
                                         in a spray shed, or by charging mechanisms on the sprayer. For
                                         granules used in aqueous sprays, water soluble packaging can be used.

                                         The substance must be applied below the surface of the soil, or be
                                         covered completely with soil immediately after application. This
      Granule application restriction    requirement must be stated on the label.
                                         This restriction will put an obligation on the applicator to ensure that the
                                         substance does not pose a post application risk to birds.

                                         A maximum application rate is set for this substance. This requirement
                                         must be stated on the label.
      Maximum application rates
                                         The risk assessment for a given substance has been carried out for
                                         particular use parameters. Use of a substance in excess of the
                                         quantities assessed can give rise to greater levels of risk, and as a



    May 2012
                                                                                                              32


                                                              APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                                   result, the proposed controls may not adequately manage the risks
                                   posed.

                                   This substance must not contain more than 1.5%(w/w) with a particle
                                   size of less than 150 µm.
 Minimisation of dust or fine
 particles                         This condition is to ensure that fine particles or dust are excluded from
                                   the substance, so that handling of the substance does not result in
                                   exposure to dust or fine particles.

                                   In the case of an organophosphate-containing substance, the main label
                                   must clearly identify the substance as containing an organophosphate
                                   chemical; or
                                   In the case of a carbamate-containing substance, the main label must
 Chemical class identification
                                   clearly identify the substance as containing a carbamate chemical.
                                   This additional labelling condition will provide clear identification of the
                                   chemical class of the substance, and is to ensure that the end-user is
                                   aware of the type of substance being handled.

                                   Use of specific RPE is prescribed. This requirement must be stated on
 Personal Protective Equipment     the label.
 (PPE)
                                   The additional requirement for RPE details the specific minimum
 Respiratory Protective            requirements for RPE and are in addition to the requirement for use of
 Equipment (RPE)                   full PPE when handling the substance or entering a treated area within a
                                   REI.

                                   After [date], use of this substance on [crop/sector] is no longer permitted.
                                   For substances that have use patterns that are to be phased out, a
                                   period of time is established to provide an opportunity for use or disposal
 Phase-out Period                  of the substance. After the Phase-out Period has elapsed, use of that
                                   substance will no longer be permitted for that particular use pattern. For
                                   substances that are used in different sectors, such a restriction may be
                                   imposed for certain uses or application methods in certain sectors, whilst
                                   being retained in others.

                                   Entry into treated areas is not permitted until the Restricted Entry
                                   Interval has elapsed since the end of application of the substance,
                                   unless PPE (and RPE where prescribed for operators) is worn for the
                                   time that the person is within the treated area. This requirement must be
                                   stated on the label.
                                   A Restricted Entry Interval (REI) is the period of time which must elapse
 Restricted Entry Interval (REI)   after application of a substance before entry into the treated area is
                                   permitted without use of PPE and RPE (as required). Entry into a treated
                                   area before the REI has elapsed is only permitted if full PPE is worn
                                   (and RPE if required for application of the substance). Additionally, the
                                   entry restriction may limit the tasks that may be carried out within the
                                   treated area, and the time per day that a person may spend in the
                                   treated area within the REI.




May 2012
                                                                                                              33


                                                               APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



Table 9: Definitions of terms used in the possible options

                                     Description

                                     It is appropriate to allow a period of time in order to implement any
                                     changes of controls applied to a substance. If an Implementation Period
                                     is specified, then the controls that currently apply to a substance are
 Implementation Period
                                     valid until the end of the implementation period. Once the
                                     Implementation Period has elapsed, any new controls, or changes to the
                                     existing controls, must be followed.

                                     PPE is protective equipment that is specifically designed to prevent non-
                                     respiratory exposure of a person handling chemicals.
                                     Full PPE constitutes the following clothing and equipment:

 Personal Protective Equipment        Chemical resistant gloves;
 (PPE)                                Coveralls;
 Respiratory Protective               Sturdy footwear;
 Equipment (RPE)
                                      A hood and visor.
                                     RPE is protective equipment that is specifically designed to prevent
                                     exposure of the respiratory system to chemicals, such as using a
                                     respirator fitted with an appropriate chemical filter.

                                     A sensitive area is a location that may be sensitive to drift of an applied
                                     substance. Sensitive areas include:

                                      Residential buildings and areas;

 Sensitive area (definition)          Private property;

                                      Places where public may lawfully be (e.g. schools, parks,
                                       playgrounds, day care facilities, prisons, hospitals, nursing homes);

                                      Waterways.

                                     A waterway includes modified water courses such as reservoirs,
                                     irrigation canals, water supply races, canals for supply of water for
 Waterway (definition)
                                     electricity generation or farm drainage canals, as well as natural water
                                     bodies.




May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                34


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment


      Appendix B
           Table 10: Risk quotients from modelling risks of using organophosphates and carbamates on fodder and forage


                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                             Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                      Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                             Max
                                                                                                                                                                                     Min
Fodder/forage1   0.012      0.0036     Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           0.064          Insufficient   0.056          2000           2.1     25    68
                                       calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage2

Fodder/forage3   0.015      0.0065     0.0059       0.0019       0.011         0.005         0.0011        0.0005        0.064          Insuff data    0.039          450            2.1     25    68
                                                                                                                                        to calc



Fodder/forage4   0.017      0.0071     0.0065       0.0021       0.012         0.0055        0.0012        0.00055       0.07           Insuff data    0.043          500            2.3     17    75
                                                                                                                                        to calc



Fodder/forage5   0.039      0.016      0.015        0.0049       0.027         0.013         0.0027        0.0013        0.26           Insuff data    0.16           2200           7.1     100   170
                                                                                                                                        to calc

Fodder/forage6   0.027      0.013      0.0027       0.0013       0.027         0.013         0.0027        0.0013        0.26           Insuff data    0.16           2200           7.1     100   170
                                                                                                                                        to calc

Fodder/forage7




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                  35


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                               Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                        Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                               Max
                                                                                                                                                                                       Min
Fodder/forage8


Fodder/forage9

Fodder/forage1   0.39       0.2        0.14         0.025        0.31          0.2           0.031         0.02          1.9            Insuff data    0.92           0.019            2.8     33    80
0                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage1   0.48       0.26       0.17         0.032        0.39          0.25          0.039         0.025         2.3            Insuff data    1.2            0.024            3.4     50    100
1                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage1   3.3        3.1        1            0.91         2.5           2.4           0.25          0.24          31             Insuff data    4              13               1.3     17    600
2                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage1   0.15       0.13       Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           5.3            Insufficient   1.1            4200             0.54    6.7   150
3                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage1   13         2.2        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           Not            Not            Not            Not              4.6     500
4                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated    applica        applicable     calculated     calculate
                                                                                                                         ble                                          d

Fodder/forage1   13         2.2        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           Not            Not            Not            Not              4.6     530
5                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated    applica        applicable     calculated     calculate
                                                                                                                         ble                                          d

Fodder/forage1   0.027      0.007      Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           0.15           Insufficient   0.031          2.7              0.43    5.6   0.63



           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                36


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                             Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                      Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                             Max
                                                                                                                                                                                     Min
6                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage1
7

Fodder/forage1   0.016      0.015      0.005        0.0043       0.013         0.011         0.0013        0.0011        0.33           Insuff data    0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
8                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage1   0.041      0.037      0.013        0.011        0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.51           0.11           0.03           1.2            0.6     2.2   0.63
9

Fodder/forage2   0.033      0.029      0.01         0.0087       0.025         0.023         0.0025        0.0023        0.48           Insuff data    0.069          2.4            1.2     14    1.3
0                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage2   0.033      0.029      0.01         0.0087       0.025         0.023         0.0025        0.0023        0.57           Insuff data    0.083          2.4            1.2     14    1.3
1                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage2   0.023      0.014      0.012        0.004        0.013         0.011         0.0013        0.0011        0.19           Insuff data    0.028          3              0.52    4     0.63
2                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage2   0.023      0.014      0.012        0.004        0.013         0.011         0.0013        0.0011        0.19           Insuff data    0.028          3              0.52    6.7   0.63
3                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage2   0.023      0.014      0.012        0.004        0.013         0.011         0.0013        0.0011        0.19           Insuff data    0.028          3              0.52    6.7   0.63
4                                                                                                                                       to calc




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                  37


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                               Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                        Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                               Max
                                                                                                                                                                                       Min
Fodder/forage2   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.15           Insuff data    0.021          0.6              0.12    3.3   0.63
5                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage2   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3              0.78    10    0.63
6

Fodder/forage2
7

Fodder/forage2   0.014      0.0043     Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           1.2            Insufficient   0.27           290              1.1     14    26
8                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage2   0.071      0.06       0.012        0.0076       0.066         0.059         0.0066        0.0059        1.2            Insuff data    0.19           65               1.1     14    26
9                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage3   19         3.3        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           Not            Not            Not            Not              0.06    11
0                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated    applica        applicable     calculated     calculate
                                                                                                                         ble                                          d

Fodder/forage3   0.036      0.011      Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           0.19           Insufficient   0.17           6100             6.3     100   200
1                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage3   0.046      0.019      0.018        0.0058       0.032         0.015         0.0032        0.0015        0.19           Insuff data    0.12           1400             6.3     100   200
2                                                                                                                                       to calc




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                38


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                             Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                      Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                             Max
                                                                                                                                                                                     Min
Fodder/forage3   4.2        2.9        1.4          0.85         3.1           2.2           0.31          0.22          64             Insuff data    18             530            53      100   130
3                                                                                                                                       to calc                                              0

Fodder/forage3   4.2        2.9        1.4          0.85         3.1           2.2           0.31          0.22          64             Insuff data    18             530            53      100   130
4                                                                                                                                       to calc                                              0

Fodder/forage3   8.4        5.7        2.9          1.7          6.2           4.5           0.62          0.45          68             Insuff data    19             540            67      830   270
5                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage3   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
6

Fodder/forage3   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
7

Fodder/forage3   0.19       0.1        0.07         0.013        0.16          0.1           0.016         0.01          0.93           Insuff data    0.46           0.0095         1.4     11    40
8                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage3   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
9

Fodder/forage4   0.8        0.76       0.24         0.23         0.62          0.59          0.062         0.059         290            60             14             560            100     830   520
0

Fodder/forage4   0.039      0.035      0.012        0.01         0.03          0.028         0.003         0.0028        13             2.8            0.74           2700           2.2     25    150
1




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                39


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                             Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                      Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                             Max
                                                                                                                                                                                     Min
Fodder/forage4   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
2

Fodder/forage4   4.2        2.9        1.4          0.85         3.1           2.2           0.31          0.22          64             Insuff data    18             530            53      100   130
3                                                                                                                                       to calc                                              0

Fodder/forage4   4.2        2.9        1.4          0.85         3.1           2.2           0.31          0.22          64             Insuff data    18             530            53      100   130
4                                                                                                                                       to calc                                              0

Fodder/forage4   0.39       0.2        0.14         0.025        0.31          0.2           0.031         0.02          1.9            Insuff data    0.92           0.019          17      33    80
5                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage4
6

Fodder/forage4   0.15       0.13       Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           5.3            Insufficient   1.1            4200           0.55    6.7   150
7                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage4   2.8        2.1        0.9          0.63         2.1           1.7           0.21          0.17          580            120            48             54000          7.1     100   13
8

Fodder/forage4   0.016      0.015      0.005        0.0043       0.013         0.011         0.0013        0.0011        0.33           Insuff data    0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
9                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage5   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
0



           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                40


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                             Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                      Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                             Max
                                                                                                                                                                                     Min
Fodder/forage5   0.014      0.0043     Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           1.2            Insufficient   0.27           290            1.1     14    26
1                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage5   0.071      0.06       0.012        0.0076       0.066         0.059         0.0066        0.0059        1.2            Insuff data    0.19           65             1.1     14    26
2                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage5   0.071      0.06       0.012        0.0076       0.066         0.059         0.0066        0.0059        0.76           Insuff data    0.12           65             0.85    11    26
3                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage5   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
4

Fodder/forage5   11         6.3        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           120            Insufficient   45             3900           120     140   530
5                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to                                              0
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage5   17         11         5.8          3.4          12            8.9           1.2           0.89          120            Insuff data    32             880            120     140   530
6                                                                                                                                       to calc                                              0

Fodder/forage5
7

Fodder/forage5   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
8

Fodder/forage5   0.014      0.0043     Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           1.2            Insufficient   0.27           290            1.1     14    26



           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                  41


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                               Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                        Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                               Max
                                                                                                                                                                                       Min
9                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage6   0.071      0.06       0.012        0.0076       0.066         0.059         0.0066        0.0059        1.2            Insuff data    0.19           65               1.1     14    26
0                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage6   2.8        2.1        0.9          0.63         2.1           1.7           0.21          0.17          580            120            48             54000            7.1     100   13
1

Fodder/forage6   0.036      0.011      Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           0.19           Insufficient   0.17           6100             6.3     100   200
2                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage6   13         2.2        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           Not            Not            Not            Not              4.6     500
3                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated    applica        applicable     calculated     calculate
                                                                                                                         ble                                          d

Fodder/forage6   0.014      0.0043     Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           1.2            Insufficient   0.27           290              1.1     14    26
4                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage6   19         3.3        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           Not            Not            Not            Not              0.06    11
5                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated    applica        applicable     calculated     calculate
                                                                                                                         ble                                          d

Fodder/forage6   0.046      0.019      0.018        0.0058       0.032         0.015         0.0032        0.0015        0.19           Insuff data    0.12           1400             6.3     100   200
6                                                                                                                                       to calc



           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                42


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                             Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                      Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                             Max
                                                                                                                                                                                     Min
Fodder/forage6   3.3        3.1        1            0.91         2.5           2.4           0.25          0.24          31             Insuff data    4              13             1.3     17    600
7                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage6   0.071      0.06       0.012        0.0076       0.066         0.059         0.0066        0.0059        1.2            Insuff data    0.19           65             1.1     14    26
8                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage6
9

Fodder/forage7   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
0

Fodder/forage7   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
1

Fodder/forage7   200        200        61           58           160           150           16            15            2000           Insuff data    230            340            910     100   710
2                                                                                                                                       to calc                                              00

Fodder/forage7   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
3

Fodder/forage7   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
4

Fodder/forage7   0.031      0.013      0.012        0.0039       0.021         0.01          0.0021        0.001         0.13           Insuff data    0.079          910            2.3     17    140
5                                                                                                                                       to calc




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                43


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                             Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                      Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                             Max
                                                                                                                                                                                     Min
Fodder/forage7   3.3        3.1        1            0.91         2.5           2.4           0.25          0.24          31             Insuff data    4              13             1.3     10    600
6                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage7   0.006      0.0018     Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           0.032          Insufficient   0.036          1300           1       13    34
7                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage7   0.007      0.0032     0.0029       0.00097      0.0053        0.0025        0.00053       0.00025       0.032          Insuff data    0.02           230            1       13    34
8                7                                                                                                                      to calc

Fodder/forage7
9

Fodder/forage8   1.9        1.3        0.66         0.39         1.4           1             0.14          0.1           21             Insuff data    5.9            170            19      250   61
0                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage8   1.9        1.3        0.66         0.39         1.4           1             0.14          0.1           13             Insuff data    1.2            37             14      100   61
1                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage8   1.9        1.3        0.66         0.39         1.4           1             0.14          0.1           13             Insuff data    3.6            100            14      100   61
2                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage8   1.9        1.3        0.66         0.39         1.4           1             0.14          0.1           13             Insuff data    1.2            37             14      100   61
3                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage8   2          1.3        0.67         0.4          1.4           1             0.14          0.1           13             Insuff data    1.2            38             14      100   62
4                                                                                                                                       to calc



           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                  44


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                               Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                        Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                               Max
                                                                                                                                                                                       Min
Fodder/forage8   0.39       0.2        0.14         0.025        0.31          0.2           0.031         0.02          1.9            Insuff data    0.92           0.019            2.8     33    80
5                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage8   3.3        3.1        1            0.91         2.5           2.4           0.25          0.24          31             Insuff data    4              13               1.3     17    600
6                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage8   13         2.2        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           Not            Not            Not            Not              4.6     500
7                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated    applica        applicable     calculated     calculate
                                                                                                                         ble                                          d

Fodder/forage8   0.002      0.00086    Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           0.24           Insufficient   0.055          60               0.22    2.8   5.3
8                9                     calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage8   0.014      0.012      0.0025       0.0015       0.013         0.012         0.0013        0.0012        0.24           Insuff data    0.037          13               0.22    2.8   5.3
9                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage9   19         3.3        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           Not            Not            Not            Not              0.06    11
0                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated    applica        applicable     calculated     calculate
                                                                                                                         ble                                          d

Fodder/forage9   0.036      0.011      Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           0.48           0.1            0.17           6100             6.3     20    200
1                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated

Fodder/forage9   0.046      0.019      0.018        0.0058       0.032         0.015         0.0032        0.0015        0.48           0.1            0.12           1400             6.3     20    200
2




           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                  45


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                               Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                        Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                               Max
                                                                                                                                                                                       Min
Fodder/forage9   18         14         6            4.2          14            11            1.4           1.1           720            150            59             74000            8.3     100   13
3

Fodder/forage9   3.3        3.1        1            0.91         2.5           2.4           0.25          0.24          31             Insuff data    4              13               1.3     17    600
4                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage9   13         2.2        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           Not            Not            Not            Not              4.6     500
5                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated    applica        applicable     calculated     calculate
                                                                                                                         ble                                          d

Fodder/forage9   19         3.3        Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           Not            Not            Not            Not              0.06    11
6                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated    applica        applicable     calculated     calculate
                                                                                                                         ble                                          d

Fodder/forage9   0.15       0.13       Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           5.3            Insufficient   1.1            4200             0.54    6.7   150
7                                      calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate

Fodder/forage9   2.8        2.1        0.9          0.63         2.1           1.7           0.21          0.17          580            120            48             54000            7.1     100   13
8

Fodder/forage9   0.016      0.015      0.005        0.0043       0.013         0.011         0.0013        0.0011        0.33           Insuff data    0.048          2.3              0.78    10    0.63
9                                                                                                                                       to calc

Fodder/forage1   0.014      0.0043     Not          Not          Not           Not           Not           Not           1.2            Insufficient   0.27           290              1.1     14    26
00                                     calculated   calculated   calculated    calculated    calculated    calculated                   data to
                                                                                                                                        calculate



           May 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                46


                                                                                                                                     APP201045 Fodder and Forage Sector Assessment



                 Operator                                                                                                Re-entry worker                                             Birds

Use scenario




                                                                 No mix/load




                                                                               No mix/load




                                                                                             No mix/load




                                                                                                           No mix/load




                                                                                                                                         With gloves
                                       Closed cab




                                                    Closed cab




                                                                                             Closed cab




                                                                                                           Closed cab
                                                                                                                                                       Bystander      Aquatic                      Bees




                                                                                                                         No gloves
number




                                                                 Full PPE
                 Full PPE


                            Full PPE



                                       Full PPE




                                                    Full PPE




                                                                               Full PPE




                                                                                             Full PPE




                                                                                                           Full PPE
                            RPE




                                                    RPE




                                                                               RPE




                                                                                                           RPE




                                                                                                                                                                                             Max
                                                                                                                                                                                     Min
Fodder/forage1   0.071      0.06       0.012        0.0076       0.066         0.059         0.0066        0.0059        1.2            Insuff data    0.19           65             1.1     14    26
01                                                                                                                                      to calc

Fodder/forage1   0.023      0.014      0.012        0.004        0.013         0.011         0.0013        0.0011        0.33           Insuff data    0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
02                                                                                                                                      to calc

Fodder/forage1   0.058      0.036      0.03         0.0099       0.031         0.029         0.0031        0.0029        0.83           0.17           0.048          2.3            0.78    10    0.63
03




           May 2012

								
To top