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Canada and Aboriginal People


									                             Canada and Aboriginal People

                               The Royal Proclamation 1763
No white settlers could obtain Native land until the Native people surrendered it formally
to the government in treaties.
This is the origin of Treaties and Land Settlements

                          Upper Canada/ Canada West Treaties
the lands surrendered were paid for at first by the by British government in one lump sum
after 1820 the colonial government had to pay for these lands.
The colonial government did not have enough money to make lump sum payments
payments changed to regular small annual payments to all members of the band
This is the origin of Treaty money

as lands in Upper Canada became scarce, land left to the Native people was defined
reserved land was held by the band as a group, not by individual Natives, to avoid selling
off land to White settlers
This is the origin of Reserves

                                     Robinson Treaties
In 1850s the government of Canada West made treaties with the Ojibway for lands
around Lake Huron and Lake Superior
the reason for the treaties was to assure businesses safe access to timber and mining
the Robinson Treaties were the model followed 20 years later in the Numbered Treaties
in Western Canada

                               The Dominion of Canada
1867 - Confederation - Canada became a modern state - though still tied to Britain
in 1870 Canada took over the Hudson’s Bay Company lands in the West
Canadian laws and institutions applied to the West after 1870
the British North America Act became the basis of law in the West

                           The British North America Act
relations between Native people and the government were the responsibility of the
Federal Government
Provincial governments were not responsible for Native people
Resources were a provincial responsibility in the East and, after 1930, in the West also

                                  Manitoba Act - 1870
the government of Canada would have to make treaties with the Native peoples of both
Manitoba and the rest of the North-West
To avoid confrontations with Native people it was essential to come to agreement with
the Government wanted to build a railroad to bring in settlers
White settlers wanted land and access to timber.

                                   The Numbered treaties
a series of treaties called the numbered treaties were made with Native peoples across the
the treaties were basically similar, but later treaties became more exact
the treaty agreements included a written and a spoken part
the Native people recorded by using men with trained memories
Government wrote down proceedings
courts now recognize validity of Native oral record

                                The Terms of the Treaties
 Compare treaty 1 and treaty 5 to see in what ways they were similar and in what ways
new ideas for the treaties developed.

                         The Treaties in Manitoba - Answers

1. More promises were made at the treaty meetings than the government recorded - the
“outside promises”
2. Native records were kept by people with trained memories
3. Surrender land
observe the treaty
maintain the peace forever
not interfere with persons or property of Canadian citizens
4. Strictly obey the treaty and behave
maintain peace among themselves and other Canadians
not molest persons or property
not interfere with persons travelling or passing through
chiefs will assist government to catch and punish any Native person who breaks the
5. 160 acres
6. Government was promising to control White traders who were selling alcohol
7. Hunting and fishing rights
provision of farm equipment
8. $3
9.      $5
10. $500 for ammunition and twine (string & rope)
11. To get their support for the treaty process
12. They realized their old hunting lifestyle was coming to an end
The Treaties in Manitoba - Answers 4
13. Winnipeg and surrounding towns
14. Brandon, Dauphin
15. Area north of Swan River
16 . The Pas, Norway House most northern communities

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