NEW YORK CITY IN 1912 by zhouwenjuan


									NEW YORK CITY IN 1912
2                                                             A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE

                                                                                                                            DID YOU KNOW?
                                                                                             • A firstclass ticket for a parlor suite cost $4,500, which would be about $103,000 today.
                                                                                             • There were only 2 bathtubs for more than 700 thirdclass passengers.
                                                                                             • If the Ship’s bow had crashed straight into the iceberg, Titanic and most of her
                                                                                               passengers likely would have survived.
                                                                                             • The first newspapers reporting the disaster claimed that all of Titanic’s passengers
                                                                                               had survived and she was being safely towed to land.
                                                                                             • The Ship was as long as four city blocks—or 22 school buses.
                                                                                             • Only 37 seconds passed between the lookout’s warning about the iceberg ahead and
                                                                                               the moment of impact.
                                                                                             • The cargo list included 76 cases of “dragon’s blood.” Dragon’s blood is the sap from
                                                                                               a type of palm tree; it was used to color wood varnish and women’s makeup.
                                                                                             • The characters of Jack and Rose from the 1997 movie about Titanic were not
                                                                                               real passengers.

                                                 WELCOME ABOARD!
    Dear Reader,
    We invite you to see Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition and take a trip back in time. The galleries in this fascinating Exhibition
    put you inside the Titanic experience like never before. They feature real artifacts recovered from the ocean floor along with
    room re-creations and personal histories, each highlighting a different chapter in the compelling story of Titanic’s maiden
    voyage. Board Titanic using a replica White Star Line ticket belonging to an actual passenger, touch an iceberg, and learn
    about artifact recovery and conservation.
                                                                                                                                                     226 West 44th Street
    Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition is a great catalyst for lessons in Science, History, Geography, English, Math and Technology.                   Times Square, NYC
    Many students are familiar with the compelling story behind the Ship’s promised voyage and tragic demise. Innovative                          Between 7th & 8th Avenues
    educational resources link this innate fascination to classroom-friendly lessons that will generate student interest before your
    visit and extend student learning beyond your field trip.                                                                              Discovery TSX is located in the former New
    Our award-winning Titanic Teacher’s Guide is available free of charge by registering online at              York Times Building on 44th Street between
    tgrequest. These comprehensive lesson plans, which come with ready-to-copy Student Activity Pages, include activities for               7th & 8th Avenues, directly across from
    elementary, middle, and high school levels aligned to your state curriculum standards as well as to the national standards                          Shubert Alley.
    from NCSS and NCTE.
    We are excited to bring you this special section on Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition. Use it as a preview to what awaits you on                Group Tickets available at:
    your visit and as an introduction to life in 1912. We look forward to seeing you onboard at Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition. 800.223.7565 or
    Cheryl Muré

                                                                                                                                          Go to
    Cheryl Muré, M.Ed.                                                                                                                   to request a free copy of the award-winning
                                                                                        This exhibit makes

    Director of Education                                                                                                                  Teacher’s Guide with lessons correlated to
    Premier Exhibitions, Inc.                                                          me want to dive down                                   New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,
                                                                                       to the Titanic myself!                                  Rhode Island, and Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                                    curriculum standards.
                                                                   A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE                                                                                    3

                        NEW YORK IN 1912
• Major industries in Long Island City include the LooseWiles Sunshine Biscuit
  Company, Packard Automobile Company, the American Ever Ready Company,
  the American Chicle Company, and the White Motor Company.

• The US Weather Bureau takes over Belvedere Castle in Central Park, to house the
  New York Meteorological Observatory.

• At the National Biscuit Company, or Nabisco, the first Oreo cookie is made in a
  building which is now part of the Chelsea Market.

• During its 1912 session, the state Legislature passes health and safety laws for
  factories as a direct result of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory fire in the
  city the year before. The 1911 fire killed 146 garment workers, many women,
  in less than 20 minutes. In March 1912, 20,000 workers—a fourth of them                                                                    Steeplechase Park on Coney Island, 1912.
  women—march in Manhattan to commemorate the fire’s one year anniversary.
                                                                                                       THE CITY AT PLAY
                                                                                                       • The Alpha Physical Culture Club basketball team from Harlem wins the Colored Basketball
                                                                                                         World’s Championship for the 1912–1913 season.

                                                                                                       • With 65 wins and 76 losses, the Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers finish their last season at Washington
                                      R                                                                  Park before moving to Ebbets Field in 1913.

                                                                                                       • The New York Giants lose the World Series to the Boston Red Sox.

                                                                                                       • The New York Highlanders become the New York Yankees and move from Hilltop Park to
                                                                                                         the Polo Grounds. In 1912, the team finishes last place in the American league and debuts
                                                                                                         pinstripes on their uniforms.

                                                                                                       • Gold medal winners at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden, include several
                                                                                                         New Yorkers. Matt McGrath wins the hammer throw. Alfred Lane takes home three gold
                                                                                                         medals in shooting events. Abel Kiviat is part of the winning 3000 meter team race.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued on page 6

               Polo Grounds, the New York Giants’ home field in the 1912 World Series.
                                 Library of Congress, Bain Collection

• Both Coney Island and Brooklyn’s Prospect Park get new carousels. The one from
  Coney Island is now in Central Park.

• In May, a man is killed when he falls off the Wooden Donkey ride at Steeplechase
  Park on Coney Island. A week later, five people are injured when a cable on the
  Airship ride snaps, drops one end of the car, and dumps passengers on the ground.

• America’s first fast food arrives in Manhattan from Philadelphia. The Automat—
  “staffed” entirely by vending machines—opens in Times Square.

• The newlyfounded Girl Scouts sets up their national headquarters at 429 Fifth Avenue.

                                                                                                                       National Biscuit Company building, 1913. Irving Underhill, Library of Congress
4              A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE

               April 2, 1912, 8:00 p.m.                                   Queenstown. Before setting sail, J. J. Astor

        1912   Titanic leaves Belfast and sails to Southampton            buys his young wife an exquisite lace shawl.
               where Thomas Andrews, the Ship’s designer,                 Titanic is carrying approximately 2,207
               boards as the first passenger.                              passengers.

                                                                          April 13, 1912, Daytime
               April 10, 1912, Noon
                                                                          J. Bruce Ismay urges Captain Smith to
               Titanic starts her maiden voyage leaving
                                                                          increase speed, determined to beat the
               Southampton and venturing to Cherbourg,
                                                                          Olympic’s Atlantic crossing speed. Titanic
               France. Many of Titanic’s most famous
                                                                          speeds up to over 22 knots (25 mph), at
               passengers are now on board including: John
                                                                          which she will remain for the rest of her
               Jacob Astorthe richest man in the United
               Statesand his wife Madeleine; Benjamin
               Guggenheim, a mining millionaire;
                                                                          April 14, 1912, 9:00 a.m.
               Margaret “Molly” Brown, the wife of a Denver
               mining magnate; and Sir Cosmo and Lady                     The Caronia sends a message to Titanic
               Duff Gordon, a Scottish aristocrat and his                  reporting icebergs in the area.
               fashion designer wife. Howard Irwin misses
               the boat as he had been kidnapped and forced               April 14, 1912, MidMorning
               into labor as a sailor. His trunk is later found in        Lifeboat drills are neglected after church service seven
               the wreckage. From Cherbourg, Titanic heads                though the crew has yet to complete the procedure.
               to Queenstown, Ireland, the traditional last
               stop for transatlantic ships.

               April 11, 1912, 1:30 p.m.
               After loading and unloading mail, Titanic
               raises anchor for the last time and leaves
                                                   A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE                                                        5

One of the Most Educational Exhibitions of All Time
   April 14, 1912, 1:42 p.m.                                   Officer Murdoch gives the “hard astarboard”                    April 15, 1912, 1:15 a.m.
   J. Bruce Ismay receives an ice warning from                 order while having the engines stopped and                    Titanic’s bow begins sinking as the last of
   the Baltic, which he ignores.                               reversed. The Ship, traveling at approximately                the lifeboats are lowered into the water. An
                                                               21 knots (24 mph), turns slightly to the left,                estimated 1,500 people are left stranded on the
                                                               avoiding a headon collision. Below the water,
   April 14, 1912, Evening                                                                                                   sinking boat. Father Thomas Byles gives last rites
                                                               the iceberg punctures the hull. Crew members                  to those left behind. The band plays hymns and
   Captain Smith attends a party hosted by George              who feel the collision think that the Ship has
   and Eleanor Widener for some of the Ship’s                                                                                waltzes to comfort the remaining passengers.
                                                               lost a blade from a propeller.
   most prominent passengers. An iceberg watch
   is ordered. The Ship’s lights are extinguished at                                                                         April 15, 1912, 2:20 a.m.
                                                               April 14, 1912, 11:50 p.m.
   7:15 p.m. so that icebergs will be easier to see.                                                                         Titanic sinks.
   The temperature falls to 31˚F. Most passengers              Five, or possibly six, of Titanic’s watertight
                                                               compartments are flooded. Captain Smith
   retire to their rooms.
                                                               and Thomas Andrews assess the damage.
                                                                                                                             April 15, 1912, 4:10 a.m.
                                                               Captain Smith orders his telegraph operators                  The Carpathia reaches the survivors; only
   April 14, 1912, 10:55 p.m.                                                                                                705 people are saved. More than 1,500 men,
                                                               to send the distress signal, “CDQ,” once
   The Carpathia, completely surrounded by                     Andrews estimates that the Ship will remain                   women, and children perish.
   ice, stops for the evening and warns Titanic                afloat for only two hours. Though several
   of the impending danger. The Californian                    other ships receive the message, none are close               April 18, 1912, 9:00 p.m.
   sends a similar message, but is told by one of              enough to save Titanic. Thirdclass passengers                The Carpathia arrives in New York with
   Titanic’s wireless operators to “Keep out. You’re           who have been jolted awake begin to move                      Titanic survivors.
   jamming my signal,” because he is buried in                 toward the upper decks as their cabins flood.
   passenger messages to be sent. Soon after, the
                                                                                                                             April 26 – May 3, 1912
   Californian shuts down its wireless room.                   April 15, 1912, Midnight                                      After seven days of searching, the Mackay-
                                                               Captain Smith gives the order to uncover the                  Bennett recovers a total of 306 bodies. Of these,
   April 14, 1912, 11:40 p.m.
                                                               lifeboats and evacuate the women and children.                116 are buried at sea and of this number, only
   Frederick Fleet sights an iceberg and warns the             No one wants to board the lifeboats, thinking                 56 are identified.
   deck by ringing the bell on the Crow’s Nest three           the large Ship is much safer and warmer than
   times and calling “Iceberg, right ahead!” First             the small wooden lifeboats. They do not yet                   September 1, 1985, Midnight
                                                               realize that Titanic is sinking. The band comes
                                                                                                                             The wreck of Titanic is discovered.
                                                               to the deck and starts playing cheerful songs to
                                                               calm the passengers.
                                                                                                                             June 24, 2009
                                                               April 15, 1912, 12:45 a.m.                                    Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition arrives in New
                                                                                                                             York City at Discovery Times Square Exposition.
                                                               The first lifeboats leave the Ship with an
                                                               average of 28 people aboard, though they
                                                               could carry between 40 and 65 people.

6                                                              A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE

    continued from page 3
    • Construction wraps up on the new terminal at Grand Central Station.
    • Workers excavating a new branch of the BrooklynManhattan Transit
      unearth a brickedup tunnel and an earlymodel subway car leftover
      from an experimental underground transportation system in 1870.
    • The toll to drive on William K. Vanderbilt’s Long Island Motor
      Parkway—a former racing route—is $1.50.                                                    Construction on Grand Central Terminal,
                                                                                                 prior to 1912.
    • Electrification of the New York Central Railroad begins.
    • Central Park’s drives are paved to allow for automobiles in the park.

                                                                                                                                       1912 map of the BrooklynManhattan line
                                                                                                                                                  from Brooklyn Rapid Transit.

                               PASSENGER PROFILES

    John Jacob Astor IV, 48, was one of the world’s richest men. He managed his family’s fortune from his
    home on Fifth Avenue in New York City. A dabbler in the realms of art and invention, John wrote a
    novel, helped to develop the turbine engine, and was part owner of the WaldorfAstoria Hotel. Following
    a divorce from his first wife in 1911, John married Madeleine Force, who was 30 years younger.
    The difference in the couple’s ages and the quickness with which they were married caused a bit of
    a scandal. The newlyweds went on a European honeymoon to let the gossip subside. They traveled
    with two servants, a nurse, and their pet Airedale named Kitty. Upon learning that Madeleine was
    pregnant, the Astors decided to return to America as first
    class passengers on Titanic. John and Kitty did not survive
    the sinking.
    John’s body was found crushed and covered with soot, suggesting
    that he was killed when one of the Ship’s giant funnels toppled
    over. His body was identified by the initials inside his collar, the
    jewelry he wore, and the money in his pocket. John was laid
    to rest in the Astor family mausoleum at Trinity Cemetery in
    northern Manhattan. According to an article in The New York
    Times, more than 5000 mourners gathered at the cemetery and                                                                                     The Hotel Astor and the Astor Theatre on Times Square, c.19001915.
                                                                                                                                                     Library of Congress, Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection
    twelve policemen accompanied the funeral procession.
    Madeleine escaped in Lifeboat 4. At the time, she was pregnant
    with their son, John Jacob Astor V, who was born in August
    of 1912. After four years as a widow, she forfeited the Astor
    house and her trust fund from John when she married William,
    a childhood friend. In 1933, she divorced William to marry
    Enzo Fiermonte, an Italian boxer whom she divorced less than
    five years later.

                                                                                  John, Madeleine, and Kitty Astor.
                                                                   A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE                                                                                       7

                                                                                                        DOROTHY GIBSON
                                                                                                        Dorothy Gibson, 22, was a New York
                                                                                                        model and a popular silent film actress
                                                                                                        from Hoboken, New Jersey. From
                                                                                                        1907 to 1911, she sang and danced
                                                                                                        in numerous Broadway productions.
                                                                                                        She was also a favorite model for the
                                                                                                        illustrator Harrison Fisher, who put her
                                                                                                        image on numerous magazine covers,
                                                                                                        postcards, and advertisements.
                                                                                                          In 1911, the Frenchbased Éclair Film
                                                                                                          Company made her one of their leading
                                                                                                          ladies, casting her in such films as Hands
                                                                                                          Across the Sea in which she portrayed the
          Macy’s in New York, 1908. Library of Congress, Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection                                               Dorothy’s later careers included opera singer and spy.
                                                                                                          Revolutionary War heroine Molly Pitcher.
                                                                                                          After completing a number of films for Éclair at their studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey,
ISIDOR AND IDA STRAUS                                                                                     Dorothy decided she needed to take a break. She and her mother, Pauline, went to
Isidor Straus, 67, immigrated to America as a child with his family from Germany in Europe for vacation in March of 1912.
1845. Following the Civil War, Straus moved from Georgia to New York and helped When they decided to go home, they booked firstclass passage on Titanic.
organize a new family earthenware business, L. Straus & Son. Business flourished, Dorothy spent the hours before the collision playing bridge with fellow firstclass
and soon Isidor became involved in the R.H. Macy & Company department store, passengers. Both Dorothy and Pauline survived the sinking of Titanic. They escaped
running the store’s china and glassware department along with his brother, Nathan. in Lifeboat 7—the first to leave the Ship—which carried only 20 other firstclass
By 1888 Isidor and his brother were coowners of Macy’s. In 1902 they moved the                         passengers plus three crewmen.
shop from its 14th Street location to a much larger building at 34th Street and       Soon after the rescue, Dorothy played herself in the first movie to be made about
Broadway—making it the first large store located north of 23rd Street in the city.     the Titanic disaster, Saved From the Titanic. She even wore the same dress she had
Isidor also served as a US Representative for New York in 1894–1895.                  on during the rescue. Also following her rescue, Dorothy filed an insurance claim
Following a trip to Germany, Isidor and his beloved wife, Ida, 63, booked first-class against White Star Line to cover the costs of her possessions that went down with
passage on board Titanic. Both Isidor and Ida died in the sinking. Isidor and several the Ship. Her list—which totaled $2,382.75—included $75 worth of “underwear as
other passengers tried to convince Ida to board Lifeboat 8 with 23 other firstclass gifts,” a black and gold evening dress for $150, and hats from $12 to $40.
passengers and three crewmen. Ida refused to leave her husband, saying “Where
                                       you go, I go.”
                                                       Isidor’s body was recovered wearing
                                                       “fur-lined overcoat; grey trousers, coat
                                                       and vest; soft striped shirt; brown boots;
                                                       and black silk socks.” Ida’s body was never
                                                       found. She is memorialized on her husband’s
                                                       grave in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx.
                                                       Ida’s maid, Ellen Bird, survived; Isidor’s
                                                       manservant, John Farthing, did not.

     Isidor and Ida Straus had been married 41 years
                    when Titanic sank.

                                                                                                                 Dorothy often performed as a vaudeville chorus girl at the Hippodrome Theatre in Midtown. Library of Congress
8                                                               A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE

                                                                                      USE THE NEWS

                                PERFUME VIAL
                            Recovered in 2000, these amazing vials still
                            contain perfume and retain their odor! They were
                           foun in a small leather case belonging to first-
                          class passenger Adolphe Saalfeld, a perfume maker
                         from MManchester, England. There were a total of 62
                        sample vials in the case. Some of the labels were legible
                                                                                               New York
                            identify the scents as Carnation, Musk, Lily of the
                       and iden
                      Valley, an Cashmere Bouquet, to name a few.
                     Sense of sme is the strongest of our 5 senses when it comes to
                               memories. Find a photo, advertisement, or article to
                   triggering me
                  demonstrate e of the 5 senses. For example, use a restaurant
    review for the sense of taste.
                                                                                           JACK OF HEARTS
    Perfume ads often feature celebrities. Find examples of other celebrity                This Steamboat playing card is one of 52
    endorsements in the electronic or print edition of the newspaper. Which                from a pack found among the personal effects
    celebrities would convince you to buy or use a particular product? Which               of Howard A. Irwin, recovered in 1993.
    celebrity would you not trust?                                                         Cards such as this one were most likely used
                                                                                           for playing poker while onboard. Many first-
                                                                                           class gentlemen thought of card games as a
                                                                                           pleasant social distraction. There were, however,
    BOWLER HAT                                                                             several “card sharks” on Titanic waiting for
    This amazing object was recovered from the bottom of the ocean floor                    an opportunity to challenge a naïve gambler.
    without the protection of a leather bag or trunk. The derby, or bowler,                Captain Smith advised his wealthy passengers
    hat is brown and has a grosgrain ribbon around the bottom of the hat                   to use caution when sitting down to gamble,
    and the brim. Mr. William Bowler designed this style of hat during the                 and instructed his stewards to break up games
    Victorian age, in the mid-19th century, for the gamekeepers of William                 in which a known “shark” was cleaning out his     s
    Coke, Earl of Leicester.                                                               opponent’s wallet.

    In the Edwardian age, clothes denoted status as plainly as any military                The pack of cards is American in origin and was  as
    uniform. Hats, for example, were very important. To go out without a                   probably carried to Great Britain by a passenger on
    hat meant being seen as low-class, poor, eccentric, or even faintly
                                                                      y                                    vacation. The card is water stained
    obscene. Famous people, both real and fictional, are often
                                                ional,                                                            and has the pattern from
                                                                                                                     d h      h patter      om
    seen in their bowler hats: Charlie Chaplin, Winston
                                         hapllin,                                                                     the back of another card
                                                                                                                                o anot
    Churchill, Laurel & Hardy, Jack Whit of the
                                             te                                                                          impressed onto its face.
                                                                                                                         impresse ont
                                        m the
    White Stripes, Cornelius Fudge from th Harry
                                             he                                                                             Find an article in the electronic or print edition of the
                                                                                                                                   a ar
    Potter series.                                                                                                          newspaper about poker, bridge, or other card games. Use
                                                                                                                            newspap a
    Find photographs of people in the electronic or print                                                                    that article to defend or refute the statement “Card games
    edition of the newspaper. Describe what their clothes
                                               theiir                                                                        are a sport”. Should card game championships be televised
                                                                                                                             on sports stations?
                                                                                                                                sport sta
    reveal about them. Do clothes still denote social status?
    What kind of hats are usually worn by men to today?
                                                  oday?                                                                                    For information about Newspapers
                                                                                                                                           in Education at The Journal News,
                                                                                                                                           visit or call Pat Graff
                                                                                                                                           at 914-694-5211.
                                                A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE                                                9

                                                 FIRSTCLASS                        BRACELET WITH HEART CLASP
                                                 DEMITASSE CUP                      This amazing bracelet, which measures just over 7˝ in length, was
                                               This little cup, which               recovered in 1987. It was made by hand with yellow/rose gold links
                                               measures just over 2” in             and a heart-shaped pendant as the clasp. It is stamped with
                                               diameter, was recovered in
                                               d                                    a jewelry hallmark from Chester, England, and
                                               1994 and is one of seven             the date “1907–1908.” Most likely,
                                              cobalt blue and gold pieces
                                              c                                     this belonged to a first-class lady. Perhaps
                                             o china recovered from the             she wore it to one of the Ship’s formal
                                           wre site. The cup is called
                                           w                                        social events before entrusting it to
                                           demitasse—French for “half
                                         a dem                                      Chief Purser Herbert McElroy for
                                      cup”—a would have been used                   safekeeping during the voyage
                               to serve coffee.                                      across the Atlantic Ocean.

The cobalt blue and gold china, provided by Spode China Ltd.,                       Find an article in the electronic
was reserved for exclusive first-class passengers. Spode designed this               or print edition of the newspaper,
“nautical” pattern specifically for use on ships. The color blue was                 perhaps in an arts or entertainment
chosen for the sea and the linear gold edging alludes to rigging rope.              section, about a social event in
The gold dot pattern near the rim symbolizes portholes. All of the                  the community. Who sponsored the
gold embellishments were hand gilded. The dinner plates feature                     function? Why? Who attended? Why is
interlocking letters in the center with the initials of White Star Line’s           the event newsworthy?
official name: “The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company.”
                                                                                    Search both the classified ads and display ads in an
Spode produced three patterns of similar design using the richly                    electronic or print edition of the newspaper to
decorated gold and cobalt blue. To prevent confusion when the                       find the cost of a similar
designs were re-ordered, the three patterns were given different                     piece of jewelry today.
numbers based on the slight differences in shape, surface design, or
application of decoration. This pattern can still be reproduced today
at great cost from Spode China Ltd.
Do people still expect fancy meals on china dishes when they travel? The
slow economy and rising cost of fuel has forced cutbacks on many “extras”,          $10 US BANK NOTE
such as the elimination of meals on flights. Find an article in the electronic       One hundred years ago, both private banks and the U.S. Federal
or print edition of the newspaper about other impacts of the recession on           Government issued paper money. The large number of obscure U.S.
vacations and travel costs. Summarize the article and explain on whom               banks issuing money made many European banks reluctant to accept
it will have the most effect.                                                        American paper currency. Bank notes from 1912 were larger than today’s
Look in the electronic or print edition of the newspaper for advertisements         bills; this currency measures over 7” in length.
for a similar pattern of dishes. Calculate the price of a set of the dishes for     Recovered from inside a leather bag in 1987, this $10 bill still has the
your family. How much would it cost to purchase enough for all the first                      President’s signature visible at the bottom right. The currency
class passengers on Titanic?                                                                 was issued by the National Bank of the City of New York, now
                                                                                              Citibank, at 55 Wall Street in Manhattan.
                                                                                                Look through the ads in the electronic or print edition of the
                                                                                                newspaper. List the items $10 can buy today. What could $10
                                                                                                buy in 1912?
                                                                                                 Find an article in the electronic or print edition of the newspaper
                                                                                                 about a bank or the banking industry. What is the name of the
                                                                                                 bank? Why are they in the news?
10                                            A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE

                                                                             TITANIC PUZZLES

                                                                                                 Test your knowledge of the fateful journey of the world’s most famous Ship.
          Cryptogram             Titanic Trivia
                                How many passengers and crew were on board                     What rescue ship did the survivors of               How many people fit into the submersible?
                                Titanic on her maiden voyage?                                  Titanic board after they fled in the lifeboats?        a. 2
                                   a. 1,500                                                       a. Majestic                                        b. 3

                                   b. 2,228                                                       b. Carpathia                                       c. 4

                                   c. 1,324                                                       c. Olympic
                                                                                                                                                   How many tons of coal were carried by


                                                                                                                                                   Titanic when she left England on April

                                Who was the Managing Director of Design                        The Titanic crew tested the Ship’s

                                                                                                                                                   10, 1912?

                                at Harland & Wolff?                                             whistles each day at this time.



                                                                                                                                                         a. 7,500

                                   a. J. Bruce Ismay                                             a. noon
                                                                                                                                                         b. 4,300

                                   b. Lord Pirrie                                                b. midnight

                                                                                                                                                         c. 6,000

                                   c. Mr. Thomas Andrews

                                                                                                 c. dawn

                                                                                                                                                   What was Adolphe Saalfield’s business?


                                 Where did Titanic stop to collect mail and                    What is the name of the submersible that                  a. importing ostrich feathers


                                 additional passengers before setting sail across the          has played a major role in the recovery

                                                                                                                                                         b. selling perfume

                                 North Atlantic for New York?                                  expeditions to the wreck site?                            c. shipbuilding


                                   a. Cherbourg & Queenstown                                     a. IFREMER

                                   b. Belfast & Southhampton                                     b. Nadir


                                   c. Southampton & Halifax                                      c. Nautile                                        How long did it take Titanic to sink?
                                                                                                                                                     a. 4 hours & 20 minutes

                                                                                                                                                     b. 1 hour & 30 minutes

                                                                                                                                                     c. 2 hours & 40 minutes








                                                                                           2                                                3

                                                                         4                                                                  5                         6                  7

                                                                         8                                                                                                      9
          22 17




                                                                                                         11                                                     12









                                                                                                                                      17            18




                                                                                                          19                                                    20




                                ACROSS                                                  16 Kind of car in the Ship’s cargo                      4 City in France where the Ship made



                                2 Reddish brown growths of rust caused                  17 Righthand side of a ship                               a stop

                                   by ironeating bacteria on the Ship’s wreck                                                                  6 Distress signal before SOS

                                                                                        19 Edward J. Smith

                                5 One of Titanic’s sister ships                                                                                 7 Lefthand side of a ship
                                                                                        20 Number of lifeboats on the Ship

                                8 City in Canada where many victims

                                                                                                                                                9 Rearend of a ship
                                   are buried

                                                                                                                                                12 City where Titanic was built



                                10 Number of working funnels                            DOWN                                                    15 Managing director of the White Star Line

                                11 Name of the ship that rescued survivors              1 Month of the Ship’s launch                            18 Frontend of a ship
                                13 The cause of the Ship’s sinking                      3 Passengers boarded the Ship in this
                                14 R.M.S.                                                 British port
                                                       A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE                                                                           11

                                                                              TITANIC PUZZLES

                                                       M      E   R   S   F   N   I   X   L   P    Y   P   X   U    S                            Answer Key
           Word Search                                 T      E   L   B   A   K   N   I   S   N    U   J   C   T   G

                                                       O      C   K   B   H   W   T   Q   B   G    S   M   I   Y   T

                                                       I      V   A   L   M   J   M   T   V   O    E   Q   T   R   O                         L   Y   C   H   Y   I   T   R   C   I   N   A   T   I   T
                ARTIFACT                                                                                                                     Y   V   E   E   Q   O   H   O   W   F   U   A   J   G   L
                                                       I      C   J   F   D   K   A   L   U   P    E   O   N   O   R                         H   Y   R   U   N   W   W   K   O   Y   S   H   I   P   N
                ATLANTIC                                                                                                                     U   O   D   C
                                                                                                                                                         C   E   W   Z   L   I   G   J
                                                                                                                                                                                     J   H
                                                                                                                                                                                         H   P
                                                                                                                                                                                             P   O
                                                                                                                                                                                                 O   E
                                                       X      Q   E   U   I   O   V   T   A   O    C   U   A   S   B
                                                                                                                                             T   A   Q   S
                                                                                                                                                         S   V   T   M   H   F   H
                                                                                                                                                                                 H   T
                                                                                                                                                                                     T   B
                                                                                                                                                                                         B   T
                                                                                                                                                                                             T   S
                                                                                                                                                                                                 S   L
                    COAL                                                                                                                     S   Q   P   E   M   I   X   U   G   I   C   P   Z   I   S
                                                                                                                                             W   H   A   R   V
                                                       H      L   T   B   B   T   H   R   A   F    P   M   L   Q    J
                                                                                                                                                                 W   I   A   M   R   M   O   F   M   V
                 ICEBERG                                                                                                                     O   K   T   J   X   T   D   S   R   A   E   E   A   M   J
                                                                                                                                             J   Q   L   M   P   F   A   R   H   T   B   B   T   L   H
                 LIFEBOAT                              J      M   A   E   E   A   R   S   D   T    X   J   T   K   O                         B   S   A   U   C   O   A   T   V   O   I   U   E   Q   X
                                                                                                                                             R   O   N
                                                                                                                                                     N   O   E   P   U
                                                                                                                                                                     U   L
                                                                                                                                                                         L   A
                                                                                                                                                                             A   K
                                                                                                                                                                                 K   D
                                                                                                                                                                                     D   F
                                                                                                                                                                                         F   J
                                                                                                                                                                                             J   C   I
                                                       V      M   F   O   M   R   M   A   I   W    V   R   A   H   W                         O   R   T
                                                                                                                                                     T   Q   E   O
                                                                                                                                                                 O   V
                                                                                                                                                                     V   T
                                                                                                                                                                         T   M
                                                                                                                                                                             M   J   M   L
                                                                                                                                                                                         L   A
                                                                                                                                                                                             A   V
                                                                                                                                                                                                 V   I
                                                                                                                                             T   Y   I   M   S   G   B   Q   T   W   H   B   K
                                                                                                                                                                                             K   C
                                                                                                                                                                                                 C   O
                                                       S      I   Z   P   C   I   G   U   X    I   M   E   P   Q    S                        G   T   C   J   U   N   S   I   N   K   A   B   L   E   T
                  SMITH                                                                                                                      S   U   X   P   Y   P   L   X   I   N   F   S   R   E   M
                                                       L      S   T   B   T   H   F   H   M   T    V   S   Q   A   T
                                                       E      O   P   H   J   G   I   L   Z   W    E   C   D   O   U
                                                       N      P   I   H   S   Y   O   K   W   W    N   U   R   Y   H
                                                       L      G   J   A   U   F   W   O   H   O    Q   E   E   V   Y

                                                       T      I   T   A   N   I   C   R   T    I   Y   H   C   Y   L                 iceberg was seen and when Titanic hit it.
                                                                                                                                     There was less than a minute between when the

                                           WHAT CHILDREN DID FOR FUN                                                                  10.c
                                                                                                                                      1.b, 2.c, 3.a, 4.b, 5.a, 6.c, 7.b, 8.c, 9.b,
                                                                                                                                      TITANIC TRIVIA:
Go to the Gymnasium; it was reserved for children
between the hours of 1:00 and 3:00 p.m. everyday. They                                                                                                                           18. Bow
could ride a mechanical horse or camel and use the

                                                                          Frank Goldsmith remembered
                                                                                                                                                                                 15. Ismay
stationary bike or rowing machine.                                                                                                                                               12. Belfast
                                                                            swinging on huge baggage                                                                             9. Stern
Play shuffleboard or deck quoits, a game similar to                                                                                                                                7. Port
horseshoes played on the deck of a ship with rope rings                      cranes in the well deck.                                                                            6. CDQ
                          thrown at a wooden score board                                                                                                                         4. Cherbourg
                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Southampton
                          for points.                                                                                                                                            1. April
                           Attend a concert in the First
                           Class Lounge in the evenings.
                                                                                                                                                                      20. Twenty
                                                                                                                                                                     19. Captain
                           Read books in the Reading and
                                                                                              Sixyear old Douglas Spedden                                           17. Starboard
                           Writing Room.
                                                                                                of Tuxedo Park, New York,                                            16. Renault
                                                                                                                                                                     14. Royal Mail Steamer
   Ruth Becker             Run up and down the stairs                                         played with his spinning top                                           13. Iceberg
    pushed her             exploring parts of the Ship that                                         on the Boat Deck.                                                11. Carpathia
                           were open to them.                                                                                                                        10. Three
      brother                                                                                                                                                        8. Halifax
      Richard              Watch the passengers’ dogs                                                                                                                5. Olympic

    around the
                                                                                                                                                                     2. Rusticles
                           being walked by a steward every                                                                                                           Across:
     decks in a
    White Star
                           morning and afternoon on the
                           poop deck.
                                                                                                   h                                                                 CROSSWORD:

   Line stroller.
12                                                               A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE

                     TITANIC AND SEPTEMBER 11TH
     Almost 90 years separate the sinking of Titanic on April 15, 1912, and the
     terrorist attacks on New York City on September 11, 2001. Although the tragedies
     themselves are dissimilar, connections can be found.
     For example, Bellevue Hospital played a critical role in both catastrophes. In April
     1912, it was one of the main hospitals caring for Titanic’s survivors and helping
     them reunite with friends and family. In September 2001, Bellevue again cared for
     victims and helped identify those who did not survive. In the days that followed,
     posters and photographs of the missing —as well as words of encouragement and
     support—quickly covered a construction fence set up at the hospital.
                                                                                                                                         Hoping to learn the fate of their loved ones, friends and families line up outside
                                                                                                                                          the White Star Line offices on Broadway. Library of Congress, Bain Collection

                                          This chart lists aspects of the Titanic disaster that may have counterparts in 2001. Fill in the column on the
                                            right based on research or your personal experience. Can you think of other similarities and examples?

                                                               Titanic                                                                      September 11th
                          Following the sinking, newspapers printed erroneous stories
                          including, for example, that no one had died.
                          Because of inaccurate records, the exact number and names
                          of victims couldn’t be provided immediately.
                          Relatives and friends flooded the city, trying to find out if
                          their loved ones were among the missing.
                          Groups like the American Red Cross and Salvation Army
                          helped the survivors and the victims’ families.
                          Ambulances, doctors, and nurses from many New York
                          hospitals arrived on the scene to help.
                          Victims were from dozens of countries around the world
                          and from many socio–economic classes.
                          Commissions were formed to investigate the sinking, evaluate
                          blame, and make recommendations for the future.
                          Many survivors suffered from lingering effects on their
                          health—physical and emotional.
                          Memorials honoring the victims can be found in many
                          Ordinary people become extraordinary heroes when faced
                          with crises and chaos.

        Chorus girl collects money during a baseball game at the Polo              Boy Scouts raise money for a Titanic relief fund in                     The Senate investigating committee of theTitanic disaster tries
             Grounds to raise funds for the Titanic survivors.                    1912. In September 2001, Troop 414 in Manhattan                      to determine if any one person or group can be held responsible for the
                     Library of Congress, Bain Collection                         collected money and supplies to help relief workers.                   extensive loss of life and property on the Ship. Library of Congress
                                                             A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE                                                                     13

                         HISTORY OF TITANIC
There are many books and online sources available for further information on Titanic. It is                      …37 seconds later, the greatest maritime
worth noting that even the factual information about Titanic varies widely between the different
sources. For all that is known and theorized about Titanic, it is in many ways still a mystery.                       disaster in history began.

                                                                                                   THE NIGHT
                                                                                                   On the night of April 14, wireless operator Jack Phillips was busy sending chatty passengers’
                                                                                                   messages to Cape Race, Newfoundland, where they could be relayed inland to friends and
                  Titanic’s accommodations were the most modern
                                                                                                   relatives. He received a sixth icewarning that night and put that message under a paperweight
                  and luxurious on any ocean and included:                                         at his elbow. It never reached Captain Edward J. Smith or the officer on the bridge. By all
                                                                                                   accounts, the night was uncommonly clear and dark, moonless but faintly glowing with an
                  • Electric light and heat in every room                                          incredible sky full of stars. The sea was, likewise, unusually calm and flat; “like glass” said many
                  • Electric elevators                                                             survivors. The lack of waves made it even more difficult to spot icebergs since there was no
                  • Swimming pool and Turkish Bath                                                 telltale white water breaking at the edges of the bergs.
                  • Squash court
                                                                                                   At 11:40, Frederick Fleet, the lookout in the crow’s nest, spotted an iceberg dead ahead. First
                  • Gymnasium with mechanical horse and camel                                      Officer William Murdoch ordered the Ship turned hard to port. The Ship turned slightly, but
                  • A sixstory, glassdomed grand staircase                                       it was much too large, moving much too fast, and the iceberg was much too close: 37 seconds
                  • Two musical ensembles                                                          later, the greatest maritime disaster in history began. During that night of heroism, terror, and
                  • Two libraries                                                                  tragedy, 705 lives were saved, 1502 lives were lost, and many legends were born.
                  • Two barber shops

The intensely competitive transatlantic steamship business had seen recent major advances
in ship design, size and speed at the onset of the 20th century. White Star Line, one of the
leaders, determined to focus on size and elegance rather than pure speed. In 1907, White Star
Line’s managing director J. Bruce Ismay and Lord James Pirrie, a partner in Harland & Wolff
(White Star Line’s shipbuilder) conceived of three magnificent steam ships which would set
a new standard for comfort, elegance, and safety. The first two were to be named Olympic and
Titanic, the latter name chosen by Ismay to convey a sense of overwhelming size and strength.
The third would be named Britannic.
Construction of Titanic started in March 1909. Harland & Wolff’s Belfast shipyards had to be
redesigned to accommodate the immense projects while White Star’s pier in New York had to
be lengthened to enable the ships to dock. The “launch” of the completed steel hull in May,
1911, was a heavily publicized spectacle. She was then taken for “fitting out” which involved the
construction of the Ship’s many facilities and systems, her elaborate woodwork and fine decor.

The maiden voyage lured the “very best people”: British nobility, American industrialists, the
cream of New York and Philadelphia society. It also attracted many poor emigrants, hoping
to start a new life in America or Canada. The journey began at Southampton on Wednesday
April 10, 1912, at noon. By sundown, Titanic had stopped in Cherbourg, France, to pick up
additional passengers. That evening she sailed for Queenstown, Ireland, and at 1:30 PM on
Thursday, April 11, she headed out into the Atlantic.

The winter of 1912 had been unusually mild, and unprecedented amounts of ice had broken
loose from the arctic regions. Titanic was equipped with Marconi’s new wireless telegraph
system and her two Marconi operators kept the wireless room running 24 hours a day. On
Sunday, April 14, the fifth day at sea, Titanic received five different icewarnings, but the
captain was not overly concerned. The Ship steamed ahead at 22 knots and the line’s Managing
Director J. Bruce Ismay relished the idea of arriving in New York a day ahead of schedule.
14                                                                                  A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE

                                           FIRST CLASS RECIPES

                                                     Chicken Lyonnais
                                 • 1/3 cup all-purpose flour             •   2 onions, thinly sliced
                                 • ½ tsp each salt and pepper           •   1 clove garlic, minced
                                 • 2 tbsp chopped fresh thyme           •   1/3 cup white wine
                                   (or 1 tbsp dried)                    •   1 cup chicken stock
                                 • 6 boneless chicken breasts           •   2 tsp tomato paste
                                 • 1 egg, beaten                        •   Pinch granulated sugar
                                 • 3 tbsp vegetable oil                                                                               First Class Dining Room

                                 In sturdy plastic bag, shake together flour, 1 tbsp of the thyme
                                 (or 1 ½ tsp if using dried), salt, and pepper. One at a time,
                                 dip chicken breasts into egg, then shake in flour mixture.

                                 In large deep skillet, heat 2 tbsp of the vegetable oil over
                                 medium-high heat. Place chicken in pan, skin side down.
                                                                                                                                          Asparagus Salad with Champagne-Saffron Vinaigrette
                                 Cook, turning once, for 10 minutes or until golden brown.
                                                                                                                              • 1 ½ lb asparagus                 • ½ tsp Dijon mustard         • 3 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
                                 Remove from skillet and place in 225 °F oven.
                                                                                                                              • ¼ tsp saffron threads             • Pinch granulated sugar      • Salt and pepper to taste
                                 Reduce heat to medium; add remaining oil to skillet. Stir in                                 • 1 ½ champagne vinegar            • ½ sweet red or yellow       • Lettuce
                                 onions, garlic, and remaining thyme; cook, stirring often, for                                 or white wine vinegar              pepper, finely diced
                                 5 minutes or until onions are translucent. Increase heat to
                                 medium-high and continue to cook onions, stirring often, for                                 Holding asparagus halfway up stalk, snap off woody ends at natural breaking point and
                                 5 minutes or until golden brown.                                                             discard. In wide, deep skillet or large pot of boiling salted water, cook asparagus for 3 to
                                                                                                                              5 minutes or until tender but not limp. Drain and run under cold water until completely
                                 Add wine to pan; cook, stirring to scrape up any brown                                       cooled; drain well.
                                 bits, for about 1 minute or until reduced by half. Stir in
                                 stock, tomato paste, and sugar. Boil for 2 minutes or until                                  Meanwhile, in large bowl, stir saffron into 1 tsp boiling water; let stand for 2 minutes or
                                 beginning to thicken. Return chicken to pan, turning to                                      until softened. Stir in champagne vinegar, mustard and sugar. Whisking, drizzle in olive oil.
                                 coat, and cook for 5 minutes or until juices from chicken                                    Season with salt and pepper to taste. Add asparagus and diced pepper; toss to coat. Arrange
                                 run clear. Makes 6 servings.                                                                 on lettuce-lines serving platter. Makes 6 servings.

                                                                                                       TITANIC PROVISIONS
     •   fresh meat: 75,000 lbs               •   fresh green peas: 2,500 lbs            •   oranges: 36,000                      •   spirits: 850 bottles                   ❍ single sheets: 15,000                ❍   wine glasses: 2,000
     •   fresh fish: 11,000 lbs                •   lettuce: 7,000 heads                   •   lemons: 16,000                       •   minerals: 1,200 bottles                ❍ table napkins: 45,000                ❍   salt shakers: 2,000
                                                                                                                                                                             ❍ bath towels: 7,500
     •   salt & dried fish: 4,000 lbs          •   sweetbreads: 1,000                     •   grapes: 1,000 lbs                    •   cigars: 8,000                                                                 ❍   pudding dishes: 1,200
                                                                                                                                                                             ❍ fine towels: 25,000
     •   bacon and ham: 7,500 lbs             •   ice cream: 1,750 lbs                   •   grapefruit: 13,000                   •   crockery: 57,600 items                                                        ❍   finger bowls: 1,000
                                                                                                                                                                             ❍ roller towels: 3,500
     •   poultry and game: 25,000 lbs         •   coffee: 2,200 lbs                       •   jams and marmalade: 1,120 lbs        •   glassware: 29,000 pieces
                                                                                                                                                                             ❍ double sheets: 3,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ❍   oyster forks: 1,000
     •   fresh eggs: 40,000                   •   tea: 800 lbs                           •   fresh milk: 1,500 gal                •   linens                                 ❍ pillow-slips:15,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ❍   nut crackers: 300
                                                                                                                                       ❍ aprons: 4,000
     •   sausages: 2,500 lbs                  •   rice, dried beans etc.: 10,000 lbs     •   fresh cream: 1,200 qts                                                                                                 ❍   egg spoons: 2,000
                                                                                                                                      ❍   blankets: 7,500                 • cutlery: 44,000 pieces
     •   potatoes: 40 tons                    •   sugar: 10,000 lbs                      •   condensed milk: 600 gals
                                                                                                                                                                             ❍ tea cups: 3,000                      ❍   grape scissors: 1,500
     •   onions: 3,500 lbs                    •   flour: 250 barrels                      •   fresh butter: 6,000 lbs                  ❍   table cloths: 6,000
                                                                                                                                                                             ❍ dinner plates: 12,000                ❍   asparagus tongs: 400
     •   tomatoes: 3,500 lbs                  •   cereals: 10,000 lbs                    •   ales and stout: 15,000 bottles           ❍   bed covers: 3,600
                                                                                                                                                                             ❍ ice cream plates: 5,500

     •   fresh asparagus: 800 bundles         •   apples: 36,000                         •   wines: 1,000 bottles                     ❍   eiderdown quilts: 800              ❍ soufflé dishes: 1,500


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     telegraph operator.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FOR CHILDREN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           by Ellen Emerson White

      gun on himself.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      by Hugh Brewster and Laurie Coulter

                                                                                                                                                                                         he later committed suicide.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     I Was There: On Board the Titanic by Shelley Tanaka
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Inside Titanic: A Giant Cutaway Book by Ken Marschall

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and interfere with evacuating first class passengers.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tells the story of an orphaned immigrant on her way to America.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      882 ½ Amazing Answers to Your Questions About the Titanic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   sailed aboard Titanic on the night of its disaster in the North Atlantic.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    apart and sank.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Voyage on the Great Titanic: The Diary of Margaret Ann Brady

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    onto the life boats.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      includes sections on children aboard the Ship and on the discovery of the wreck.

                                                                                                      Titanic Captain Edward J. Smith was making his final voyage with White Star Line.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. Many of Titanic’s lifeboats left half-empty.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           This take on Titanic’s story comes from the Dear America series. It mixes fact and fiction as it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     of two real survivors: 17yearold Jack Thayer, a passenger, and 22yearold Harold Bride, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     In this fictionalized account, the days surrounding Titanic’s demise are told through the eyes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Every thing you’ve ever wanted to know about Titanic (and then some!) is answered here. It
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The text and amazingly detailed, cutaway illustrations tell the stories of two reallife children who

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. There were ships close enough to rescue Titanic’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Captain Smith to maintain full speed because he

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           would have seen the iceberg in time to avoid the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2. White Star Line’s manager Bruce Ismay pressured
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    hymn “Nearer My God To Thee” as the Ship broke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5. Some men disguised themselves as women to sneak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Crewman locked third class passengers below deck so they wouldn’t come to the upper decks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           If watchmen in the Crow’s Nest had binoculars, they
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           passengers if they’d known how bad the situation was.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1. The Ship’s orchestra switched from dance music to the

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      wanted to break the record for a transatlantic crossing.

                                                                                                                                                                                         Bruce Ismay, managing director of White Star Line, felt so guilty after escaping in a lifeboat that

      First Officer William Murdoch shot a Titanic passenger and then, overcome by stress, turned the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Captain Smith recommends these books for readers who enjoy learning about Titanic.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CAPTAIN’S CORNER

1. FALSE. The band did play on deck to provide comfort as the ship sank, but there’s no evidence that “Nearer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TITANIC MYTHS TRUE OR FALSE?

My God To Thee” was among their final tunes. Harold Bride, one of the last crew members to leave the Ship, told
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          by Jack Wincour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FOR ADULTS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 by Rich Archbold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         by Robert Ballard

reporters that he distinctly remembered the band playing the waltz “Autumn” when conditions forced them to stop.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  by Judith B. Geller
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              by Charles Pellegrino

2. FALSE. Titanic couldn’t beat the cruising speeds or crossing times of the Mauritania or the Lusitania, flagships
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ghosts of the Titanic

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          as Told by its Survivors

of the competing Cunard Line. There’s no evidence Ismay interfered with decisions on the bridge.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Story of the Titanic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Discovery of the Titanic

3. TRUE. The Californian had stopped dead in the water to avoid steering through an ice field at night. It is estimated
that the Californian was only 15-18 miles away from Titanic, close enough to have reached the ship before it sank.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Last Dinner on the Titanic

4. TRUE. Many passengers were reluctant to leave the ship for an unknown fate in the cold and dark. One of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Titanic: Triumph and Tragedy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  by John P. Eaton, Charles A. Haas

first lifeboats held 12 passengers and a dog. Almost 400 more lives could have been saved if the lifeboats had been
filled to capacity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Titanic: Women and Children First

5. FALSE. During the initial evacuation when no women or children remained at a lifeboat station, some seats
were offered to men. In one documented case, a female passenger offered a shawl to a nearby crewman wearing
only an undershirt. Subsequent reporting caused the “men-in-disguise” stories to take on a life of their own.
6. FALSE. While it is true there were no binoculars in the Crow’s Nest the night of the accident, watchmen didn’t
use them to scan the horizon. Icebergs were normally detected at night by observing the white spray of waves
crashing against the base, but there was no such wave action the evening of April 14th.
7. FALSE. Many of the Ship’s internal doors and gates were routinely locked to keep the classes from mixing.
During the evacuation, stewards unlocked these passageways so 2nd and 3rd class passengers could escape. In the
confusion, it is possible some gates may have been missed.
8. FALSE. Ismay suffered a lot of bad publicity after the disaster because he accepted a lifeboat seat when one was offered.
His professional reputation never recovered and he lived quietly in Ireland until dying of natural causes in 1937.
9. TRUE. Smith, White Star’s highest paid officer, was a celebrity among wealthy passengers “frequent fliers”.
Known as the “Millionaires’ Captain”, Smith was selected for the maiden voyage in part as an honor because he
planned to retire after Titanic returned to Southampton.
10. FALSE. Lifeboat supervisors were issued guns and, on several occasions, did fire shots into the air to control
panic but most historians agree no passengers were shot.

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