PIA 2528

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					       PIA 2528

    Local Government,
Governance and Civil Society
Local Governance: A Cultural Perspective

A Palolem local
government meeting
in East India
Governance, an Overview of Issues
   Basic Terms: The Environment of
    Development (Review)
       Governance
            Manner in which the state is created, modified or
       Local Government
            Primary unit of government that has both political
             leadership and bureaucratic structures
       Civil Society
            Associations and organizations that are beyond the
             clan and the family and short of the state (does
             not include state organs or for profit sector)
     Institutional Legacy-
    Discussion: Samuel P.
Huntington(1927-2008) Culture
The Institutions Debate:
 Huntington’s Regions -
 Culture vs. Rationality
    Institutional Legacy
The cultural organization contrasts
the contemporary world with the
classical notion of sovereign states.
To understand current and future
conflict, cultural rifts must be
understood, and culture — rather
than the State — must be accepted as
the locus of war.
  Gender Representation:
Government of New Zealand
           The Nature of Local

   Part of the Institutional State

   Based on Devolution of Authority

   Culture defines Participation

   Links Governance to Civil Society
    Forms of Local Government

   Concept: Transfer of authority to a
    lower level of government

   Role of intermediate Government (s)

   Primary Unit of Government: Lowest
    level that carries a bureaucracy with
Commonwealth Provincial
    Functions of Urban Local
Governance: A South African View
             Historical Legacy
   Imperial and Colonial Impact: The
    Dilemma of the Local State

   The Best Predictor of Institutions

   Try to Diagram the colonial structure for
    your part of the world and be prepared to
    discuss next week.

   Issue: Land Based vs. Sea Based Empires
Imperial Germany (Russia,
    Austria, Turkey)
The Imperial Model
French Colonial System
French National Assembly (Nominal African Reps)

          Ministry of Overseas Affairs

     Governor-General (West Africa-Dakar)

              Governor (Guinea-

                 District Chief

 The French Empire and
 Culture: North America,
Caribbean, Africa and Asia
               British Colonial System
       Parliament (No Rep.)

       Secretary of State for Colonies (Dominions) or India

       Governor / High Commissioner*

       Regional / Divisional Commissioner

       District Commissioner
                                                  Tribal Secretary and Clerks
       District Officer
                                                  Tribal Treasury
                                                  Tribal Court
                                                  Tribal Police
       Headman                                    Tribal Council

* Governor-General / High Commissioner with Resident Commissioners in Bechuanaland,
Basutoland and Swaziland under Dominions Office
The British Image
                      Reformed British
     Prime Minister (UK)               Colonial Office   London

             Parliament    Dar es Salaam


               LEGCO            Governor / Governor Secretary

                       Secretariat          MED    WORKS        EDUC     AGRIC

               Provincial Commissioner                            PEO    Province

Para-Chief      District Commissioner                             DEO   Moshi


Headmen      SAA MOJA Village
   Traditional Administration &
          Traditional Systems & Parallel Rule

National Systems

  Paramount Chief (King)      Advisors (Native Councils)

                                Village Meeting Place

                                    Judicial System
The Dilemma of Traditional
    Local Governance
   Traditional Administration &
         Traditional Systems & Parallel Rule

Imperial Systems

               Chief            King’s Representative

                                    Inner Council

                                    Outer Council

                                    Meeting Place

                                   Judicial System

             Sub-Chief          King’s Representative
   Traditional Administration &
              Assimilation vs. Indirect Rule

Assimilation: replacement of traditional authorities by soldiers
• Chief as government official
• Façade of Direct Rule
• Grassroots similarity

Indirect Rule and “Tribal Administration”
• Legal / Rational Model
• Modification of Tradition
• Training of tribal administrator

•Inherited vs. Age Grade Systems
•Nature of traditional Civil Society

How Does One Create Local
 Government Out of this?
            Historical Legacy
1.   General Patterns: Linked to Cultural
2.   Unique Cultural Patterns: Differ from
     Region to Region (eg. Middle East:
     Religious Parallel Governance
3.   What are the Universals of Local
               Coffee Break

   Fifteen Minutes
The Nature of the Municipality

   The Primary Unit of Government

       Anglo-American- Town separate from country

       Continental Europe- Integration of Town and

       One of these two patterns exported overseas
      Danish Local Government
   1. Amtman- Danish Prefect (Royal,

   2. Amt- Provinces- Higher Services
    (Hospitals, Higher Schools and Colleges\

   3. Commune- Urban and Rural smaller
    services- Primary Education, Markets

   4. Provincial and Local Government
    Associations (System Support)
Accountability in New Zealand
What Local Government Does-
       Basic Services
   Primary Roads
   Water
   Waste Removal
   Primary Education
   Basic Health
   Basic Energy Supplies
   Markets
   Parking
Lord Mayor’s Tradition
U.K. System
     Models of Local Government

1.   Strong Mayor

2.   Strong Council- Executive Committee
     with Chair and Department Heads

3.   City Manager (Town Clerk) System with
     appointed departments
City Manager System
     Services Depend Upon-
1.   Fiscal/budget allocation- taxes,
     user fees and transfers
2.   Planning- strategic priorities
3.   Managing- implementation
4.   Personnel- Access to skilled
     professionals (Power to Hire and
5.   Community Trust
6.   Social Cohesion
“Rainbow Nation”- 1
“Rainbow Nation-” 2
           Review: Distinctions:
   Local state vs. Local Government

   Functional vs. Territorial Control

   Devolution- Urban vs. Rural

   Subsidiarity-

       higher units should not do what can be
        done by lower units
Myth of the Panchayat?
    Has local Government Failed?

    Implementation and Administrative

       Skills Shortages
       Absence of Revenue
       The Need for Institutional Training
       International Donors and the Training
Implementation: Rube
    Has local Government Failed?

   Failure to make a Needs Assessment

   Bridging Training vs. the Synthetic
    Mode of Thought

   Local Government- Urban vs. Rural

   Functions as Local State
         Local Government and

   How Developmental Is Local

   We Need Assess Local Government
    Comparatively in light of Case
    Histories Readings.
    Decentralization Issues
1. Democracy and decentralization

2. Critiques of indirect Democracy

3. Decentralization and NGOs (Are NGOs

4. Decentralization and ethnic and regional
  conflict- the dangers of decentralization
Decentralization and
    Foreign Aid
       Decentralization Issues
5. The dichotomy: Communal/municipal
models vs. urban/rural governance: towns
and counties. Problem of urban bias

6. Decentralization as a failure-Issues:

   a. financial limitations

   b. local government staff: "bush postings.“

   c. community distrust
     Specialized Developmental
   Planning and Land Use Patterns

   Issues- Ownership and distribution.

   Land- its use and access to water.
    At the core of grass roots
    development in the rural areas
  Regional Planning for agriculture, forestry,
recreation , land use, waterfowl, ungulates and
         sport fish capability (Canada)
       Books of the Week
The Comedians by
Graham Greene (top)

Things Fall Apart
Chinua Achebe
    Geographical Patterns: The
       Institutional Legacy

   Break into Regional Groups for Fifteen

   Identify FOUR regional patterns of
    Institutionalized Governance, Local
    Governance and Civil Society

   Identify the (reading) source of pattern
         Summary Discussion

   What if anything have we learned about
    Governance, Local Government and Civil

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