NEW YORK CITY IN 1912
NEWSPAPER IN EDUCATION
2 A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE
DID YOU KNOW?
• A ﬁrstclass ticket for a parlor suite cost $4,500, which would be about $103,000 today.
• There were only 2 bathtubs for more than 700 thirdclass passengers.
• If the Ship’s bow had crashed straight into the iceberg, Titanic and most of her
passengers likely would have survived.
• The ﬁrst newspapers reporting the disaster claimed that all of Titanic’s passengers
had survived and she was being safely towed to land.
• The Ship was as long as four city blocks—or 22 school buses.
• Only 37 seconds passed between the lookout’s warning about the iceberg ahead and
the moment of impact.
• The cargo list included 76 cases of “dragon’s blood.” Dragon’s blood is the sap from
a type of palm tree; it was used to color wood varnish and women’s makeup.
• The characters of Jack and Rose from the 1997 movie about Titanic were not
We invite you to see Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition and take a trip back in time. The galleries in this fascinating Exhibition
put you inside the Titanic experience like never before. They feature real artifacts recovered from the ocean ﬂoor along with
room re-creations and personal histories, each highlighting a diﬀerent chapter in the compelling story of Titanic’s maiden
voyage. Board Titanic using a replica White Star Line ticket belonging to an actual passenger, touch an iceberg, and learn
about artifact recovery and conservation.
226 West 44th Street
Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition is a great catalyst for lessons in Science, History, Geography, English, Math and Technology. Times Square, NYC
Many students are familiar with the compelling story behind the Ship’s promised voyage and tragic demise. Innovative Between 7th & 8th Avenues
educational resources link this innate fascination to classroom-friendly lessons that will generate student interest before your
visit and extend student learning beyond your ﬁeld trip. Discovery TSX is located in the former New
Our award-winning Titanic Teacher’s Guide is available free of charge by registering online at http://education.prxi.com/ York Times Building on 44th Street between
tgrequest. These comprehensive lesson plans, which come with ready-to-copy Student Activity Pages, include activities for 7th & 8th Avenues, directly across from
elementary, middle, and high school levels aligned to your state curriculum standards as well as to the national standards Shubert Alley.
from NCSS and NCTE.
We are excited to bring you this special section on Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition. Use it as a preview to what awaits you on Group Tickets available at:
your visit and as an introduction to life in 1912. We look forward to seeing you onboard at Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition. www.bestofbroadway.com 800.223.7565 or
Go to http://education.prxi.com/tgrequest
Cheryl Muré, M.Ed. to request a free copy of the award-winning
This exhibit makes
Director of Education Teacher’s Guide with lessons correlated to
Premier Exhibitions, Inc. me want to dive down New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,
to the Titanic myself! Rhode Island, and Pennsylvania
A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE 3
NEW YORK IN 1912
THE CITY AT WORK
• Major industries in Long Island City include the LooseWiles Sunshine Biscuit
Company, Packard Automobile Company, the American Ever Ready Company,
the American Chicle Company, and the White Motor Company.
• The US Weather Bureau takes over Belvedere Castle in Central Park, to house the
New York Meteorological Observatory.
• At the National Biscuit Company, or Nabisco, the ﬁrst Oreo cookie is made in a
building which is now part of the Chelsea Market.
• During its 1912 session, the state Legislature passes health and safety laws for
factories as a direct result of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory ﬁre in the
city the year before. The 1911 ﬁre killed 146 garment workers, many women,
in less than 20 minutes. In March 1912, 20,000 workers—a fourth of them Steeplechase Park on Coney Island, 1912.
women—march in Manhattan to commemorate the ﬁre’s one year anniversary.
THE CITY AT PLAY
• The Alpha Physical Culture Club basketball team from Harlem wins the Colored Basketball
World’s Championship for the 1912–1913 season.
• With 65 wins and 76 losses, the Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers ﬁnish their last season at Washington
R Park before moving to Ebbets Field in 1913.
• The New York Giants lose the World Series to the Boston Red Sox.
• The New York Highlanders become the New York Yankees and move from Hilltop Park to
the Polo Grounds. In 1912, the team ﬁnishes last place in the American league and debuts
pinstripes on their uniforms.
• Gold medal winners at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden, include several
New Yorkers. Matt McGrath wins the hammer throw. Alfred Lane takes home three gold
medals in shooting events. Abel Kiviat is part of the winning 3000 meter team race.
continued on page 6
Polo Grounds, the New York Giants’ home ﬁeld in the 1912 World Series.
Library of Congress, Bain Collection
THE CITY AT LEISURE
• Both Coney Island and Brooklyn’s Prospect Park get new carousels. The one from
Coney Island is now in Central Park.
• In May, a man is killed when he falls oﬀ the Wooden Donkey ride at Steeplechase
Park on Coney Island. A week later, ﬁve people are injured when a cable on the
Airship ride snaps, drops one end of the car, and dumps passengers on the ground.
• America’s ﬁrst fast food arrives in Manhattan from Philadelphia. The Automat—
“staﬀed” entirely by vending machines—opens in Times Square.
• The newlyfounded Girl Scouts sets up their national headquarters at 429 Fifth Avenue.
National Biscuit Company building, 1913. Irving Underhill, Library of Congress
4 A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE
April 2, 1912, 8:00 p.m. Queenstown. Before setting sail, J. J. Astor
1912 Titanic leaves Belfast and sails to Southampton buys his young wife an exquisite lace shawl.
where Thomas Andrews, the Ship’s designer, Titanic is carrying approximately 2,207
boards as the ﬁrst passenger. passengers.
April 13, 1912, Daytime
April 10, 1912, Noon
J. Bruce Ismay urges Captain Smith to
Titanic starts her maiden voyage leaving
increase speed, determined to beat the
Southampton and venturing to Cherbourg,
Olympic’s Atlantic crossing speed. Titanic
France. Many of Titanic’s most famous
speeds up to over 22 knots (25 mph), at
passengers are now on board including: John
which she will remain for the rest of her
Jacob Astorthe richest man in the United
Statesand his wife Madeleine; Benjamin
Guggenheim, a mining millionaire;
April 14, 1912, 9:00 a.m.
Margaret “Molly” Brown, the wife of a Denver
mining magnate; and Sir Cosmo and Lady The Caronia sends a message to Titanic
Duﬀ Gordon, a Scottish aristocrat and his reporting icebergs in the area.
fashion designer wife. Howard Irwin misses
the boat as he had been kidnapped and forced April 14, 1912, MidMorning
into labor as a sailor. His trunk is later found in Lifeboat drills are neglected after church service seven
the wreckage. From Cherbourg, Titanic heads though the crew has yet to complete the procedure.
to Queenstown, Ireland, the traditional last
stop for transatlantic ships.
April 11, 1912, 1:30 p.m.
After loading and unloading mail, Titanic
raises anchor for the last time and leaves
A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE 5
One of the Most Educational Exhibitions of All Time
April 14, 1912, 1:42 p.m. Oﬃcer Murdoch gives the “hard astarboard” April 15, 1912, 1:15 a.m.
J. Bruce Ismay receives an ice warning from order while having the engines stopped and Titanic’s bow begins sinking as the last of
the Baltic, which he ignores. reversed. The Ship, traveling at approximately the lifeboats are lowered into the water. An
21 knots (24 mph), turns slightly to the left, estimated 1,500 people are left stranded on the
avoiding a headon collision. Below the water,
April 14, 1912, Evening sinking boat. Father Thomas Byles gives last rites
the iceberg punctures the hull. Crew members to those left behind. The band plays hymns and
Captain Smith attends a party hosted by George who feel the collision think that the Ship has
and Eleanor Widener for some of the Ship’s waltzes to comfort the remaining passengers.
lost a blade from a propeller.
most prominent passengers. An iceberg watch
is ordered. The Ship’s lights are extinguished at April 15, 1912, 2:20 a.m.
April 14, 1912, 11:50 p.m.
7:15 p.m. so that icebergs will be easier to see. Titanic sinks.
The temperature falls to 31˚F. Most passengers Five, or possibly six, of Titanic’s watertight
compartments are ﬂooded. Captain Smith
retire to their rooms.
and Thomas Andrews assess the damage.
April 15, 1912, 4:10 a.m.
Captain Smith orders his telegraph operators The Carpathia reaches the survivors; only
April 14, 1912, 10:55 p.m. 705 people are saved. More than 1,500 men,
to send the distress signal, “CDQ,” once
The Carpathia, completely surrounded by Andrews estimates that the Ship will remain women, and children perish.
ice, stops for the evening and warns Titanic aﬂoat for only two hours. Though several
of the impending danger. The Californian other ships receive the message, none are close April 18, 1912, 9:00 p.m.
sends a similar message, but is told by one of enough to save Titanic. Thirdclass passengers The Carpathia arrives in New York with
Titanic’s wireless operators to “Keep out. You’re who have been jolted awake begin to move Titanic survivors.
jamming my signal,” because he is buried in toward the upper decks as their cabins ﬂood.
passenger messages to be sent. Soon after, the
April 26 – May 3, 1912
Californian shuts down its wireless room. April 15, 1912, Midnight After seven days of searching, the Mackay-
Captain Smith gives the order to uncover the Bennett recovers a total of 306 bodies. Of these,
April 14, 1912, 11:40 p.m.
lifeboats and evacuate the women and children. 116 are buried at sea and of this number, only
Frederick Fleet sights an iceberg and warns the No one wants to board the lifeboats, thinking 56 are identiﬁed.
deck by ringing the bell on the Crow’s Nest three the large Ship is much safer and warmer than
times and calling “Iceberg, right ahead!” First the small wooden lifeboats. They do not yet September 1, 1985, Midnight
realize that Titanic is sinking. The band comes
The wreck of Titanic is discovered.
to the deck and starts playing cheerful songs to
calm the passengers.
June 24, 2009
April 15, 1912, 12:45 a.m. Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition arrives in New
York City at Discovery Times Square Exposition.
The ﬁrst lifeboats leave the Ship with an
average of 28 people aboard, though they
could carry between 40 and 65 people.
6 A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE
continued from page 3
THE CITY GETS MOVING
• Construction wraps up on the new terminal at Grand Central Station.
• Workers excavating a new branch of the BrooklynManhattan Transit
unearth a brickedup tunnel and an earlymodel subway car leftover
from an experimental underground transportation system in 1870.
• The toll to drive on William K. Vanderbilt’s Long Island Motor
Parkway—a former racing route—is $1.50. Construction on Grand Central Terminal,
prior to 1912.
• Electriﬁcation of the New York Central Railroad begins.
• Central Park’s drives are paved to allow for automobiles in the park.
1912 map of the BrooklynManhattan line
from Brooklyn Rapid Transit.
JOHN JACOB ASTOR IV
John Jacob Astor IV, 48, was one of the world’s richest men. He managed his family’s fortune from his
home on Fifth Avenue in New York City. A dabbler in the realms of art and invention, John wrote a
novel, helped to develop the turbine engine, and was part owner of the WaldorfAstoria Hotel. Following
a divorce from his ﬁrst wife in 1911, John married Madeleine Force, who was 30 years younger.
The diﬀerence in the couple’s ages and the quickness with which they were married caused a bit of
a scandal. The newlyweds went on a European honeymoon to let the gossip subside. They traveled
with two servants, a nurse, and their pet Airedale named Kitty. Upon learning that Madeleine was
pregnant, the Astors decided to return to America as ﬁrst
class passengers on Titanic. John and Kitty did not survive
John’s body was found crushed and covered with soot, suggesting
that he was killed when one of the Ship’s giant funnels toppled
over. His body was identiﬁed by the initials inside his collar, the
jewelry he wore, and the money in his pocket. John was laid
to rest in the Astor family mausoleum at Trinity Cemetery in
northern Manhattan. According to an article in The New York
Times, more than 5000 mourners gathered at the cemetery and The Hotel Astor and the Astor Theatre on Times Square, c.19001915.
Library of Congress, Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection
twelve policemen accompanied the funeral procession.
Madeleine escaped in Lifeboat 4. At the time, she was pregnant
with their son, John Jacob Astor V, who was born in August
of 1912. After four years as a widow, she forfeited the Astor
house and her trust fund from John when she married William,
a childhood friend. In 1933, she divorced William to marry
Enzo Fiermonte, an Italian boxer whom she divorced less than
ﬁve years later.
John, Madeleine, and Kitty Astor.
A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE 7
Dorothy Gibson, 22, was a New York
model and a popular silent ﬁlm actress
from Hoboken, New Jersey. From
1907 to 1911, she sang and danced
in numerous Broadway productions.
She was also a favorite model for the
illustrator Harrison Fisher, who put her
image on numerous magazine covers,
postcards, and advertisements.
In 1911, the Frenchbased Éclair Film
Company made her one of their leading
ladies, casting her in such ﬁlms as Hands
Across the Sea in which she portrayed the
Macy’s in New York, 1908. Library of Congress, Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection Dorothy’s later careers included opera singer and spy.
Revolutionary War heroine Molly Pitcher.
After completing a number of ﬁlms for Éclair at their studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey,
ISIDOR AND IDA STRAUS Dorothy decided she needed to take a break. She and her mother, Pauline, went to
Isidor Straus, 67, immigrated to America as a child with his family from Germany in Europe for vacation in March of 1912.
1845. Following the Civil War, Straus moved from Georgia to New York and helped When they decided to go home, they booked ﬁrstclass passage on Titanic.
organize a new family earthenware business, L. Straus & Son. Business ﬂourished, Dorothy spent the hours before the collision playing bridge with fellow ﬁrstclass
and soon Isidor became involved in the R.H. Macy & Company department store, passengers. Both Dorothy and Pauline survived the sinking of Titanic. They escaped
running the store’s china and glassware department along with his brother, Nathan. in Lifeboat 7—the ﬁrst to leave the Ship—which carried only 20 other ﬁrstclass
By 1888 Isidor and his brother were coowners of Macy’s. In 1902 they moved the passengers plus three crewmen.
shop from its 14th Street location to a much larger building at 34th Street and Soon after the rescue, Dorothy played herself in the ﬁrst movie to be made about
Broadway—making it the ﬁrst large store located north of 23rd Street in the city. the Titanic disaster, Saved From the Titanic. She even wore the same dress she had
Isidor also served as a US Representative for New York in 1894–1895. on during the rescue. Also following her rescue, Dorothy ﬁled an insurance claim
Following a trip to Germany, Isidor and his beloved wife, Ida, 63, booked ﬁrst-class against White Star Line to cover the costs of her possessions that went down with
passage on board Titanic. Both Isidor and Ida died in the sinking. Isidor and several the Ship. Her list—which totaled $2,382.75—included $75 worth of “underwear as
other passengers tried to convince Ida to board Lifeboat 8 with 23 other ﬁrstclass gifts,” a black and gold evening dress for $150, and hats from $12 to $40.
passengers and three crewmen. Ida refused to leave her husband, saying “Where
you go, I go.”
Isidor’s body was recovered wearing
“fur-lined overcoat; grey trousers, coat
and vest; soft striped shirt; brown boots;
and black silk socks.” Ida’s body was never
found. She is memorialized on her husband’s
grave in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx.
Ida’s maid, Ellen Bird, survived; Isidor’s
manservant, John Farthing, did not.
Isidor and Ida Straus had been married 41 years
when Titanic sank.
Dorothy often performed as a vaudeville chorus girl at the Hippodrome Theatre in Midtown. Library of Congress
8 A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE
USE THE NEWS
Recovered in 2000, these amazing vials still
contain perfume and retain their odor! They were
foun in a small leather case belonging to ﬁrst-
class passenger Adolphe Saalfeld, a perfume maker
from MManchester, England. There were a total of 62
sample vials in the case. Some of the labels were legible
identify the scents as Carnation, Musk, Lily of the
Valley, an Cashmere Bouquet, to name a few.
Sense of sme is the strongest of our 5 senses when it comes to
memories. Find a photo, advertisement, or article to
demonstrate e of the 5 senses. For example, use a restaurant
review for the sense of taste.
JACK OF HEARTS
Perfume ads often feature celebrities. Find examples of other celebrity This Steamboat playing card is one of 52
endorsements in the electronic or print edition of the newspaper. Which from a pack found among the personal eﬀects
celebrities would convince you to buy or use a particular product? Which of Howard A. Irwin, recovered in 1993.
celebrity would you not trust? Cards such as this one were most likely used
for playing poker while onboard. Many ﬁrst-
class gentlemen thought of card games as a
pleasant social distraction. There were, however,
BOWLER HAT several “card sharks” on Titanic waiting for
This amazing object was recovered from the bottom of the ocean ﬂoor an opportunity to challenge a naïve gambler.
without the protection of a leather bag or trunk. The derby, or bowler, Captain Smith advised his wealthy passengers
hat is brown and has a grosgrain ribbon around the bottom of the hat to use caution when sitting down to gamble,
and the brim. Mr. William Bowler designed this style of hat during the and instructed his stewards to break up games
Victorian age, in the mid-19th century, for the gamekeepers of William in which a known “shark” was cleaning out his s
Coke, Earl of Leicester. opponent’s wallet.
In the Edwardian age, clothes denoted status as plainly as any military The pack of cards is American in origin and was as
uniform. Hats, for example, were very important. To go out without a probably carried to Great Britain by a passenger on
hat meant being seen as low-class, poor, eccentric, or even faintly
y vacation. The card is water stained
obscene. Famous people, both real and ﬁctional, are often
ional, and has the pattern from
d h h patter om
seen in their bowler hats: Charlie Chaplin, Winston
hapllin, the back of another card
Churchill, Laurel & Hardy, Jack Whit of the
te impressed onto its face.
White Stripes, Cornelius Fudge from th Harry
he Find an article in the electronic or print edition of the
Potter series. newspaper about poker, bridge, or other card games. Use
Find photographs of people in the electronic or print that article to defend or refute the statement “Card games
edition of the newspaper. Describe what their clothes
theiir are a sport”. Should card game championships be televised
on sports stations?
reveal about them. Do clothes still denote social status?
What kind of hats are usually worn by men to today?
oday? For information about Newspapers
in Education at The Journal News,
visit LoHud.com/NIE or call Pat Graff
A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE 9
FIRSTCLASS BRACELET WITH HEART CLASP
DEMITASSE CUP This amazing bracelet, which measures just over 7˝ in length, was
This little cup, which recovered in 1987. It was made by hand with yellow/rose gold links
measures just over 2” in and a heart-shaped pendant as the clasp. It is stamped with
diameter, was recovered in
d a jewelry hallmark from Chester, England, and
1994 and is one of seven the date “1907–1908.” Most likely,
cobalt blue and gold pieces
c this belonged to a ﬁrst-class lady. Perhaps
o china recovered from the she wore it to one of the Ship’s formal
wre site. The cup is called
w social events before entrusting it to
demitasse—French for “half
a dem Chief Purser Herbert McElroy for
cup”—a would have been used safekeeping during the voyage
to serve coﬀee. across the Atlantic Ocean.
The cobalt blue and gold china, provided by Spode China Ltd., Find an article in the electronic
was reserved for exclusive ﬁrst-class passengers. Spode designed this or print edition of the newspaper,
“nautical” pattern speciﬁcally for use on ships. The color blue was perhaps in an arts or entertainment
chosen for the sea and the linear gold edging alludes to rigging rope. section, about a social event in
The gold dot pattern near the rim symbolizes portholes. All of the the community. Who sponsored the
gold embellishments were hand gilded. The dinner plates feature function? Why? Who attended? Why is
interlocking letters in the center with the initials of White Star Line’s the event newsworthy?
oﬃcial name: “The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company.”
Search both the classiﬁed ads and display ads in an
Spode produced three patterns of similar design using the richly electronic or print edition of the newspaper to
decorated gold and cobalt blue. To prevent confusion when the ﬁnd the cost of a similar
designs were re-ordered, the three patterns were given diﬀerent piece of jewelry today.
numbers based on the slight diﬀerences in shape, surface design, or
application of decoration. This pattern can still be reproduced today
at great cost from Spode China Ltd.
Do people still expect fancy meals on china dishes when they travel? The
slow economy and rising cost of fuel has forced cutbacks on many “extras”, $10 US BANK NOTE
such as the elimination of meals on ﬂights. Find an article in the electronic One hundred years ago, both private banks and the U.S. Federal
or print edition of the newspaper about other impacts of the recession on Government issued paper money. The large number of obscure U.S.
vacations and travel costs. Summarize the article and explain on whom banks issuing money made many European banks reluctant to accept
it will have the most eﬀect. American paper currency. Bank notes from 1912 were larger than today’s
Look in the electronic or print edition of the newspaper for advertisements bills; this currency measures over 7” in length.
for a similar pattern of dishes. Calculate the price of a set of the dishes for Recovered from inside a leather bag in 1987, this $10 bill still has the
your family. How much would it cost to purchase enough for all the ﬁrst President’s signature visible at the bottom right. The currency
class passengers on Titanic? was issued by the National Bank of the City of New York, now
Citibank, at 55 Wall Street in Manhattan.
Look through the ads in the electronic or print edition of the
newspaper. List the items $10 can buy today. What could $10
buy in 1912?
Find an article in the electronic or print edition of the newspaper
about a bank or the banking industry. What is the name of the
bank? Why are they in the news?
10 A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE
Test your knowledge of the fateful journey of the world’s most famous Ship.
Cryptogram Titanic Trivia
How many passengers and crew were on board What rescue ship did the survivors of How many people ﬁt into the submersible?
Titanic on her maiden voyage? Titanic board after they ﬂed in the lifeboats? a. 2
a. 1,500 a. Majestic b. 3
b. 2,228 b. Carpathia c. 4
c. 1,324 c. Olympic
How many tons of coal were carried by
Titanic when she left England on April
Who was the Managing Director of Design The Titanic crew tested the Ship’s
at Harland & Wolﬀ? whistles each day at this time.
a. J. Bruce Ismay a. noon
b. Lord Pirrie b. midnight
c. Mr. Thomas Andrews
What was Adolphe Saalﬁeld’s business?
Where did Titanic stop to collect mail and What is the name of the submersible that a. importing ostrich feathers
additional passengers before setting sail across the has played a major role in the recovery
b. selling perfume
North Atlantic for New York? expeditions to the wreck site? c. shipbuilding
a. Cherbourg & Queenstown a. IFREMER
b. Belfast & Southhampton b. Nadir
c. Southampton & Halifax c. Nautile How long did it take Titanic to sink?
a. 4 hours & 20 minutes
b. 1 hour & 30 minutes
c. 2 hours & 40 minutes
4 5 6 7
ACROSS 16 Kind of car in the Ship’s cargo 4 City in France where the Ship made
2 Reddish brown growths of rust caused 17 Righthand side of a ship a stop
by ironeating bacteria on the Ship’s wreck 6 Distress signal before SOS
19 Edward J. Smith
5 One of Titanic’s sister ships 7 Lefthand side of a ship
20 Number of lifeboats on the Ship
8 City in Canada where many victims
9 Rearend of a ship
12 City where Titanic was built
10 Number of working funnels DOWN 15 Managing director of the White Star Line
11 Name of the ship that rescued survivors 1 Month of the Ship’s launch 18 Frontend of a ship
13 The cause of the Ship’s sinking 3 Passengers boarded the Ship in this
14 R.M.S. British port
A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE 11
M E R S F N I X L P Y P X U S Answer Key
Word Search T E L B A K N I S N U J C T G
O C K B H W T Q B G S M I Y T
I V A L M J M T V O E Q T R O L Y C H Y I T R C I N A T I T
ARTIFACT Y V E E Q O H O W F U A J G L
I C J F D K A L U P E O N O R H Y R U N W W K O Y S H I P N
ATLANTIC U O D C
C E W Z L I G J
X Q E U I O V T A O C U A S B
T A Q S
S V T M H F H
COAL S Q P E M I X U G I C P Z I S
W H A R V
H L T B B T H R A F P M L Q J
W I A M R M O F M V
ICEBERG O K T J X T D S R A E E A M J
J Q L M P F A R H T B B T L H
LIFEBOAT J M A E E A R S D T X J T K O B S A U C O A T V O I U E Q X
R O N
N O E P U
J C I
V M F O M R M A I W V R A H W O R T
T Q E O
M J M L
T Y I M S G B Q T W H B K
S I Z P C I G U X I M E P Q S G T C J U N S I N K A B L E T
SMITH S U X P Y P L X I N F S R E M
L S T B T H F H M T V S Q A T
E O P H J G I L Z W E C D O U
N P I H S Y O K W W N U R Y H
L G J A U F W O H O Q E E V Y
T I T A N I C R T I Y H C Y L iceberg was seen and when Titanic hit it.
There was less than a minute between when the
WHAT CHILDREN DID FOR FUN 10.c
1.b, 2.c, 3.a, 4.b, 5.a, 6.c, 7.b, 8.c, 9.b,
Go to the Gymnasium; it was reserved for children
between the hours of 1:00 and 3:00 p.m. everyday. They 18. Bow
could ride a mechanical horse or camel and use the
Frank Goldsmith remembered
stationary bike or rowing machine. 12. Belfast
swinging on huge baggage 9. Stern
Play shuﬄeboard or deck quoits, a game similar to 7. Port
horseshoes played on the deck of a ship with rope rings cranes in the well deck. 6. CDQ
thrown at a wooden score board 4. Cherbourg
for points. 1. April
Attend a concert in the First
Class Lounge in the evenings.
Read books in the Reading and
Sixyear old Douglas Spedden 17. Starboard
of Tuxedo Park, New York, 16. Renault
14. Royal Mail Steamer
Ruth Becker Run up and down the stairs played with his spinning top 13. Iceberg
pushed her exploring parts of the Ship that on the Boat Deck. 11. Carpathia
were open to them. 10. Three
brother 8. Halifax
Richard Watch the passengers’ dogs 5. Olympic
being walked by a steward every Across:
decks in a
morning and afternoon on the
12 A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE
TITANIC AND SEPTEMBER 11TH
Almost 90 years separate the sinking of Titanic on April 15, 1912, and the
terrorist attacks on New York City on September 11, 2001. Although the tragedies
themselves are dissimilar, connections can be found.
For example, Bellevue Hospital played a critical role in both catastrophes. In April
1912, it was one of the main hospitals caring for Titanic’s survivors and helping
them reunite with friends and family. In September 2001, Bellevue again cared for
victims and helped identify those who did not survive. In the days that followed,
posters and photographs of the missing —as well as words of encouragement and
support—quickly covered a construction fence set up at the hospital.
Hoping to learn the fate of their loved ones, friends and families line up outside
the White Star Line oﬃces on Broadway. Library of Congress, Bain Collection
This chart lists aspects of the Titanic disaster that may have counterparts in 2001. Fill in the column on the
right based on research or your personal experience. Can you think of other similarities and examples?
Titanic September 11th
Following the sinking, newspapers printed erroneous stories
including, for example, that no one had died.
Because of inaccurate records, the exact number and names
of victims couldn’t be provided immediately.
Relatives and friends ﬂooded the city, trying to ﬁnd out if
their loved ones were among the missing.
Groups like the American Red Cross and Salvation Army
helped the survivors and the victims’ families.
Ambulances, doctors, and nurses from many New York
hospitals arrived on the scene to help.
Victims were from dozens of countries around the world
and from many socio–economic classes.
Commissions were formed to investigate the sinking, evaluate
blame, and make recommendations for the future.
Many survivors suﬀered from lingering eﬀects on their
health—physical and emotional.
Memorials honoring the victims can be found in many
Ordinary people become extraordinary heroes when faced
with crises and chaos.
Chorus girl collects money during a baseball game at the Polo Boy Scouts raise money for a Titanic relief fund in The Senate investigating committee of theTitanic disaster tries
Grounds to raise funds for the Titanic survivors. 1912. In September 2001, Troop 414 in Manhattan to determine if any one person or group can be held responsible for the
Library of Congress, Bain Collection collected money and supplies to help relief workers. extensive loss of life and property on the Ship. Library of Congress
A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE 13
HISTORY OF TITANIC
There are many books and online sources available for further information on Titanic. It is …37 seconds later, the greatest maritime
worth noting that even the factual information about Titanic varies widely between the diﬀerent
sources. For all that is known and theorized about Titanic, it is in many ways still a mystery. disaster in history began.
On the night of April 14, wireless operator Jack Phillips was busy sending chatty passengers’
messages to Cape Race, Newfoundland, where they could be relayed inland to friends and
Titanic’s accommodations were the most modern
relatives. He received a sixth icewarning that night and put that message under a paperweight
and luxurious on any ocean and included: at his elbow. It never reached Captain Edward J. Smith or the oﬃcer on the bridge. By all
accounts, the night was uncommonly clear and dark, moonless but faintly glowing with an
• Electric light and heat in every room incredible sky full of stars. The sea was, likewise, unusually calm and ﬂat; “like glass” said many
• Electric elevators survivors. The lack of waves made it even more diﬃcult to spot icebergs since there was no
• Swimming pool and Turkish Bath telltale white water breaking at the edges of the bergs.
• Squash court
At 11:40, Frederick Fleet, the lookout in the crow’s nest, spotted an iceberg dead ahead. First
• Gymnasium with mechanical horse and camel Oﬃcer William Murdoch ordered the Ship turned hard to port. The Ship turned slightly, but
• A sixstory, glassdomed grand staircase it was much too large, moving much too fast, and the iceberg was much too close: 37 seconds
• Two musical ensembles later, the greatest maritime disaster in history began. During that night of heroism, terror, and
• Two libraries tragedy, 705 lives were saved, 1502 lives were lost, and many legends were born.
• Two barber shops
The intensely competitive transatlantic steamship business had seen recent major advances
in ship design, size and speed at the onset of the 20th century. White Star Line, one of the
leaders, determined to focus on size and elegance rather than pure speed. In 1907, White Star
Line’s managing director J. Bruce Ismay and Lord James Pirrie, a partner in Harland & Wolﬀ
(White Star Line’s shipbuilder) conceived of three magniﬁcent steam ships which would set
a new standard for comfort, elegance, and safety. The ﬁrst two were to be named Olympic and
Titanic, the latter name chosen by Ismay to convey a sense of overwhelming size and strength.
The third would be named Britannic.
Construction of Titanic started in March 1909. Harland & Wolﬀ’s Belfast shipyards had to be
redesigned to accommodate the immense projects while White Star’s pier in New York had to
be lengthened to enable the ships to dock. The “launch” of the completed steel hull in May,
1911, was a heavily publicized spectacle. She was then taken for “ﬁtting out” which involved the
construction of the Ship’s many facilities and systems, her elaborate woodwork and ﬁne decor.
The maiden voyage lured the “very best people”: British nobility, American industrialists, the
cream of New York and Philadelphia society. It also attracted many poor emigrants, hoping
to start a new life in America or Canada. The journey began at Southampton on Wednesday
April 10, 1912, at noon. By sundown, Titanic had stopped in Cherbourg, France, to pick up
additional passengers. That evening she sailed for Queenstown, Ireland, and at 1:30 PM on
Thursday, April 11, she headed out into the Atlantic.
The winter of 1912 had been unusually mild, and unprecedented amounts of ice had broken
loose from the arctic regions. Titanic was equipped with Marconi’s new wireless telegraph
system and her two Marconi operators kept the wireless room running 24 hours a day. On
Sunday, April 14, the ﬁfth day at sea, Titanic received ﬁve diﬀerent icewarnings, but the
captain was not overly concerned. The Ship steamed ahead at 22 knots and the line’s Managing
Director J. Bruce Ismay relished the idea of arriving in New York a day ahead of schedule.
14 A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE
FIRST CLASS RECIPES
• 1/3 cup all-purpose ﬂour • 2 onions, thinly sliced
• ½ tsp each salt and pepper • 1 clove garlic, minced
• 2 tbsp chopped fresh thyme • 1/3 cup white wine
(or 1 tbsp dried) • 1 cup chicken stock
• 6 boneless chicken breasts • 2 tsp tomato paste
• 1 egg, beaten • Pinch granulated sugar
• 3 tbsp vegetable oil First Class Dining Room
In sturdy plastic bag, shake together ﬂour, 1 tbsp of the thyme
(or 1 ½ tsp if using dried), salt, and pepper. One at a time,
dip chicken breasts into egg, then shake in ﬂour mixture.
In large deep skillet, heat 2 tbsp of the vegetable oil over
medium-high heat. Place chicken in pan, skin side down.
Asparagus Salad with Champagne-Saﬀron Vinaigrette
Cook, turning once, for 10 minutes or until golden brown.
• 1 ½ lb asparagus • ½ tsp Dijon mustard • 3 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
Remove from skillet and place in 225 °F oven.
• ¼ tsp saﬀron threads • Pinch granulated sugar • Salt and pepper to taste
Reduce heat to medium; add remaining oil to skillet. Stir in • 1 ½ champagne vinegar • ½ sweet red or yellow • Lettuce
onions, garlic, and remaining thyme; cook, stirring often, for or white wine vinegar pepper, ﬁnely diced
5 minutes or until onions are translucent. Increase heat to
medium-high and continue to cook onions, stirring often, for Holding asparagus halfway up stalk, snap oﬀ woody ends at natural breaking point and
5 minutes or until golden brown. discard. In wide, deep skillet or large pot of boiling salted water, cook asparagus for 3 to
5 minutes or until tender but not limp. Drain and run under cold water until completely
Add wine to pan; cook, stirring to scrape up any brown cooled; drain well.
bits, for about 1 minute or until reduced by half. Stir in
stock, tomato paste, and sugar. Boil for 2 minutes or until Meanwhile, in large bowl, stir saﬀron into 1 tsp boiling water; let stand for 2 minutes or
beginning to thicken. Return chicken to pan, turning to until softened. Stir in champagne vinegar, mustard and sugar. Whisking, drizzle in olive oil.
coat, and cook for 5 minutes or until juices from chicken Season with salt and pepper to taste. Add asparagus and diced pepper; toss to coat. Arrange
run clear. Makes 6 servings. on lettuce-lines serving platter. Makes 6 servings.
• fresh meat: 75,000 lbs • fresh green peas: 2,500 lbs • oranges: 36,000 • spirits: 850 bottles ❍ single sheets: 15,000 ❍ wine glasses: 2,000
• fresh ﬁsh: 11,000 lbs • lettuce: 7,000 heads • lemons: 16,000 • minerals: 1,200 bottles ❍ table napkins: 45,000 ❍ salt shakers: 2,000
❍ bath towels: 7,500
• salt & dried ﬁsh: 4,000 lbs • sweetbreads: 1,000 • grapes: 1,000 lbs • cigars: 8,000 ❍ pudding dishes: 1,200
❍ ﬁne towels: 25,000
• bacon and ham: 7,500 lbs • ice cream: 1,750 lbs • grapefruit: 13,000 • crockery: 57,600 items ❍ ﬁnger bowls: 1,000
❍ roller towels: 3,500
• poultry and game: 25,000 lbs • coﬀee: 2,200 lbs • jams and marmalade: 1,120 lbs • glassware: 29,000 pieces
❍ double sheets: 3,000
❍ oyster forks: 1,000
• fresh eggs: 40,000 • tea: 800 lbs • fresh milk: 1,500 gal • linens ❍ pillow-slips:15,000
❍ nut crackers: 300
❍ aprons: 4,000
• sausages: 2,500 lbs • rice, dried beans etc.: 10,000 lbs • fresh cream: 1,200 qts ❍ egg spoons: 2,000
❍ blankets: 7,500 • cutlery: 44,000 pieces
• potatoes: 40 tons • sugar: 10,000 lbs • condensed milk: 600 gals
❍ tea cups: 3,000 ❍ grape scissors: 1,500
• onions: 3,500 lbs • ﬂour: 250 barrels • fresh butter: 6,000 lbs ❍ table cloths: 6,000
❍ dinner plates: 12,000 ❍ asparagus tongs: 400
• tomatoes: 3,500 lbs • cereals: 10,000 lbs • ales and stout: 15,000 bottles ❍ bed covers: 3,600
❍ ice cream plates: 5,500
• fresh asparagus: 800 bundles • apples: 36,000 • wines: 1,000 bottles ❍ eiderdown quilts: 800 ❍ souﬄé dishes: 1,500
by Ellen Emerson White
gun on himself.
by Hugh Brewster and Laurie Coulter
he later committed suicide.
I Was There: On Board the Titanic by Shelley Tanaka
Inside Titanic: A Giant Cutaway Book by Ken Marschall
and interfere with evacuating ﬁrst class passengers.
tells the story of an orphaned immigrant on her way to America.
882 ½ Amazing Answers to Your Questions About the Titanic
sailed aboard Titanic on the night of its disaster in the North Atlantic.
apart and sank.
Voyage on the Great Titanic: The Diary of Margaret Ann Brady
onto the life boats.
includes sections on children aboard the Ship and on the discovery of the wreck.
Titanic Captain Edward J. Smith was making his ﬁnal voyage with White Star Line.
4. Many of Titanic’s lifeboats left half-empty.
This take on Titanic’s story comes from the Dear America series. It mixes fact and ﬁction as it
of two real survivors: 17yearold Jack Thayer, a passenger, and 22yearold Harold Bride, the
In this ﬁctionalized account, the days surrounding Titanic’s demise are told through the eyes
Every thing you’ve ever wanted to know about Titanic (and then some!) is answered here. It
The text and amazingly detailed, cutaway illustrations tell the stories of two reallife children who
3. There were ships close enough to rescue Titanic’s
Captain Smith to maintain full speed because he
would have seen the iceberg in time to avoid the
2. White Star Line’s manager Bruce Ismay pressured
hymn “Nearer My God To Thee” as the Ship broke
5. Some men disguised themselves as women to sneak
Crewman locked third class passengers below deck so they wouldn’t come to the upper decks
If watchmen in the Crow’s Nest had binoculars, they
passengers if they’d known how bad the situation was.
1. The Ship’s orchestra switched from dance music to the
wanted to break the record for a transatlantic crossing.
Bruce Ismay, managing director of White Star Line, felt so guilty after escaping in a lifeboat that
First Oﬃcer William Murdoch shot a Titanic passenger and then, overcome by stress, turned the
Captain Smith recommends these books for readers who enjoy learning about Titanic.
1. FALSE. The band did play on deck to provide comfort as the ship sank, but there’s no evidence that “Nearer
TITANIC MYTHS TRUE OR FALSE?
My God To Thee” was among their ﬁnal tunes. Harold Bride, one of the last crew members to leave the Ship, told
by Jack Wincour
by Rich Archbold
by Robert Ballard
reporters that he distinctly remembered the band playing the waltz “Autumn” when conditions forced them to stop.
by Judith B. Geller
by Charles Pellegrino
2. FALSE. Titanic couldn’t beat the cruising speeds or crossing times of the Mauritania or the Lusitania, ﬂagships
Ghosts of the Titanic
as Told by its Survivors
of the competing Cunard Line. There’s no evidence Ismay interfered with decisions on the bridge.
The Story of the Titanic
A Newspaper In Education Supplement to The Journal News • Lohud.Com/NIE
Discovery of the Titanic
3. TRUE. The Californian had stopped dead in the water to avoid steering through an ice ﬁeld at night. It is estimated
that the Californian was only 15-18 miles away from Titanic, close enough to have reached the ship before it sank.
Last Dinner on the Titanic
4. TRUE. Many passengers were reluctant to leave the ship for an unknown fate in the cold and dark. One of the
Titanic: Triumph and Tragedy
by John P. Eaton, Charles A. Haas
ﬁrst lifeboats held 12 passengers and a dog. Almost 400 more lives could have been saved if the lifeboats had been
ﬁlled to capacity.
Titanic: Women and Children First
5. FALSE. During the initial evacuation when no women or children remained at a lifeboat station, some seats
were oﬀered to men. In one documented case, a female passenger oﬀered a shawl to a nearby crewman wearing
only an undershirt. Subsequent reporting caused the “men-in-disguise” stories to take on a life of their own.
6. FALSE. While it is true there were no binoculars in the Crow’s Nest the night of the accident, watchmen didn’t
use them to scan the horizon. Icebergs were normally detected at night by observing the white spray of waves
crashing against the base, but there was no such wave action the evening of April 14th.
7. FALSE. Many of the Ship’s internal doors and gates were routinely locked to keep the classes from mixing.
During the evacuation, stewards unlocked these passageways so 2nd and 3rd class passengers could escape. In the
confusion, it is possible some gates may have been missed.
8. FALSE. Ismay suﬀered a lot of bad publicity after the disaster because he accepted a lifeboat seat when one was oﬀered.
His professional reputation never recovered and he lived quietly in Ireland until dying of natural causes in 1937.
9. TRUE. Smith, White Star’s highest paid oﬃcer, was a celebrity among wealthy passengers “frequent ﬂiers”.
Known as the “Millionaires’ Captain”, Smith was selected for the maiden voyage in part as an honor because he
planned to retire after Titanic returned to Southampton.
10. FALSE. Lifeboat supervisors were issued guns and, on several occasions, did ﬁre shots into the air to control
panic but most historians agree no passengers were shot.
student tickets just $14!
After nearly a century... Titanic finally arrives in NYC. Featuring the largest collection of Titanic artifacts and
never-before-seen treasures. For a limited engagement.
• Receive one complimentary ticket with every 10 tickets purchased
• Free teacher’s guide accessible prior to your trip
• Customized activities available for post-exhibit add-ons
• Lunch box and meal packages are also available
for groups 15+ tix for individual tix discovery times square exposition
DISCOVERYTSX.COM 866.9.NYCTIX 866.9.TSXNYC 226 WEST 44TH STREET
866.969.2849 866.987.9692 BETWEEN 7TH & 8TH AVENUES