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01 Biological Themes

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					  AP Biology

Chapter 1 Review
      Biology

   The Study of
    Life
   We classify life                        (b) Evolutionary
                                                adaptation

    by what              (a) Order
                                                                (c) Response to the
                                                                   environment
    organisms do:


                                          (e) Energy
                                             processing
                         (d) Regulation



                                      (f) Growth and           (g) Reproduction
                                         development
            Figure 1.2
       A Hierarchy of Biological
       Organization

1 The
biosphere
                                   9 Organelles
                                                  1 µm
                                   Cell
                         8 Cells

                                                             Ato
                                                             ms

                                          10 µm          10 Molecule

                               7 Tissues
                           50 µm


                        6 Organs and organ systems
The 8 Biological Themes
   Science as a Process of Inquiry
   Evolution
   Energy Transfer
   Continuity and Change
   Relationship of Structure and Function
   Regulation
   Interdependence in Nature
   Science, Technology and Society
Science as a Process of Inquiry
   We study science so that we can
    have a better understanding of our
    world.
   It can use a discovery process using
    inductive reasoning.
   Also, it could be a process of
    hypothesis testing(deductive
    reasoning).
An Example of Inductive Reasoning


                    Inductive reasoning
                     makes conclusions
                     based on a set of
                     observations.
                    Can lead to a
                     hypothesis that can
                     be more carefully
                     studied using
                     deductive
                     reasoning.
        An Example of Deductive Reasoning

   Deductive reasoning
    uses previously known
    facts to make
    conclusions.
   Think about how this
    doctor uses facts to
    solve his patients’
    illnesses.
                Evolution
   Can be defined as a change in the
    gene pool of a population over a
    period of time.
   Driven by the process of natural
    selection.
   Accounts for the diversity of life on
    Earth.
               Energy Transfer

   All living things need a constant
    supply energy in order to survive.
   Energy can be obtained in one of
    two ways:
       Autrophically
       Heterotrophically
        Continuity and Change

   All species tend to maintain
    themselves from generation to
    generation using the same genetic
    code.
   The change comes about through
    evolution.
    Relationship of Structure and
              Function

   We can often determine the
    function of something by looking at
    the structure or how it is made.
                  Regulation

   Organisms need to maintain a
    “steady state” in the face of
    changing conditions.
       Maintain homeostasis
       Achieve this through feedback
                   Feedback

   Negative                Positive
       The more you            More you have,
        have, the less           the more you
        you make                 make
              A                               A
                                   Negative
                  Enzyme           feedback       Enzyme
                     1                               1
              B                               B
                  Enzyme
                     2
              C                               C
                  Enzyme
                     3             D
              D        D       D              D
                   D
                                       D
                           D
              D    D
                               D
Figure 1.11
              W                                                 W

                  Enzyme 4                                              Enzyme 4

              X                          Positive               X
                                         feedback
                  Enzyme 5                                              Enzyme 5

              Y                                                 Y

                  Enzyme 6                                              Enzyme 6
                                     Z
              Z              Z                                  Z            Z
                                               Z    Z   Z           Z
                     Z                                                               Z
                                 Z                                       Z
                                                            Z
                         Z                    Z     Z               Z            Z
Figure 1.12
        Interdependence in Nature

   Living organisms rarely exist alone
    in nature.
   Organisms must interact together to
    live.
       Example – There are MANY different
        types of bacteria that live in and on
        your body. Without them, you would
        die!!!! 
   As diverse as life is, there is
    evidence of unity…

                                             15 µm




                                                                            1.0 µm
                                         Cilia of Paramecium.
                                         The cilia of Paramecium
                                         propel the cell through
                                         pond water.

                                              5 µm
                                                                 Cross section of cilium, as viewed
                                                                 with an electron microscope




                   Cilia of windpipe cells. The cells that line the human
                   windpipe are equipped with cilia that help keep the
                   lungs clean by moving a film of debris-trapping mucus
     Figure 1.16   upward.
       Science, Technology and Society

   Scientific research often leads to
    technological advances than can have
    positive and/or negative impacts on
    society as a whole.
   Science and technology must function
    within the rules of society.
         Ethics
    Why study themes in Biology?

   Biology is an ever expanding body
    of knowledge.
       Too much to memorize it all.
       Need to generalize.
       Create a framework upon which to
        organize new knowledge.
       Themes are the key to understanding
        the nature of living organisms.
Review Activity

   List the 8 themes of Biology
   List and explain which of the
    biological themes are illustrated in
    your picture.
   How could your picture be changed
    to include the biological themes that
    are not illustrated?

				
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posted:10/11/2012
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