Duties of veterinary technicians and veterinary assistants

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					State     Classification of            Specified Duties:           Specified Duties:              Exceptions for Providing
          Veterinary Technicians       Veterinary Technicians      Veterinary Assistants          Emergency Care
          and Assistants
Alabama     A veterinary technician   Indirect supervision        Indirect supervision of a      Tasks performed by a certified
             is a person who is        (direct supervision if      licensed veterinarian or a     veterinary technician under
             validly and currently     patient is anesthetized):   licensed veterinary            conditions of an emergency:
             licensed to practice as     Dental Prophylaxis.      technician:
             a veterinary technician     Enemas.                    Blood collection for         Application of tourniquets or
             in Alabama.                 Electrocardiography.      diagnostic purposes            pressure bandages, or both, to
                                         Application of             Fecal sample collection      control hemorrhage.
           An unregistered               bandages.                  Surgical site preparation
            assistant is any             Catheterization of the     Administration of            Administration of
            individual who is not a       unobstructed bladder      previously prescribed          pharmacological agents and
            veterinary technician         and inserting             medications: Opthalmic,        parenteral fluids shall only be
            or veterinarian and is        indwelling catheter.      otic, oral, topical, or        performed after direct
            employed by a licensed       Gavage.                   parenteral                     communication with a
            veterinarian.                Ear flush.                 Handling of                  veterinarian authorized to
                                         Surgical site             biohazardous waste and         practice in this state and the
                                          preparation.              materials                      veterinarian is either present or
                                         Diagnostic imaging:                                      in route to the location of the
                                              Patient             Immediate Supervision of a      distressed animal.
                                             preparation and       licensed veterinarian or a
                                             positioning.          licensed veterinary             Resuscitative oxygen
                                              Operation of X-     technician:                     procedures.
                                             ray and ultrasound      Blood collection and         External cardiac massage.
                                             machines.               administration.               Application of temporary
                                              Oral and rectal       Placement of a device to     splints or bandages to prevent
                                             administration of       allow vascular access         further injury to bones or soft
                                             radio-opaque            Gavage.                      tissue.
                                             materials.              Diagnostic imaging:          Application of appropriate
                                         Injections of                   Patient preparation     wound dressings and external
                                         medications not                 and positioning.          supportive treatment in severe
                                         otherwise prohibited:            Film exposure.          burn cases.
     Intramuscular.               Oral and rectal        Licensed/certified technicians are
     Subcutaneous.               administration of        not liable for damages to the
     Intravenous.                radio-opaque             owner of the animal who
     Intradermal                 materials.               gratuitously and in good faith give
 Oral medications.           Intravenous injections of   emergency treatment to a sick or
 Topical medication.         medications not              injured animal at the scene of an
 Laboratory:                 otherwise prohibited.        accident or emergency in the
     Collection of           Exfoliative cytology        absence of gross negligence
    tissue during or after    preparation.
    a veterinarian has        Application of bandages.    .
    performed necropsy.       Ear flush.
     Urinalysis.             Electrocardiography.
     Hematology.             Removal of sutures.
     Parasitology.           Euthanasia.
                              Assist during surgery
     Exfoliative
                              and diagnostics
                              Place endotracheal tube
     Microbiology.
     Blood chemistry.
     Serology.
     Coprology.
 Administration of
 preanesthetic drugs.
 Oxygen therapy.
 Removal of partially
 exposed foreign objects
 from skin and feet.
 Removal of sutures.
 Euthanasia.
 Administration of
 immunological agents.
 Blood collection for
 diagnostic purposes
 Cystocentesis
 Placement of a device
 to allow vascular access
 Handling of biohazard
 waste materials

Direct Supervision:
 Endotracheal
 Blood administration
 and collection.
 Fluid aspiration.
 Intraperitoneal
 Assist during surgery
 and diagnostics and
 treatment procedures
 Monitoring of vital
 signs of anesthetized
 Application of splints.
 Induce anesthesia by
 intramuscular, or
 subcutaneous injection,
 or by inhalation.
 When the animal is
 anesthetized, those tasks
 listed [above].
 Suturing skin
 lacerations, the site
 shall be examined by a
 veterinarian prior to and
 following suture.
Alaska      A veterinary technician     Supervision required:        A person who is obtaining    A veterinarian or a person
             must be                       advanced animal care      on-the-job training [while   working under the direct
                 licensed by the          services                   pursuing a veterinary        supervision of a licensed
                board;                     dispensing of medicine    technician license] may      veterinarian, who renders
                 the employee of a                                   perform veterinary           emergency care to an injured or ill
                veterinarian licensed    A licensed veterinary        technician duties only       animal that reasonably appears to
                under AS 08.98; and      technician may provide       under the direct             the veterinarian or supervised
                 knowledgeable in       care to an animal under      supervision of a licensed    person to be in immediate need of
                  o the care and         the remote direction of a    veterinarian or licensed     emergency aid in order to avoid
                  handling of            veterinarian in              veterinary technician        serious harm or death is not liable
                  animals;               communities that do not                                   for civil damages as a result of an
                  o the basic            have an established                                       act or omission in rendering
                  principles of          veterinary practice.                                      emergency aid.
                  animal health; and
                  o routine laboratory
                  and clinical
Arizona   A certified veterinary         Certified veterinary         NONE SPECIFIED               A technician may render
          technician means a             technician may perform                                    emergency care or first aid if the
          person who either:             the tasks delegated by a                                  technician is supervised
             has graduated from a       licensed veterinarian                                     telephonically by a licensed
              minimum two year           while under the direction,                                veterinarian or until a licensed
              AVMA accredited            supervision, and control                                  veterinarian arrives
              program in veterinary      of the licensed
              technology who has         veterinarian                                              Any person licensed or certified
              passed a national and                                                                pursuant to this chapter who
              a state veterinary                                                                   gratuitously and in good faith
              technician                                                                           gives emergency treatment to a
              examination or;                                                                      sick or injured animal at the scene
             was certified in or                                                                  of an emergency shall not be
              before December 31,                                                                  liable in damages to the owner of
              2010 pursuant to the                                                                 such animal in the absence of
              rules adopted by the
                board.                                                                             gross negligence.
             Veterinary assistant
             means a person who:
              provides care under
                the direct or indirect
                supervision of a
                veterinarian or
                certified veterinary
Arkansas     Veterinary technician        Tasks should be            A veterinarian may utilize    NONE SPECIFIED
             means a person who:          performed under the        the services of an
              Has received a diploma     supervising veterinarian   employee to perform
               or its equivalent from a   within the scope of        services not requiring the
               college-level program      practice of the            skill and judgment of a
               accredited by the          supervising veterinarian   veterinary technician,
               American Veterinary                                   which services are
               Medical Association;                                  performed under the direct
               and                                                   personal supervision of the
              Provides veterinary                                   veterinarian
               services under the
               supervision and
               direction of a licensed
               veterinarian who is
               responsible for the
               performance of that
California    A veterinary technician    Direct Supervision:        Direct Supervision:           Under conditions of an
               is one who has:             Induce anesthesia;        Effective January 1,        emergency, a registered veterinary
                   Met certain            Apply casts and           2015, administer a           technician may render such
                  educational              splints;                   controlled substance if      lifesaving aid and treatment as
                  requirements             Perform dental            certain conditions are       may be prescribed under
                   Passed the             extractions;               met.                         regulations adopted by the board.
                  written and practical    Suture cutaneous and                                   Such emergency aid and treatment
               exam                      subcutaneous tissues,        if rendered to an animal patient
                Is registered by        gingiva and oral             not in the presence of a licensed
               the board                 mucous membranes,            veterinarian may only be
                                         Create a relief hole in     continued under the direction of a
            A veterinary assistant      the skin to facilitate       licensed veterinarian.
             means any individual        placement of an
             who is not an R.V.T. or     intravascular catheter       Any registered veterinary
             a licensed veterinarian.                                 technician registered in this state
                                        Indirect Supervision:         who in good faith renders
                                                                      emergency animal health care at
                                         Administer controlled       the scene of the emergency, or his
                                         substances.                  or her employing veterinarian or
                                                                      agency, shall not be liable for any
                                                                      civil damages as the result of acts
                                                                      or omissions by a registered
                                                                      veterinary technician rendering
                                                                      the emergency care.
Colorado    A veterinary technician    Veterinary personnel may      NONE SPECIFIED
             means a person who:        perform veterinary
                Has received a         medicine duties under the
               degree in animal         direction and supervision
               technology or a          of a licensed veterinarian.
               comparable degree
               from a school,           Indirect supervision is
               college, or university   acceptable in limited
               recognized by the        circumstances when
               board; or                certain conditions are
                Has received a         met.
               diploma as an
               animal technician on     Immediate Supervision is
               or before July 1,        required when veterinary
               1975.                    personnel is assisting in
                                        surgical procedures.
                                          Direct Supervision is
                                          required when veterinary
                                          personnel is assisting in
Connecticut   NOT SPECIFIED               NONE SPECIFIED                Under a veterinarian’s          The provisions of [the practice of
                                                                        direction and supervision,      veterinary medicine, surgery or
                                                                        an assistant may administer     dentistry] shall not apply to any
                                                                        controlled substances           person who furnishes medical or
                                                                                                        surgical assistance without
                                                                                                        compensation in an emergency,
Delaware       A veterinary technician   Immediate supervision:        Immediate supervision:          Under conditions of emergencies,
                means a person who          induction of anesthesia      intubation,                  the following activities, which
                has received a degree                                     urethral catheterization     would be otherwise prohibited in
                from a veterinary                                         (except in the case of        the absence of veterinary
                technician program or     Direct Supervision:             known urinary blockage        supervision, may be performed by
                its equivalent.            intubation,                   or pre-existing urethral or   veterinary technicians or support
                                           anesthesia                    urinary bladder disease);     personnel prior to the
                                           maintenance;                   dental extractions with      veterinarian’s initial examination:
                                           arterial catheterization;     no periosteal elevation,        application of tourniquets
                                           urethral catheterization      no sectioning of tooth          and/or pressure bandages to
                                           (except in the case of         and no resectioning of          control hemorrhage,
                                           known urinary blockage         bone.                           administration of
                                           or pre-existing urethral                                       pharmacological agents, only to
                                           or urinary bladder           Direct supervision:               be performed after
                                           disease);                     anesthesia maintenance          communication with a
                                           cystocentesis;               dental procedures               veterinarian authorized to
                                           dental extractions with      including, but not limited       practice in Delaware, and such
                                           no periosteal elevation,      to, removal of calculus,         veterinarian is either present or
                                           no sectioning of tooth        soft deposits, plaque and        enroute to the distressed animal,
                                           and no resectioning of        stains, smoothing, filing,       administration of parenteral
                                           bone;                         polishing of teeth.              fluids,
                                           dental procedures                                             resuscitative procedures,
                                           including, but not                                             application of temporary splints
                                          limited to, removal of                                      or bandages to prevent further
                                          calculus, soft deposits,                                    injury to bones or soft tissues,
                                          plaque and stains,                                          application of appropriate
                                          smoothing, filing,                                          wound dressings and external
                                          polishing of teeth.                                         supportive treatment in severe
                                                                                                      wound and burn cases,
                                                                                                      external supportive treatment in
                                                                                                      heat prostration cases,
                                                                                                      any other reasonable treatments
                                                                                                      necessary to an animal's welfare
                                                                                                      in an emergency situation.
District of    An animal technician is    The Mayor may               Drugs may be                NONE SPECIFIED
Columbia        a person certified by      provide for the              administered only by a
                the Mayor to perform       certification of animal      veterinarian or a
                specific duties.           technicians to perform,      veterinary assistant
                                           in the employ of a           properly trained by a
               A veterinary assistant     person licensed to           veterinarian in the
                is a person who is         practice veterinary          manner of such
                trained in animal care     medicine and under his       administration of drugs
                and who performs           or her immediate and         and under the immediate
                duties under the           direct supervision and       direction of a
                supervision of a           control, acts relating to    veterinarian.
                veterinarian.              maintenance of the
                                           health of or treatment of    The veterinarian shall be
                                           any animal.                  present during the
                                                                        maintenance and
                                           The veterinarian shall      monitoring of anesthesia
                                           be present during the        to an animal by a nurse,
                                           maintenance and              veterinary assistant or
                                           monitoring of                other employee.
                                           anesthesia to an animal
                                           by a nurse, veterinary
                                           assistant or other
Florida    A certified veterinary    The administration of      All tasks which may be        NONE SPECIFIED
            technician is a person    anesthesia and              delegated to a veterinary
            who has graduated         tranquilization by a        aide, nurse, laboratory
            from a veterinary         veterinary aide, nurse,     technician, intern, or other
            technology training       laboratory technician,      employee of a licensed
            program that is           intern, or other            veterinarian shall be
            accredited by the         employee of a licensed      performed only under the
            American Veterinary       veterinarian requires       "immediate supervision" of
            Medical Association       immediate supervision       a licensed veterinarian with
            Committee on                                          the exception of the
            Veterinary Technicians    The administration of      following tasks which may
            Education and             any vaccination by a        be performed without the
            Activities (CVTEA)        veterinary aide, nurse,     licensed veterinarian on the
            and has successfully      technician, intern or       premises:
            completed the             other employee of a           The administration of
            examinations required     licensed veterinarian         medication and treatment,
            by the Florida            which is not specifically     excluding vaccinations,
            Veterinary Medical        prohibited                    as directed by the
            Association's             requires immediate            licensed veterinarian;
            Technician Committee.     supervision                   The obtaining of
                                                                    samples and the
                                                                    performance of those
                                                                    diagnostic tests, including
                                                                    radiographs, directed by
                                                                    the licensed veterinarian.

                                                                   The administration of
                                                                   anesthesia and
                                                                   tranquilization by a
                                                                   veterinary aide, nurse,
                                                                   laboratory technician,
                                                                   intern, or other employee
                                                                   of a licensed veterinarian
                                                                   requires "immediate

                                                                       The administration of
                                                                       any vaccination by a
                                                                       veterinary aide, nurse,
                                                                       technician, intern or other
                                                                       employee of a licensed
                                                                       veterinarian which is not
                                                                       specifically prohibited
                                                                     requires immediate
Georgia    A veterinary technician     Any veterinary technician    Any veterinary assistant        Any person who gratuitously and
            means a person who          must at all times be under   must at all times be under      in good faith administers
            engages in the practice     the supervision of a         the supervision of a            emergency treatment to a sick or
            of veterinary               licensed veterinarian        licensed veterinarian           injured animal at the scene of an
            technology and on the       whenever practicing          whenever practicing             accident or emergency shall not be
            basis of his or her         veterinary technology in     veterinary technology in        in violation of this chapter and
            qualifications is validly   this state. The level of     this state. The level of        shall not be liable to the owner of
            and currently               supervision shall be         supervision shall be            such animal in any civil action for
            registered by the board     consistent with the          consistent with the             damages.
            for such purpose.           delegated animal health      delegated animal health
                                        care task. Subject to        care task. Subject to certain
           A veterinary assistant      certain provisions, a        provisions, a licensed
            means a person who          licensed veterinarian may    veterinarian may in his or
            engages in certain          in his or her discretion     her discretion delegate any
            aspects of the practice     delegate any animal          animal health care task to a
            of veterinary               health care task to a        veterinary assistant.
            technology but is not       veterinary technician.
            registered by the board
            for such purpose.
Hawaii    NOT SPECIFIED                 NONE SPECIFIED               NONE SPECIFIED                  NONE SPECIFIED
Idaho      A certified veterinary      Indirect supervision:        NONE SPECIFIED                  In emergency situations where the
            technician means a            Routine procedures in                                     animal has been placed in a life-
            person who has              the practice of                              threatening condition and
            fulfilled the               veterinary technology                        immediate treatment is necessary
            certification               [including but not                           to sustain life, and in order to
            requirements                limited to taking                            stabilize the animal, the
            prescribed by board         radiographs, weight,                         veterinarian, while en route to the
            rule and has been           and temperature or as                        location of the distressed animal,
            certified by the board      determined by the                            may prescribe treatment and
            to practice veterinary      standard of practice for                     delegate appropriate procedures
            technology in this          the area]                                    pertaining to the practice of
            state.                      Administering                               veterinary medicine under indirect
                                        previously prescribed                        supervision. Such emergency
            A veterinary assistant     antibiotics and                              treatment and procedures may
             means any individual       medications                                  only be continued under indirect
             who is employed by an                                                   supervision until the veterinarian
             actively licensed         Direct supervision:                           arrives at the animal's location.
             veterinarian to perform    Administering
             acts pertaining to the     previously prescribed
             practice of veterinary     injectable controlled
             medicine and receives      substances, injectable
             compensation for such      tranquilizers, injectable
             acts from the              sedatives, and injectable
             employing veterinarian     or inhalant anesthetics
             but is not a certified
             veterinary technician
             or licensed
Illinois    Certified veterinary      NONE SPECIFIED               NONE SPECIFIED   A person may, provide emergency
             technician means a                                                      veterinary care in an emergency or
             person who is validly                                                   disaster situation so long as he or
             and currently licensed                                                  she does not represent himself or
             to practice veterinary                                                  herself as a veterinarian or use a
             technology in this                                                      title or degree pertaining to the
             state.                                                                  practice of veterinary medicine
                                                                                     and surgery.
Indiana    Registered veterinary      A supervising                 A supervising veterinarian     In an emergency, in the absence of
            technician means a         veterinarian shall            shall determine and is         the licensed veterinarian
            veterinary technician      determine and is              responsible for determining    employer, an employee of a
            registered under this      responsible for               the appropriate level of       licensed veterinarian may perform
            article to work under      determining the               supervision, except where      the duties it is lawful for the
            the direct or indirect     appropriate level of          prohibited by law, if the      employee to perform under the
            supervision of a           supervision, except where     tasks being delegated are      direct supervision of the licensed
            licensed veterinarian.     prohibited by law, if the     commensurate with              veterinarian according to the rules
                                       tasks being delegated are     employee's training,           of the board and the written
           Veterinary assistant       commensurate with             experience, and skills.        authority of the licensed
            means an individual        employee's training,                                         veterinary employer.
            who is not a licensed      experience, and skills.       In the performance of
            veterinarian or                                          delegated veterinary tasks,
            registered veterinary      Registered veterinary         a veterinary assistant shall
            technician who             technicians may, under        do the following:
            performs tasks related     direct or indirect
            to animal health care      supervision, perform           Accept only those
            under the direct           routine food animal            delegated veterinary tasks
            supervision of a           management practices if a      for which there are
            licensed veterinarian or   valid veterinarian-client-     mutually approved
            registered veterinary      patient relationship exists    protocols, written
            technician.                                               standing orders, or verbal
                                       In the performance of          directions.
                                       delegated veterinary           Accept only those
                                       tasks, a registered            delegated veterinary tasks
                                       veterinary technician          that:
                                       shall do the following:             the registered
                                                                          veterinary technician
                                                                          or veterinary assistant
                                        Accept only those                is competent to
                                        delegated veterinary              perform based on
                                        tasks for which there             education, training, or
                                        are mutually approved
                                  protocols, written             experience; and
                                  standing orders, or
                                  verbal directions.              are not prohibited
                                                                 by law.
                                  Accept only those
                                  delegated veterinary        Consult with the
                                  tasks that:                 supervising veterinarian
                                                              in cases where the
                                      the registered         registered veterinary
                                     veterinary technician    technician or veterinary
                                     or veterinary            assistant knows or should
                                     assistant is             have known that a
                                     competent to             delegated veterinary task
                                     perform based on         may harm an animal
                                     education, training,
                                     or experience; and

                                      are not prohibited
                                     by law.

                                  Consult with the
                                  supervising veterinarian
                                  in cases where the
                                  registered veterinary
                                  technician or veterinary
                                  assistant knows or
                                  should have known that
                                  a delegated veterinary
                                  task may harm an

Iowa    Veterinary technician   NONE SPECIFIED              NONE SPECIFIED               Under conditions of an
         means any citizen of                                                             emergency, a veterinary assistant
         the United States who                                                            including a registered veterinary
 shall have graduated in     technician may render without
 veterinary technology       supervision such lifesaving aid
 from a two-year             and treatment as follows:
 AVMA accredited               administration of oxygen;
 school of veterinary          maintenance of airways
 technology; or in lieu        including the nonsurgical
 thereof has assisted a        insertion of an endotracheal
 licensed veterinarian         tube; and control of hemorrhage.
 for five years prior to
 1980, or worked under       Under conditions of emergency, a
 the direction of a          registered veterinary technician
 licensed veterinarian       but not an unregistered veterinary
 for at least three years,   assistant may render such
 including at least one      additional lifesaving aid and
 year of formal training     treatment as follows:
 approved by the board,        placement of an IV catheter and
 in veterinary                 the administration of fluids;
 technology prior to           external cardiac massage; and
 1981; and who shall           the administration of
 have successfully             corticosteroids.
 passed an examination
 prescribed by the           Emergency aid and treatment, if
 board.                      rendered to an animal not in the
                             presence of a licensed
 Veterinary assistant       veterinarian, shall only be
  means an assistant         continued under the direction of a
  employed by a licensed     licensed veterinarian, which in
  veterinarian for a         the case of emergency may
  purpose other than         include telephone or radio contact
  performing diagnosis,      by a veterinarian en route to the
  issuing prescriptions or   site, until the veterinarian arrives
  performing surgery and     in a timely manner.
  includes, among other
  assistants, registered
             veterinary technicians.
Kansas      Registered veterinary      Each veterinarian shall      Each veterinarian shall       NONE SPECIFIED
             technician means a         provide direct supervision   provide direct supervision
             person who is a            of any employed assistant    of any employed assistant
             graduate veterinary        who participates in the      who participates in the
             technician, has passed     practice of veterinary       practice of veterinary
             the examinations           medicine, except that a      medicine, except that a
             required by the board      veterinarian may provide     veterinarian may provide
             for registration and is    indirect supervision of      indirect supervision of any
             registered by the board.   any employee who:            employee who:

                                         is following the written    is following the written
                                         instructions for             instructions for treatment
                                         treatment of the animal      of the animal patient on
                                         patient on the veterinary    the veterinary premises;
                                         premises; or                 or

                                         has completed three or      has completed three or
                                         more years of study in a     more years of study in a
                                         school of veterinary         school of veterinary
                                         medicine.                    medicine.

                                        A veterinarian may           A veterinarian may
                                        delegate only those          delegate only those
                                        activities within the        activities within the
                                        practice of veterinary       practice of veterinary
                                        medicine to an employee      medicine to an employee
                                        which are consistent with    which are consistent with
                                        that person's training,      that person's training,
                                        experience and               experience and
                                        professional competence.     professional competence.
Kentucky    Veterinary technician      The services of a            A veterinary assistant may    A persons may gratuitously treat
             means a person who         veterinary technologist or   work only under the direct    animals in cases of emergency if
             has an associate degree    veterinary technician         supervision of a              they do not represent themselves
             related to veterinary      shall be limited to the       veterinarian except for the   to be veterinarians or use any title
             sciences, or its           performance of duties         routine administration of     or degree pertaining to veterinary
             equivalent as approved     under the direct              drugs, vaccines, parasite     practice.
             by the board, and who      supervision of a licensed     control agents, and growth
             is registered.             veterinarian except for:      stimulating implants for
                                                                      food animals prescribed by
             Veterinary assistant       routine administration      a veterinarian and under
              means a lay person         of drugs, vaccines,          the indirect supervision of
              employed by a licensed     parasite control agents,     a veterinarian where a
              veterinarian.              and growth stimulating       veterinarian-client-patient
                                         implants for food            relationship exists.
                                         animals prescribed by a
                                         veterinarian and under
                                         the indirect supervision
                                         of a veterinarian where
                                         a veterinarian-client-
                                         patient relationship

                                        A veterinary technologist
                                        or veterinary technician
                                        may assist a veterinarian
                                        in all duties of veterinary
                                        medicine and surgery.
Louisiana    Registered veterinary     Tasks not requiring the       All tasks require direct      NONE SPECIFIED
              technician means a        direct supervision of a       supervision of a licensed
              skilled person            licensed veterinarian:        veterinarian under the
              registered by the board                                 following conditions and
              as being qualified by      administer medications      with the following
              academic and practical     to boarding if the           exceptions
              training to provide        medication is directed
              veterinary services        to be used orally or          A lay person may
              under the direct           topically and if the          administer medications to
 supervision and            licensed veterinarian        boarding animals without
 direction of the           has recorded the exact       direct supervision by a
 licensed veterinarian      treatments to be given       licensed veterinarian if
 who is responsible for     in the animal's medical      the medication is directed
 the performance of that    record.                      to be used orally or
 veterinary technician.     administer medications      topically and if the
                            and/or treatments to         licensed veterinarian has
 Lay person means an       nonboarding                  recorded the exact
  individual who is not     (hospitalized or ill)        treatments to be given in
  registered and/or         animals under the            the animal's medical
  licensed                  following conditions:        record.
                                 the licensed
                                veterinarian must         In branches of veterinary
                                chart the precise         medicine other than
                                treatment plan to be      equine dentistry and
                                used in the animal's      livestock dentistry
                                medical record. This      laypeople and registered
                                treatment plan may        veterinary technicians
                                include oral, topical,    employed by a licensed
                                and injectable            veterinarian may perform
                                treatments, including     supragingival scaling and
                                fluid therapy;            polishing of teeth,
                                                          making and developing
                                no diagnostic            dental radiographs, taking
                               decisions or               impressions, production
                               treatment changes          of dental models, and the
                               may be made by an          charting of dental
                               RVT;                       pathology. All other
                                                          dental operations must be
                                the RVT is               performed by a licensed
                               required to follow         veterinarian.
                               the record keeping
                               requirements found         In the branch of
                                                          veterinary medicine
        in §702.F.3 [shall      dealing with equine
        keep a written record   dentistry laypeople and
        of all treatments       registered veterinary
        which are               technicians employed by
        performed, and that     a licensed veterinarian
        written record shall    may perform the rasping
        be incorporated into    (floating) of molar,
        the animal's medical    premolar, and canine
        record.]                teeth, and the removal of
§                               deciduous incisor and
     In branches of            premolar teeth (caps). All
      veterinary medicine       other dental operations,
      other than equine         including but not limited
      dentistry and livestock   to the extraction of teeth,
      dentistry laypeople and   amputation of large
      registered veterinary     molar, incisor, or canine
      technicians employed      teeth, the extraction of
      by a licensed             first premolar teeth (wolf
      veterinarian may          teeth) and repair of
      perform supragingival     damaged or diseased
      scaling and polishing     teeth must be performed
      of teeth, making and      by a licensed
      developing dental         veterinarian.
      radiographs, taking
      impressions,               In the branch of
      production of dental       veterinary medicine
      models, and the            dealing with livestock
      charting of dental         dentistry laypeople and
      pathology. All other       registered veterinary
      dental operations must     technicians employed by
      be performed by a          a licensed veterinarian
      licensed veterinarian.     may perform rasping
                                 (floating) of premolar and
     In the branch of           molar teeth, and the
 veterinary medicine        removal of deciduous
 dealing with equine        incisor teeth (caps). All
 dentistry laypeople and    other dental operations,
 registered veterinary      including but not limited
 technicians employed       to the extraction of teeth,
 by a licensed              amputation of incisors,
 veterinarian may           premolars, and molar
 perform the rasping        teeth, and repair of
 (floating) of molar,       damaged or diseased
 premolar, and canine       teeth must be performed
 teeth, and the removal     by a licensed
 of deciduous incisor       veterinarian.
 and premolar teeth
 (caps). All other dental
 operations, including
 but not limited to the
 extraction of teeth,
 amputation of large
 molar, incisor, or
 canine teeth, the
 extraction of first
 premolar teeth (wolf
 teeth) and repair of
 damaged or diseased
 teeth must be
 performed by a
 licensed veterinarian.

 In the branch of
 veterinary medicine
 dealing with livestock
 dentistry laypeople and
 registered veterinary
 technicians employed
                                      by a licensed
                                      veterinarian may
                                      perform rasping
                                      (floating) of premolar
                                      and molar teeth, and the
                                      removal of deciduous
                                      incisor teeth (caps). All
                                      other dental operations,
                                      including but not
                                      limited to the extraction
                                      of teeth, amputation of
                                      incisors, premolars, and
                                      molar teeth, and repair
                                      of damaged or diseased
                                      teeth must be performed
                                      by a licensed
Maine    Veterinary technician     Under the supervision         Direct supervision of a      Any person who voluntarily,
          means a person who        and direction of a            licensed veterinarian or a   without the expectation of
          has completed a           licensed veterinarian:        registered veterinary        monetary or other compensation
          minimum of 2 years in       drug administration,       technician:                  renders first aid, emergency
          a college program that      nursing care,                perform duties of an      treatment or rescue assistance to
          is certified according to  x-ray film exposure            animal health care        an animal who is ill, injured or in
          the standards adopted        and processing,               nature.                   need of rescue assistance, is not
          by the American             bandage changes,                                        liable for damages for injuries
          Veterinary Medical          dental prophylaxis,                                     alleged to have been sustained by
          Association's               restraint,                                              the animal or for damages for the
          Committee on                blood and fecal                                         death of the animal alleged to
          Veterinary Technician        collections,                                            have occurred by reason of an act
          Education and               diagnostic laboratory                                   or omission in the rendering of the
          Activities or an             procedures                                              first aid, emergency treatment or
          equivalent program, as      other duties the                                        rescue assistance, unless it is
          determined by the            supervising                                             established that the injuries or the
          board, and who has           veterinarian or the                                     death were caused willfully,
            passed an examination        board may prescribe by                                 wantonly or recklessly or by gross
            prescribed by the            rule, consistent with                                  negligence on the part of the
            board.                       this chapter,                                          person.

            Animal health
             assistant" means a
             person employed in a
             veterinary facility to
             assist a licensed
             veterinarian or a
             licensed veterinary
             technician, but who has
             neither had the formal
             training required for
             licensure nor passed
             the required
             examination for
             licensure as a
             veterinary technician.
Maryland    Registered veterinary     A veterinary technician    A veterinarian may permit     Under emergency conditions only,
             technician means an       may not diagnose; offer    an assistant to render        the following activities may be
             individual currently      prognosis; prescribe       auxiliary or supporting       performed by a registered
             registered with the       drugs, medication or       assistance or administer      veterinary technician before a
             Board as a veterinary     appliances; perform        medication if, when           veterinarian’s initial examination:
             technician.               surgery; or initiate       rendering the assistance or    Provide supportive care and
                                       treatment without prior    administering medication,          first aid;
                                       instruction by a           the employee is under the      Follow written protocols for
                                       veterinarian.              responsible direct                 specific conditions, as
                                                                  supervision of the                 established by the veterinarian
                                       Direct supervision:        veterinarian.                 If a veterinarian is not available to
                                        Inducing anesthesia by                                 perform an initial examination of
                                         intramuscular            In the case of an             an animal that is presented as an
                                         injection;               anesthetized animal, a        emergency, a registered veterinary
                                        Applying casts and       veterinarian may permit an    technician shall notify the
                        splints;                   assistant to monitor the      animal’s owner of the:
                       Simple dental              animal's condition and         Veterinarian’s unavailability;
                        extractions of loose       provide other supporting       Estimated time of arrival of
                        teeth that do not          assistance, including the         the veterinarian; and
                        involve flaps or tooth     animal's maintenance, once     Estimated distance to another
                        sectioning; and            the animal is stabilized.         veterinary hospital.
                       Suturing of existing
                        surgical skin or
                        gingival incisions.

                      A registered veterinary
                      technician may
                      administer medication
                      and render other auxiliary
                      or supporting assistance
                      under the responsible
                      direct supervision of a
                      licensed veterinarian.
Massachusetts   N/A   Immediate supervision:       Immediate supervision:        NONE SPECIFIED
                        Administering               Administering federally-
                         federally-controlled         controlled substances as
                         substances as                anesthetics.
                                                   Direct Supervision:
                      Direct Supervision:           Bandaging, except in an
                       Bandaging, except in         emergency;
                        an emergency;               Cleaning and polishing
                       Cleaning and polishing       teeth;
                        teeth;                      Placing an in-dwelling
                       Placing an in-dwelling       catheter or endotracheal
                        catheter or                  tube; and
                        endotracheal tube; and      Diagnostic imaging.
                       Diagnostic imaging.
                                                   Without Immediate or
                 Without Immediate or         Direct Supervision:
                 Direct Supervision:           Administering
                  Administering                injections, oral and
                   injections, oral and         topical medicine, except
                   topical medicine,            federally-controlled
                   except federally-            anesthetics as directed
                   controlled anesthetics       by a licensed
                   as directed by a             veterinarian;
                   licensed veterinarian;      Bandaging and first aid
                  Bandaging and first aid      in an emergency;
                   in an emergency;            Drawing blood samples
                  Drawing blood                as directed by a licensed
                   samples as directed by       veterinarian; and
                   a licensed veterinarian;    Laboratory procedures
                   and                          as directed by a licensed
                  Laboratory procedures        veterinarian.
                   as directed by a
                   licensed veterinarian.
Michigan   N/A   NONE SPECIFIED               NONE SPECIFIED                A veterinarian or veterinary
                                                                            technician is not liable for civil
                                                                            damages as a result of certain acts
                                                                            or omissions if both of the
                                                                            following apply:
                                                                              The animal has been brought to
                                                                               the veterinarian or veterinary
                                                                               technician by a person other
                                                                               than the owner of the animal
                                                                              The veterinarian or veterinary
                                                                               technician does not know who
                                                                               owns the animal or is unable to
                                                                               contact the owner of the animal
                                                                               before a decision must be made
                                                                               with respect to emergency
                                                                               treatment or euthanasia.
Minnesota     N/A                           NONE SPECIFIED               NONE SPECIFIED                 In emergency conditions, wherein
                                                                                                        an animal is placed in a life-
                                                                                                        threatening condition and requires
                                                                                                        immediate treatment to sustain life
                                                                                                        or prevent further injury, an
                                                                                                        unlicensed employee may render
                                                                                                        lifesaving aid and treatment to an
                                                                                                        animal in the absence of a
Mississippi   Certified veterinary          NONE SPECIFIED               NONE SPECIFIED                 NONE SPECIFIED
              technician means a
              veterinary technician
              certified by the board.

              Veterinary technologist
              means a graduate of a
              four-year accredited
              program in veterinary
Missouri        Registered veterinary      Direct Supervision:          Immediate Supervision:         Any veterinary technician who
                 technician means a                                        Anesthesia monitoring       gratuitously and in good faith
                 person who is formally      Application of casts         Euthanasia                  gives emergency treatment to a
                 trained for the specific     and splints; and             Treatment not at facility   sick or injured animal at the scene
                 purpose of assisting a      Placement of                 Biologics                   of an accident or emergency shall
                 licensed veterinarian        indwelling intravenous       Routine dental              not be liable in any civil action for
                 with technical services      catheters.                    prophylaxis                 damages to the owner of such
                 under the appropriate                                                                  animal.
                 level of supervision as    Subject to certain           Indirect supervision:
                 is consistent with the     provisions, registered         Treatment at a facility
                 particular delegated       veterinary technicians in
                 animal health care task.   a veterinary or animal
                                            hospital or clinic setting
               Unregistered assistant      may perform under the
             means any individual       direct or indirect
             who is not a registered    supervision of a licensed
             veterinary technician      veterinarian other
             or licensed veterinarian   auxiliary animal health
             and is employed by a       care tasks when done
             licensed veterinarian.     pursuant to the order,
                                        control and full
                                        responsibility of a
                                        licensed veterinarian.
Montana    Support personnel means      NONE SPECIFIED               NONE SPECIFIED               A veterinary support person may,
           any person employed by                                                                 under the general authority and at
           a licensed veterinarian                                                                the responsibility of his/her
           who assists a licensed                                                                 veterinary employer render
           veterinarian in the                                                                    emergency care to a patient
           practice of veterinary                                                                 without direct authorization when
           medicine.                                                                              it would appear that to delay
                                                                                                  treatment and care for the time
                                                                                                  necessary to send the animal to
                                                                                                  another practitioner would be life
                                                                                                  threatening. Such care may be
                                                                                                  rendered only after reasonable
                                                                                                  efforts have been
                                                                                                  made to contact the employing
                                                                                                  veterinarian or another
                                                                                                  veterinarian who could
                                                                                                  manage the case within allowable
                                                                                                  time constraints.
Nebraska    An applicant for           Immediate Supervision:       Immediate Supervision:       Under conditions of emergency, a
             licensure as a               Dental extraction not       Assist veterinarian in    licensed veterinary technician or
             veterinary technician         requiring sectioning of      surgery by tissue         unlicensed veterinary assistant
             must:                         a tooth or the               handling and instrument   may render the following life-
                                           resectioning of bone;        handling.                 saving aid and treatment:
 Have attained at        Assist veterinarian in                                    Application of tourniquets
least the age of 19;       surgery by tissue         Direct Supervision:              and/or pressure bandages to
 Have good moral          handling and                Assist with the following     control hemorrhage;
character; and             instrument handling.         radiology procedures:        Administration of
 Meet the                                                  Patient positioning;     pharmacological agents and
following                Direct Supervision:                Operation of x-ray       parenteral fluids must only be
requirements:              Induction of                   machine after              performed after direct
  o Have graduated          anesthesia;                    obtaining training in      communication with a licensed
  from an AVMA             Euthanasia;                    radiation safety           veterinarian and the veterinarian
  accredited               Blood or blood             Administer crystalloid        is either present or enroute to
  veterinary                component collection,       fluid therapy through an      the location of the distressed
  technician program        preparation and             established IV catheter;      animal;
  and pass the              administration for         Collection of blood          Resuscitative procedures;
  Veterinary                blood transfusions;         specimens;                   Application of temporary
  Technician               Dental procedures          Patient vital sign            splints or bandages to prevent
  National                  limited to the following    monitoring.                   further injury to bones or soft
  Examination               procedures only:                                          tissues;
  (VTNE) with a                 Removal of          Indirect Supervision:           Application of bandages,
  score not less than          calculus, soft          Collection of voided          appropriate wound dressings
  the recommended              deposits, plaque, and    urine specimens;              and external supportive
  passing score as             stains;                 Collection of fecal           treatment in severe wound and
  determined by the             Smoothing,             specimens;                    burn cases;
  examination                  filing, and polishing   Perform automated            External supportive treatment in
  service approved             of teeth;                blood tests or                heat prostration cases.
  by the Board; or              Flotation or           commercial ELISA
  o Have at least five         dressing of equine       tests;
  years or more full-          teeth.                  Obtain history regarding
  time experience                                       an animal patient;
  working with a         Indirect Supervision:         Perform preliminary
  veterinarian prior       Perform preliminary         physical examination;
  to July 13, 2000;         physical examination;      Client education;
  be employed by a         Obtain history             Administration and
  veterinarian on the       regarding an animal         application of treatment
     date of July 13,        patient;                   and drugs, medications
     2000; and pass the     Client education;          and immunological
     VTNE no later          Administration and         agents by topical, oral,
     than July 13, 2003,     application of             rectal, intramuscular and
     with a score not        treatments, drugs,         subcutaneous injectable
     less than the           oxygen therapy,            routes, except when in
     recommended             medications and            conflict with
     passing score as        immunological agents       government regulations.
     determined by the       by parenteral and
     examination             injectable routes
     service approved        (subcutaneous,
     by the Board            intramuscular,
                             intraperitoneal, and
 Unlicensed assistant       intravenous), except
  means an individual        when in conflict with
  who is not a               government
  veterinarian or a          regulations;
  veterinary technician     Initiation of parenteral
  who is working in          fluid administration;
  veterinary medicine.      Intravenous
                            Radiography including
                             settings, positioning,
                             processing and safety
                            Electrocardiogram
                            Collection of urine by
                             cystocentesis, or
                            Collection and
                             preparation of tissues,
                             cellular, or
                                        samples by skin
                                        scraping, impressions,
                                        or other non-surgical
                                        methods, except when
                                        in conflict with
                                       Routine laboratory test
                                       Supervision of the
                                        handling of
                                        biohazardous waste
                                       Application of
                                        bandages and wound
                                       Patient vital sign
Nevada    Veterinary technician     Immediate Supervision:        Immediate Supervision of      A person may render aid,
           means a person who is:      Application of casts for   Veterinarian or Veterinary    assistance or relief to an animal in
              Licensed by the          the immobilization of      Technician:                   an emergency without charge if he
             Board pursuant to          fractures;                   Assisting a licensed       does not represent himself as
             NRS 638.122; and          Removal of:                   veterinarian in surgery    holding a license to practice
              Formally trained             Teeth that have          or in monitoring           veterinary medicine or as holding
             for the specific              extreme mobility           anesthesia.                a degree in veterinary medicine or
             purpose of assisting          and stage 4               Application of bandages.   other related field.
             a licensed                    periodontal disease;      Collection of a
             veterinarian in the           and                        laboratory specimen for    A person may render emergency
             performance of                 Retained                 analysis of blood.         paramedical services to an animal
             professional or               deciduous teeth           Collection of tissue       without charge during the
             technical services in         other than retained        during or after a          transportation of the animal to a
             the field of                  deciduous canine           postmortem examination     veterinary facility.
                                                                      by a licensed
   veterinary medicine.       teeth.                     veterinarian.
                           Induction of
 Unlicensed veterinary     anesthesia.                Immediate or Direct
  assistant means a        Assisting a licensed       Supervision of a
  person who has less       veterinarian in surgery.   Veterinarian or Veterinary
  training, knowledge      Euthanasia.                Technician:
  and skills than a        Fluid aspiration from a      Blood administration
  licensed veterinary       body cavity.                  with a preplaced
  technician and whose                                    catheter.
  basic tasks include,    Immediate or Direct            Monitoring of vital
  without limitation,     Supervision:                    signs.
  feeding, watering,        Endotracheal                Administration of an
  bathing, restraining,      intubation.                  electrocardiogram.
  transporting and          Blood administration.       Introduction of food into
  exercising animals.       Monitoring of vital          the stomach through a
                             signs.                       preplaced tube.
                            Application of casts        Ear cleaning.
                             and splints.                Positioning of animals
                            Tasks listed in              for x-rays.
                             subsection 4, if the        Operation of x-ray
                             animal is anesthetized.      machines.
                            External noninvasive        Starting and restarting of
                             ultrasonography.             intravenous fluids
                            Cystocentesis to obtain      through a preplaced
                             a urine specimen.            intravenous catheter.
                            Dental prophylaxis.         Administration of
                            Physical Therapy.            intramuscular,
                                                          subcutaneous, or
                          Immediate, Direct, or           intravenous injections
                          Indirect Supervision:           through a preplaced
                            Administration of            catheter, except
                             enemas.                      anesthetics, controlled
                            Administration of an         substances, or
                             electrocardiogram.           vaccinations for
 Application of               zoonotic diseases.
  bandages.                   Taking readings of the
 Catheterization of an        temperature, pulse,
  unobstructed bladder.        respiration or weight of
 Introduction of a            an animal.
  stomach tube.
 Ear flushing with          Immediate or Direct
  pressure or suction.       Supervision of a
 Positioning of animals     Veterinarian or Veterinary
  for x-rays.                Technician or Indirect
 Operation of x-ray         Supervision of a
  machines.                  Veterinarian:
 Administration of oral       Administration of oral
  and rectal radio-opaque       and topical medications,
  materials.                    including controlled
 Administration of oral        substances, dispensed by
  and topical                   prescription .
  medications, including       Collection of free catch
  controlled substances.        urine or feces and skin
 Starting and restarting       scrapings.
  of intravenous fluids.
 Collection of a            At the direction of a
  laboratory specimen        supervising veterinarian:
  for analysis, including,     Administration of
  but not limited to,           intramuscular,
  blood, urine, skin,           subcutaneous, or
  parasites and                 intravenous injections
  microorganisms.               through a preplaced
 Collection of tissue          catheter, except
  during or after a             anesthetics, controlled
  postmortem                    substances or
  examination by a              vaccinations for
  licensed veterinarian.        zoonotic diseases.
 Administration of            Preparation of a
                                           intramuscular,               prescription drug, other
                                           subcutaneous or              than a controlled
                                           intravenous injections.      substance, for
                                          Placement of an              dispensing.
                                           intravenous catheter.
                                          Implantation of a
                                           microchip into the
New          N/A                         NONE SPECIFIED                NONE SPECIFIED              NONE SPECIFIED
New Jersey   N/A                         NONE SPECIFIED                NONE SPECIFIED              NONE SPECIFIED
New Mexico    Veterinary technician     Under veterinary              NONE SPECIFIED              A registered veterinary technician
               means a skilled person    supervision, technicians                                  may perform, upon prior approval
               certified by the board    may perform preventive                                    of the employing veterinarian in
               as being qualified by     veterinary dental                                         the absence of direct supervision,
               academic and practical    procedures including, but                                 the following life saving
               training to provide       not limited to:                                           procedures:
               veterinary services         removal of calculus,                                     application of tourniquet and/or
               under the supervision        soft deposits, plaque,                                    pressure bandages to control
               and direction of the         stains;                                                   hemorrhage;
               licensed veterinarian       smoothing, filing,                                       administration of
               who is responsible for       polishing of tooth                                        pharmacological agents to
               the performance of that      surfaces, or floating or                                  prevent or control shock,
               technician.                  dressing of equine                                        including parenteral fluids,
                                            teeth, shall be                                          resuscitative oxygen
                                            performed only by                                         procedures;
                                            licensed veterinarians,                                  establishing open airways
                                            or under the direct                                       including intubations but
                                            supervision of a                                          excluding surgery;
                                            licensed veterinarian.                                   external cardiac resuscitation;
                                                                                                     application of temporary splints
                                                                                                 or bandages to prevent further
                                                                                                 injury to bones or soft tissues;
                                                                                                application of wound dressings
                                                                                                 and external supportive
                                                                                                 treatment in severe burn cases;
                                                                                                external supportive treatment in
                                                                                                 heat prostration or hypothermal
New York    To qualify as a            collecting of             administering oral or      NONE SPECIFIED
             veterinary technician:      appropriate specimens      topical medications,
                                         and performing             incidental to and/or
                 File an                laboratory procedures      concurrent with such
                application with the     in clinical pathology      veterinarian personally
                department;              and histopathology;        performing a service or
                 four-year course      exposing radiographic      procedure, provided
                of study in a            film;                      such supportive services
                secondary school        preparing and              do not require a
                approved by the          administering              knowledge of veterinary
                board of regents;        medications on             science.
                 Have completed         medical orders of the
                a college-level          supervising
                course of study in,      veterinarian;
                and hold a diploma      assisting in medical
                from a school of         procedures;
                veterinary science      inducing and
                technology for the       maintaining anesthesia
                training of animal       under the onsite
                health technicians,      supervision of the
            Any person who              licensed veterinarian;
             submits an application      and
             prior to January first,    assisting in surgical
             nineteen hundred            procedures in the
             eighty-three and who        physical presence of
                                         the licensed
submits evidence of         veterinarian.
employment by a
veterinarian or a
veterinary facility prior
to that date may be
licensed on the basis of
this experience if
acceptable in the
discretion of the board
in accordance with the
regulations and upon
the successful
completion of the
licensing examination
required by this
    pass an
   satisfactory to the
   board and in
   accordance with the
    Citizenship or
   immigration status:
   be a United States
   citizen or an alien
   lawfully admitted for
   permanent residence
   in the United States
    Character: be of
   good moral character
                      as determined by the
                      department; and
North Carolina    Veterinary technician       May assist                  Direct supervision:          NONE SPECIFIED
                   means either of the          veterinarians in             collection of specimen;
                   following persons:           diagnosis, laboratory        testing for intestinal
                                                analysis, anesthesia,         parasites;
                      A person who has         and surgical                 collecting blood;
                     successfully               procedures. May not          testing for heartworms
                     completed a post-          perform any act               and conducting other
                     high school course         producing an                  laboratory tests;
                     in the care and            irreversible change in       taking radiographs;
                     treatment of animals       the animal.                  cleaning and polishing
                     that conforms to the      Technicians are not           teeth, provided that the
                     standards required         prohibited from               employee has had
                     for accreditation by       providing for or              sufficient on-the-job
                     the American               assisting in the practice     training by a veterinarian
                     Veterinary Medical         of artificial                 to perform these
                     Association and who        insemination                  specified duties in a
                     is registered with the                                   competent manner.
                     Board as a                                              Assistants are not
                     veterinary                                               prohibited from
                     technician.                                              providing for or assisting
                      A person who                                           in the practice of
                     holds a degree in                                        artificial insemination
                     veterinary medicine
                     from a college of
                     veterinary medicine
                     recognized by the
                     Board for licensure
                     of veterinarians and
                     who is registered
                     with the Board as a
North Dakota    Licensed veterinary      May perform the             NONE SPECIFIED   Under emergency conditions, a
                 technician means a       following services under                     veterinary technician may perform
                 person who has           the direction, supervision,                  the following treatments:
                 graduated from an        and control of a licensed                      Applying tourniquets and
                 accredited program in    veterinarian, provided the                      pressure bandages to control
                 veterinary technology    licensed veterinarian                           hemorrhage.
                 or an equivalent         performs a daily physical                      Administering pharmacological
                 program as determined    examination of the animal                       agents and parenteral fluids
                 by the board, and who    being treated:                                  only after direct communication
                 has passed an              Venipuncture,                                with a licensed veterinarian, if
                 examination prescribed      including insertion of                       the veterinarian is present or
                 by the board.               an indwelling catheter                       enroute to the location of the
                                             when required.                               distressed animal.
                                            Catheterizing the                           Performing resuscitative
                                             urinary bladder.                             oxygen procedures.
                                            Injection, including                        Applying temporary splints or
                                             hypodermic injection                         bandages to prevent further
                                             and parenteral fluids,                       injury to bones or soft tissues.
                                             except when in conflict                     Applying appropriate wound
                                             with a government                            dressings and external
                                             regulation.                                  supportive treatment in severe
                                            Immunization                                 burn cases.
                                             immediately after                           Providing external supportive
                                             examination by a                             treatment in heat prostration
                                             licensed veterinarian,                       cases.
                                             except when in conflict
                                             with a government
                                            Inducing, maintaining,
                                             and monitoring
                                             anesthesia under the
                                             direct supervision of
                                             the licensed
 Exposing and
  radiographic film.
 Collecting and
  administering whole
  blood or plasma to an
 Assisting in surgery as
  directed by the licensed
 Taking
  electrocardiogram and
 Performing routine
  laboratory procedures,
  including hematology,
  cytology, chemistry,
  urinalysis, fecal
  analysis, and skin
 Administering colonic
  irrigations and wound
 Operating ultrasonic
  and polishing
  instruments for dental
 Preparing animals for
  surgery, including
  clipping, scrubbing,
                                       and disinfecting an
                                       operative site.
                                      Preparing medicants
                                       for dispensing to
                                       clients on the direct or
                                       written order of the
                                       licensed veterinarian.
                                      Maintaining surgery, x-
                                       ray, and laboratory
                                       logs and pharmacy
                                    If acting as a surgical
                                    assistant, a veterinary
                                    technician may assist in:
                                      Making a diagnosis.
                                      Prescribing a
                                      Performing surgery.
Ohio    Registered veterinary      Veterinary Supervision:     Supervision of a              NONE SPECIFIED
         technician means a           Prepare or supervise     Veterinarian or Veterinary
         person who is a               the preparation of       Technician:
         graduate of a                 patients, instruments,     Prepare patients,
         veterinary technology         equipment, and              instruments, equipment,
         college approved by           medications for             and medications for
         the state veterinary          surgery;                    surgery, exclusive of
         medical licensing            Collect or supervise the    anesthetic agents and
         board, has successfully       collection of specimens     controlled substances;
         passed an examination         and perform laboratory     Collect and prepare
         approved by the board,        procedures as required      voided specimens and
         and maintains                 by the supervising          perform laboratory
         registration eligibility      veterinarian;               procedures;
         status in accordance         Apply wound                Administer topical, oral
         with rules adopted by         dressings, casts, or        and subcutaneous
         the board.                    splints as required by      medications exclusive of
                               the supervising              anesthetic agents and
 Animal aide means a          veterinarian;                controlled substances;
  person who is               Assist a veterinarian in    Perform diagnostic
  employed by a licensed       immunologic,                 radiographic procedures.
  veterinarian and             diagnostic, medical,        Venipuncture for the
  supervised by a              and surgical                 purpose of collecting
  licensed veterinarian or     procedures;                  blood samples only
  a registered veterinary     Suture skin incisions;       under the direct
  technician to perform       Administer or                supervision of a
  duties such as record        supervise the                veterinarian
  keeping, animal              administration of
  restraint, and such          topical, oral, or
  other duties that the        parenteral medication
  board, by rule,              under the direction of
  establishes. In adopting     the supervising
  the rules, the board         veterinarian;
  shall include rules         Other ancillary
  regarding the degree of      veterinary technician
  supervision required         functions that are
  for each duty. The           performed pursuant to
  rules shall be               the order and control
  consistent with              and under the full
  generally accepted           responsibility of a
  standards of veterinary      licensed veterinarian.
  medical practice.           Any additional duties
                               as established by the
                               board in rule.

                             Direct Supervision:
                              Induce and monitor
                               general anesthesia
                               according to medically
                               recognized and
                               appropriate methods;
                                        Dental prophylaxis,
                                         periodontal care, and
                                         extraction not
                                         involving sectioning of
                                         teeth or resection of
                                         bone or both of these;
                                        Equine dental
                                         procedures, including
                                         the floating of molars,
                                         premolars, and canine
                                         teeth; removal of
                                         deciduous teeth; and
                                         the extraction of first
                                         premolars or wolf
Oklahoma    Veterinary technician    A Registered Veterinary      Direct Supervision:            In situations where a licensed
             means a person who       Technician may perform        inducing anesthesia by       veterinarian is not on the
             has graduated from a     the following procedures       inhalation or intravenous    premises, a SDVM, registered
             program accredited by    listed below as directed       injection;                   veterinary technician or an
             the American             by or on the order of a       applying casts or splints;   employed assistant who possesses
             Veterinary Medical       licensed veterinarian         performing dental            the training, experience and
             Association, or its      without the continuing         extractions;                 professional competence may
             equivalent which is      physical presence of the      suturing existing skin       perform the following emergency
             recognized and           licensed veterinarian:         incisions; or,               treatments in a life saving
             approved by the Board,     Euthanasia of animals;     administering controlled     situation:
             and who has passed the     Thoracocentesis;            dangerous substances or        apply tourniquets and/or
             examination                Abdominocentesis;           veterinary prescription         pressure bandages to control
             requirements set forth     Ocular Tonometry;           drugs, unless a                 hemorrhage;
             by the Board, is           Animal Massage              veterinary-client-patient      administer pharmacological
             certified to practice       Therapy;                    relationship has been           agents to prevent or control
             under the direct           Vaccinations; and           established and                 shock, including parenteral
             supervision of a           Dental Scaling and          previously written orders       fluids, provided that the SDVM
             licensed veterinarian.      Polishing                   exist when the licensed         or employee has direct
                                                                     veterinarian is not on the      communication with a licensed
          Veterinary assistant        Direct Supervision:            premises.                    veterinarian. When direct
           means an individual          inducing anesthesia by                                    communication cannot be
           who may perform the           inhalation or                                             established with respect to this
           duties of a veterinary        intravenous injection;                                    paragraph (e), a SDVM or
           technician or                applying casts or                                         competent employed assistant
           veterinary technologist,      splints;                                                  may provide emergency care in
           however, has not             performing dental                                         accordance with pre-established
           graduated from an             extractions;                                              written instructions provided by
           AVMA-accredited              suturing existing skin                                    their employer veterinarian(s);
           technology program or         incisions; or,                                           initiate resuscitative oxygen
           its equivalent, and has      administering                                             procedures;
           not been certified by         controlled dangerous                                     establish open airways
           the Board.                    substances or                                             including intubation appliances
                                         veterinary prescription                                   but excluding surgery;
                                         drugs, unless a                                          perform external cardiac
                                         veterinary-client-                                        resuscitation;
                                         patient relationship has                                 apply temporary splints or
                                         been established and                                      bandages to prevent further
                                         previously written                                        injury to bones or soft tissues;
                                         orders exist when the                                    apply wound dressings and
                                         licensed veterinarian is                                  external supportive treatment
                                         not on the premises.                                      for severe burns; and
                                                                                                  provide external supportive
                                                                                                   treatment in thermal injury
Oregon    Veterinary technician       Veterinary Supervision:      Persons who are not          NONE SPECIFIED
           means an individual          Obtain and record          certified as veterinary
           who has received a            information:               technicians may perform
           certificate in veterinary    Complete admission         under the supervision of a
           technology, or a              records, including         licensed veterinarian all
           comparable certificate,       recording the              acts that a certified
           from a recognized             statements made by the     veterinary technician may
           college or university         client concerning the      perform except for
           approved by the               patient's problems and       induce anesthesia,
Oregon State                history. The certified      except to place an
Veterinary Medical          veterinary technician       endotracheal tube to
Examining Board or an       may also record the         establish an airway in
individual employed as      technician's own            emergencies
a veterinary technician     observations of the        place an endotracheal
who has had at least        patient. However, the       tube
four calendar years of      certified veterinary       operate X-ray equipment
on-the-job training in      technician cannot state     unless the person has
the technical               or record his or her        completed 20 hours
procedures certified by     opinion concerning          training in radiograph
a licensed veterinarian     diagnosis of the           perform dental
who presented the           patient;                    extractions
instruction.               Maintain daily             administer rabies
                            progress records,           vaccine
                            surgery logs, X-ray        inject or implant a
                            logs, Drug                  permanent identification
                            Enforcement                 device
                            Administration (DEA)
                            logs, and all other       A veterinary assistant may
                            routine records as        perform preventive
                            directed by the           veterinary dental
                            supervising               procedures including, but
                            veterinarian.             not limited to:
                           Prepare Patients,           removal of calculus,
                            Instruments,                 soft deposits, plaque,
                            Equipment and                and stains, or the
                            Medicant for Surgery:        smoothing, filing, or
                           Prepare and sterilize        polishing of tooth
                            surgical packs;              surfaces under the direct
                           Clip, surgically scrub,      supervision of a
                            and disinfect the            licensed veterinarian
                            surgical site in
                            preparation for
 Administer
  preanesthetic drugs as
  prescribed by the
 Position the patient for
 Induce anesthesia as
  prescribed by the
 Operate anesthetic
  machines, oxygen
  equipment, and
  monitoring equipment.
 Place an endotracheal
  tube for the purpose of
  delivering oxygen and
  anesthetic gas to the
  patient requiring
  inhalant anesthesia.
 Collect specimens and
  perform laboratory
 Collect urine, feces,
  sputum, and all other
  excretions and
  secretions for
  laboratory analysis;
 Collect blood samples
  for laboratory analysis;

 Collect skin scrapings;
 Perform routine
  laboratory procedures
  including urinalysis,
  fecal analyses,
  hematological and
 Apply and remove
  wound and surgical
  dressings, casts, and
 Assist the veterinarian
  in diagnostic, medical,
  and surgical
 Monitor and record the
  patient's vital signs;
 Medically bathe the
 Administer topical,
  oral hypodermic, and
  intravenous medication
  as directed by the
 Operate X-ray
  equipment and other
  diagnostic imaging
 Take
  and tracings;
 Perform dental
  prophylaxis, including
                                             operating ultrasonic
                                             dental instruments
                                            Perform extractions
                                             under the immediate
                                             supervision of a
                                             licensed veterinarian.
                                            Administer rabies
                                             vaccine under the
                                             direct supervision of a
                                             licensed veterinarian.
                                            Under direct
                                             supervision of a
                                             veterinarian, inject or
                                             implant a permanent
                                             identification device
Pennsylvania    Certified veterinary      Direct Supervision:          Direct Supervision:           Emergency treatment by certified
                 technician means an         Administer anesthesia      Perform ear flushing        veterinary technicians and non-
                 individual who has           -- including induction,    Perform dental              certified employees is permitted
                 successfully completed       intubation,                 prophylaxis                 without veterinary supervision
                 a board-approved post-       maintenance and            Perform diagnostic          when an animal has been placed in
                 high school program of       recovery and                imaging                     a life-threatening condition and
                 veterinary technology        intravenous sedation.      Perform intravenous         immediate treatment is necessary
                 accredited by an            Perform dental              catheterization             to sustain the animal's life. The
                 accrediting agency for       prophylaxis                Administer                  certified veterinary technician
                 veterinary technology       Establish an open           immunizations which         shall immediately take steps to
                 programs recognized          airway                      are not required by law     secure the direct supervision of a
                 by the United States        Administer                  to be administered in the   veterinarian. Emergency treatment
                 Department of                resuscitative oxygen        presence of a licensed      does not include surgery,
                 Education, is certified      procedures                  veterinarian                diagnosing, prognosing, or
                 by the board as a           Administer external        Administer and apply        prescribing treatments,
                 veterinary technician        cardiac resuscitation       medications and             medications or appliances.
                 and who may practice        Administer                  treatments by routes,
                 veterinary technology        resuscitative drugs, in     including intramuscular,
                 under appropriate            the event of cardiac        subcutaneous and
                supervision of a              arrest.                     previously catheterized
                licensed veterinarian as                                  vein
                defined by board           Indirect Supervision          Apply bandages
                regulation.                unless the animal is under    Perform cardiac
                                           anesthesia:                    monitoring
                Veterinary assistant        Perform diagnostic         Perform appropriate
                 means an employee of         imaging                     procedures to control
                 a veterinarian who          Perform intravenous         bleeding
                 does not hold                catheterization            Maintain anesthesia and
                 certification as a          Administer                  monitor recovery from
                 veterinary technician        immunizations which         anesthesia
                 and whom the                 are not required by law    Implant an electronic
                 veterinarian deems           to be administered in       identification device.
                 competent to perform         the presence of a
                 tasks involved in the        licensed veterinarian     Immediate Supervision:
                 care and treatment of       Administer and apply        Administer anesthesia --
                 animals as defined by        medications and              including induction,
                 board regulation.            treatments by routes,        intubation and
                                              including                    intravenous sedation
                                              intramuscular,              Establish an open airway
                                              intravenous and             Administer resuscitative
                                              subcutaneous                 oxygen procedures
                                             Apply bandages              Administer external
                                             Perform cardiac              cardiac resuscitation
                                              monitoring                  Administer resuscitative
                                             Perform appropriate          drugs, in the event of
                                              procedures to control        cardiac arrest.
                                             Apply splints or
                                              immobilizing bandages
                                             Perform ear flushing
                                             Implant an electronic
                                              identification device.
Rhode Island   N/A                         NONE SPECIFIED               NONE SPECIFIED                NONE SPECIFIED
South Carolina    Licensed veterinary        Immediate Supervision:        Immediate supervision:         A licensed veterinary technician
                   technician means a           Surgical assistance to a     Surgical assistance to a    working under the indirect
                   person who has                licensed veterinarian.        licensed veterinarian.      supervision of a licensed
                   received a degree in         Floatation or dress          Induce anesthesia.          veterinarian may provide the
                   animal health                 equine teeth.                Apply splints and slings.   following emergency patient care:
                   technology from an                                         Collect urine by
                   American Veterinary        Direct Supervision:              cystocentesis.               Application of tourniquets
                   Medical Association         Induction, maintenance        Collect, prepare and          and/or pressure bandages to
                   accredited school            and recovery of                administer blood or           control hemorrhage.
                   offering a program in        anesthesia.                    blood component as           Resuscitative procedures.
                   animal health               Perform dental                 related to blood             Application of temporary
                   technology and who           procedure including,           transfusion.                  splints or bandages to prevent
                   has been licensed to         but not limited to:                                          further injury to bones or soft
                   practice in this State.          prophylaxis,         Direct supervision:                tissues.
                                                    procedures not        Collect and prepare             Application of appropriate
                  Veterinary aide means           altering the shape,      tissue, cellular or              wound dressings and external
                   a nurse, attendant,             structure, or            microbiological samples          supportive treatment in severe
                   intern, technician, or          positional location of   by skin scrapings,               wound and burn cases.
                   other employee of a             teeth in the dental      impressions or other            Perform external supportive
                   veterinarian, other than        arch.                    non-surgical methods,            treatment in heat prostration
                   a licensed veterinary       Perform euthanasia.         except when in conflict          cases.
                   technician.                 Administer blood or         with other state or             Administer pharmacological
                                                blood components as         federal regulation.              agents and fluids only:
                                                related to blood           Blood collection for                 in the presence of a
                                                transfusions.               diagnostic laboratory               licensed veterinarian;
                                               Apply splints,              tests.                               by protocol established by
                                                bandages and slings.       Maintenance of and                  a licensed veterinarian; or
                                               Perform non-                recovery from                        after direct
                                                emergency intubations.      anesthesia.                         communication with a
                                               Measure medication         Dental procedures                   licensed veterinarian.
                                                quantities as prescribed    including, but not
                                                by a licensed               limited to:
                                                veterinarian.                   prophylaxis, and
 Perform arterial                 procedures not
  catheterization/arterial        altering the shape,
  collection.                     structure, or positional
 Perform central venous          location of teeth in the
  catheterization.                dental arch.
 Administer vaccines as      Placement of
  allowed by law.              intravenous catheters.
                              Administer parenteral
Indirect Supervision:          fluids.
  Administration and         Radiography including
   application of              patient restraint,
   treatments, drugs,          processing, and safety
   medications and             procedures.
   immunological agents       Supervise handling of
   by parenteral (to           bio hazardous waste
   include subcutaneous,       materials.
   intradermal,               Administer and apply
   intramuscularly,            treatments, drugs, and
   intraperitoneal and         medications, and
   intravenous) and non-       immunological agents
   parenteral routes,          by parenteral and non-
   except when in conflict     parenteral routes as
   with government             allow by law.
   regulations.               Routine laboratory test
  Initiate of parenteral      procedures.
   fluid administration.      Collect urine by
  Perform peripheral          catheterization.
   catheterizations.         Indirect supervision:
  Perform radiography         Collect feces
   including settings,         Collect urine by free
   positioning, exposing,       catch only
   processing and safety       Groom
   procedures.                 Non-invasive topical
                                           Collect venous blood      treatments.
                                            specimen as allowed
                                            by law.
                                           Collect urine by free
                                            catch, expression,
                                            cystocentesis or
                                           Collect and prepare
                                            tissue, cellular or
                                            microbial samples by
                                            skin scrapings,
                                            impressions or other
                                            non-surgical methods.
                                           Perform routine
                                            diagnostic laboratory
                                           Supervise handling of
                                            bio hazardous waste
                                           Collect and prepare
                                            blood or blood
                                            components as related
                                            to blood transfusions.
                                           Other services under
                                            the appropriate degree
                                            of supervision of a
                                            licensed veterinarian.
South Dakota    Veterinary technicians   NONE SPECIFIED             NONE SPECIFIED   NONE SPECIFIED
                 shall possess the

                    Have
completed an
approved high
school course of
study or its
 Have submitted
proof of good moral
character by
affidavits of at least
two reputable
persons attesting
 Have
completed a
veterinary technician
course of study in a
school approved by
the board;
 Have appeared
before at least two
members of the
board for a personal
interview and
answered all
questions relative to
their qualifications;
 Have submitted
to a written or oral
examination given
by the board and
successfully passed
                 it with a score of at
                 least 75 percent.
Tennessee    Licensed veterinary        NONE SPECIFIED                An employee of a               NONE SPECIFIED
              technician means a                                       veterinarian may be
              person who has                                           permitted to float teeth
              successfully completed                                   without the physical
              the examination                                          presence of a licensed
              requirements                                             veterinarian as long as the
              prescribed by the board                                  employee is functioning
              and has been issued a                                    under the supervision,
              license.                                                 control, and responsibility
                                                                       of a licensed veterinarian.
Texas       N/A                          Direct or Immediate           A non-licensee may, in the     In an emergency situation where
                                         Supervision:                  absence of direct              prompt treatment is essential for
                                           suture existing surgical   supervision, follow the oral   the prevention of death or
                                            skin incisions; and        or written treatment orders    alleviation of extreme suffering, a
                                           induce anesthesia.         of a veterinarian who is       licensee may, after determining
                                                                       caring for a hospitalized      the nature of the emergency and
                                         Euthanasia may be             animal; provided however,      the condition of the animal, issue
                                         performed by a veterinary     that the veterinarian has      treatment directions to a non-
                                         technician only under the     examined the animal(s) and     licensee by means of telephone,
                                         immediate supervision of      that a valid                   electronic mail or messaging,
                                         a veterinarian.               veterinarian/client/patient    radio, or facsimile
                                                                       relationship exists.           communication. The Board may
                                                                                                      take action against a veterinarian
                                                                                                      if, in the Board's sole discretion,
                                                                                                      the veterinarian uses this
                                                                                                      authorization to circumvent this
                                                                                                      rule. The veterinarian assumes full
                                                                                                      responsibility for such treatment.
                                                                                                      However, nothing in this rule
                                                                                                      requires a licensee to accept an
                                                                                                      animal treated under this rule as a
                                                                      patient under these circumstances.
Utah   Unlicensed assistive         NONE SPECIFIED   NONE SPECIFIED   NONE SPECIFIED

        means any unlicensed
         person, regardless of
         title, to whom tasks are
         delegated by a
         veterinarian licensed
         under this chapter as
         permitted by
         administrative rule and
         in accordance with the
         standards of the
         profession; and

        includes:

        a veterinary assistant,
         if working under
         immediate supervision;
        a veterinary technician

            has graduated
           from a program of
           accredited by the
           AVMA that is at
           least a two-year
           program; and
           who is working
                 under direct
                 supervision; and

            a veterinary
             technologist who:

                  has graduated
                 from a four-year
                 program of
                 accredited by the
                 AVMA; and

                  is working under
                 indirect supervision.
Vermont    N/A                           NONE SPECIFIED   NONE SPECIFIED                A veterinarian licensed by the
                                                                                        board or any other person who, in
                                                                                        good faith, provides care and
                                                                                        treatment to an animal during an
                                                                                        emergency shall not be held liable
                                                                                        for civil damages by the owner of
                                                                                        the animal, unless his or her acts
                                                                                        constitute gross negligence or
                                                                                        unless he or she will receive or
                                                                                        expects to receive remuneration.
Virginia   N/A                           NONE SPECIFIED   A licensed veterinarian       Any person, including a person
                                                          may delegate the              licensed to practice veterinary
                                                          administration (including     medicine, who in good faith and
                                                          by injection) of schedule     without compensation renders
                                                          VI drugs to a properly        emergency care or treatment to an
                                                          trained assistant under his   injured animal at the scene of an
                                                          direction and supervision.    emergency or accident shall not be
                                                                  Additional tasks that may      liable for any injuries to such
                                                                  be delegated by a licensed     animals resulting from the
                                                                  veterinarian to a properly     rendering of such care or
                                                                  trained assistant include      treatment.
                                                                  but are not limited to the
                                                                    Grooming;
                                                                    Feeding;
                                                                    Cleaning;
                                                                    Restraining;
                                                                    Assisting in radiology;
                                                                    Setting up diagnostic
                                                                    Prepping for surgery;
                                                                    Dental polishing and
                                                                     scaling of teeth above
                                                                     the gum line
                                                                    Drawing blood samples;
                                                                    Filling of schedule VI
                                                                     prescriptions under the
                                                                     direction of a
                                                                     veterinarian licensed in
Washington   The board shall issue a     Immediate supervision:   Immediate Supervision of a     Under conditions of an
             veterinary technician         Dental extractions    Veterinarian or Veterinary     emergency, a licensed veterinary
             license to an individual                             Technician:                    technician and unregistered
             who has:                    Direct supervision:        Place and secure an         assistant may render certain life
               Successfully passed an    Anesthesia:               intravenous catheter;       saving aid to an animal patient.
                examination                   Induction,           Monitor vital signs of an
                administered by the          including               anesthetized patient;       A licensed veterinary technician
                board; and                   preanesthesia;         Dental prophy.              may:
                                                                                                  Apply emergency
 Successfully                Maintenance;         Direct Supervision of a          cardiopulmonary resuscitation
completed a                   Monitoring.          Veterinarian or Veterinary       and first aid procedures and all
posthigh school          Application of casts      Technician:                      tasks as listed in subsections
course approved by        and splints;                Intravenous injection         (3), (4), (5), and (6) of this
the board in the care    Floating teeth;              into catheterized vein;       section;
and treatment of         Intraperitoneal             Biologics injections         Administer pharmacologic
animals; or               injections;                  (vaccines) with the           agents and parenteral fluids
 Had five years'        Blood administration;        veterinarian's                only after communication with
practical experience,    Closure, including           verification signature on     a veterinarian.
acceptable to the         suturing, of prepared        appropriate certificate;
board, with a             skin wound or gingival      Imaging procedures;         An unregistered assistant may:
licensed                  incision;                   Removal of sutures,          Apply noninvasive
veterinarian.            Arterial and central         drain tubes and staples;      cardiopulmonary resuscitation
                          venous catheters.           Bandaging;                    and basic first aid procedures;
                                                      Removal of exposed           Provide other aid upon the
                        Indirect Supervision:          foreign bodies;               order of a licensed veterinarian
                          Intravenous injections     Lab sample collection         as outlined in this section.
                           into uncatheterized         and test preparation (not
                           vein;                       evaluation) to include:
                          Centesis, including fine        Venipuncture;
                           needle aspirates;               Skin scraping.
                          Unobstructed bladder       Microchip implantation;
                           catheter;                  Enema;
                          Diagnostic procedures:     Ear flush;
                               Fecal analysis;       Perform
                               Electrocardiogra       electrocardiogram and
                              ms;                      blood pressure
                               Blood pressure;        measurements;
                               Cytology              Intramuscular and
                              analysis, including      subcutaneous injection;
                              urinalysis and          Massage except where
                              hematology;              regulated.
                               Microbiology.
 Placement and use of
  nasogastric and
  orogastric tubes for
  gavage, lavage, or
 Ophthalmological
      Tear production
      Topical
      Fluorescein
     staining of the
      Tonometry.
 Tasks authorized to be
  performed under
  immediate or direct
  supervision for
  unregistered assistants,
  may be performed by
  licensed veterinary
  technicians under
  indirect supervision
  unless otherwise

functions, tasks or actions
used in preparing, and the
administration of, legend
drugs, nonlegend drugs
                                           and controlled
                                           substances, delegated
                                           orally or in writing by the
                                           supervising veterinarian
                                           to the licensed veterinary
                                           technician are:
                                             Accessing the drug
                                             Selecting the
                                            appropriate quantity
                                             Packaging and labeling
                                            of the drug
                                             Administering the drug
                                            to the animal patient;
                                             Delivery of the drug to
                                            the owner or authorized
West Virginia   Registered Veterinary      Direct Supervision:           A veterinary assistant may   A registered veterinary technician
                Technician means a           Administer anesthesia      perform dental procedures    is permitted without veterinary
                person registered by the      including induction,       under the direct             supervision to use emergency
                Board to work under the       intravenous sedation,      supervision of a licensed    treatment procedures when an
                direct supervision of a       and maintenance and        veterinarian.                animal has been placed in a life
                veterinarian on the           recovery from                                           threatening condition and
                premises.                     anesthesia;                                             immediate treatment is necessary
                                             Perform dental                                          to sustain the animal's life. The
                                              prophylaxis;                                            registered veterinary technician
                                             Establish open                                          shall immediately take steps to
                                              airways;                                                secure the direct supervision of a
                                             Administer                                              veterinarian.
                                              resuscitative oxygen
                                             Administer
                                              resuscitative drugs, in
                                              the event of cardiac
 Administer
  immunizations that are
  not required by law to
  be administered by a
  licensed veterinarian;
 Prepare or supervise
  the preparation of
  patients for surgery;
 Assist the veterinarian
  in immunologic,
  diagnostic, medical,
  chemotherapeutic and
  surgical procedures;
 Perform external

Indirect Supervision:
  Perform diagnostic
  Perform intravenous
  Administer and apply
   medications and
   treatments by oral
   intravenous and
  subcutaneous routes;
  Apply bandages;
  Perform cardiac and
   respiratory monitoring;
  Perform appropriate
   procedures to control
                                         Apply temporary
                                          splints or immobilizing
                                         Perform ear flushing;
                                         Collect specimens; and
                                         Perform laboratory
Wisconsin   Veterinary technician       Direct Supervision:         Direct Supervision:           A veterinary student, certified
            means a person duly          Nonsurgical veterinary     Basic diagnostic studies,   veterinary technician or
            certified by the              treatment of animal         including routine           unlicensed assistant employed by
            examining board to work       diseases and                radiographs, nonsurgical    a veterinarian may, under the
            under the direct              conditions, including       specimen collection, and    direct supervision of the
            supervision of a licensed     administration of           laboratory testing          veterinarian and pursuant to
            veterinarian.                 vaccines.                   procedures.                 mutually acceptable written
                                         Observations and           Monitoring and              protocols, perform evaluative and
            Unlicensed assistant          findings related to         reporting to the            treatment procedures necessary to
            means a person not            animal diseases and         veterinarian changes in     provide an appropriate response to
            holding a license, permit     conditions to be            the condition of a          life-threatening emergency
            or certificate issued by      utilized by a               hospitalized animal         situations for the purpose of
            the board.                    veterinarian in             patient.                    stabilizing the patient pending
                                          establishing a             Dispensing prescription     further treatment.
                                          diagnosis or prognosis,     drugs pursuant to the
                                          including routine           written order of the
                                          radiographs,                veterinarian.
                                          nonsurgical specimen
                                          collection, drawing of    Direct Supervision when
                                          blood for diagnostic      the Veterinarian is
                                          purposes, and             personally present on the
                                          laboratory testing        premises where the
                                          procedures.               services are provided:
                                         Administration of           Nonsurgical veterinary
                                          sedatives and                treatment of animal
                                          presurgical                  diseases and conditions,
                                              medications.                including administration
                                             Obstetrical treatment.      of vaccines, and
                                             Nutritional evaluation      administration of
                                              and counseling.             sedatives and presurgical
                                           Direct Supervision when       Observations and
                                           the Veterinarian is            findings related to
                                           personally present on the      animal diseases and
                                           premises where the             conditions to be utilized
                                           services are provided:         by a veterinarian in
                                             Administration of local     establishing a diagnosis
                                              or general anesthesia,      or prognosis, including
                                              including induction         the drawing of blood for
                                              and monitoring.             diagnostic purposes.
                                             Performing diagnostic      Dental prophylaxis.
                                              radiographic contrast      Nutritional evaluation
                                              studies.                    and counseling.
                                             Dental prophylaxis and
Wyoming         N/A                        NONE SPECIFIED               NONE SPECIFIED                An unlicensed employee may
                                                                                                      provide immediate treatment
                                                                                                      under emergency situations in
                                                                                                      order to sustain life or prevent
                                                                                                      further injury in the absence of a

Source: Staff research, AVMA State Legislative and Regulatory Department
Contact: Tara Southwell, State Policy Analyst, AVMA State Legislative and Regulatory Department, 847-285-6779

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