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Speech - Language Information _ Strategies


									Speech - Language
Information & Strategies
   Presented by
   Chelsi Hansen, M.S., CCC/SLP
   Courtney Miller, B.A., SLPA
   Jeanette McKnight, M.S., CCC/SLP
    What is Speech-Language Therapy?
        Purpose of therapy in the school setting
        Speech-Language RtI
        Language versus Speech
    Articulation
        Age Appropriate Sounds
        Treatment Hierarchy
        Common Errors
        Ideas for Practice
    Language
        Basic language strategies
        Language Development
        Treatment Hierarchy
       What is Speech-Language
   Speech-Language Therapy is provided to prevent, identify, and
    assess communication disorders per IDEA.
   The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) provides a
    free, appropriate, public education for all children with disabilities,
    including speech, language, and hearing disorders.
   Possible communication disorders include: language, articulation,
    voice, and fluency (stuttering). See below for more details about
    the difference between speech and language.
   We provide services per IDEA to individuals, small groups or in a
    classroom setting
   We provide treatment to promote academic success. Speech-
    language therapy is provide as treatment not just as enrichment.
    We strive functional gain and do not intend speech therapy to be
    a life long service.
Response to Intervention:

      RtI is implemented to determine if a child
       will respond to interventions in the general
       education setting
      SLP will administer articulation or
       language screening instrument to students
       referred by parent or teacher. Based on
       results, SLP will select appropriate tier.
      Student progress will be evaluated every 3

      Tier 1
            SLP will provide folder to teacher containing
             specific intervention strategies and will consult
             with the teacher on implementation. Student
             progress will be evaluated every 3 weeks.
             Progress data will determine whether student
             remains at Tier 1 or moves to Tier 2.
      Tier 2
       Articulation: Student receives interventions for
        30 min. 1-3 days/week in Articulation Lab
        (Grades 5 and up, 5-10 min. pull-out per wk +
        parent consult, or may individualize)
       Language: SLP supports student’s language in
        gen. ed. environment minimum of 10 min/wk and
        provides 10 min. consult per/wk. Student may be
        pulled if SLP determines necessary

      Tier 3
          Articulation: Student receives 1-2 one-on-one
           interventions for 5-7 min/wk in addition
           continuation of Articulation Lab.(Grades 5 and
           up, 10-15 min. pull-out per wk + parent consult,
           or may individualize)
          Language: SLP supports student’s language in
           gen. ed. environment minimum of 15 min/wk and
           provides 10 min. consult per/wk. Again, pull-out
           maybe necessary as determined by SLP.

 Tier 4
         Pre-SAT and/or SAT meeting held to consider
          referral for Special Education Evaluation
        Speech and Language …
         What’s the Difference?
   Language is comprised of socially shared
    rules that include:
       Word meanings (e.g., "star" can refer to a bright
        object in the night sky or a celebrity)
       Creating new words (e.g., friend, friendly,
       Combing words to create complete thoughts (e.g.,
        "Peg walked to the new store" rather than "Peg
        walk store new")
       Socially appropriate language ("Would you mind
        moving your foot?" could quickly change to "Get off
        my foot, please!" if the first request did not produce
Language Disorder OR Speech Disorder?

     When a person has trouble understanding others
      (receptive language), or appropriately communicating
      thoughts and feelings (expressive language), then he
      or she has a language disorder .
     When a person is unable to produce speech sounds
      correctly or fluently, or has problems with his or her
      voice, then he or she has a speech disorder .

  American Speech-Language-Hearing Association ASHA.
         Web. 13 Jan. 2010. <>.
        Speech and Language…
         What’s the difference?
   Speech is the verbal means of
    communicating. Speech consists of the
       Articulation : How speech sounds are made (e.g.,
        children must learn how to produce the "r" sound in
        order to say "rabbit" instead of "wabbit").
       Voice : Use of the vocal folds and breathing to
        produce sound (e.g., vocal abuse can lead
        to hoarseness or loss of voice).
       Fluency : The rhythm of speech (e.g., hesitations or
        stuttering can affect fluency).
Speech - Articulation

Common Articulation
       R, S, L, K, G
Placement of Sounds

    The appropriate placement for sound is
     the key. Students are first taught where
     they need to place their tongue/lips etc.
     according to the sound.
        Some Materials Used
          Diagram of the mouth/tongue
          Flavored tongue depressors

          Modeling

             Cues for Articulation
   The therapist will use many different cues for
    children with articulation problems.
       Examples
            K/G come from the back of the throat, the therapist may
             have the child touch their neck to remind them where the
             sound should come from.
            S is the “snake” sound. You can have the child draw a
             snake on the table with their fingers as they say the sound.
            You can cue the /L/ with a mirror. It is a very visual sound
             and the child can see if they are placing the tongue in the
             right position.
            R- Reminder of where tongue placement or for the more
             the children who are working on /r/ in conversation a
             simple sign that you and the child have come up with to let
             them know that they need to remember their /r/.
          Articulation Therapy
   When targeting sounds the therapist will start
       Sound in isolation: Example /k/
       Syllable level: k+vowel
       Word level: Initial position: Cat
                    Medial position: Raccoon
                    Final position: Sock
       Phrase level: Brown cat
       Sentence level: The big brown cat jumped on to the
       Conversation level: Monitoring the use of carryover
        at the conversational level.
             Practicing at Home
   Fixed Up One Routine Handout (www.speech-
   Importance of practicing at home and creating a habit.
       Ideas for home practice
            Designate a Speech time to review sounds
            Avoid overcorrecting
            Use language that is age appropriate
            Try to avoid interruptions
            Praise is very important
            Listen to what the child says, not how your child talks
            Be patient
            Make homework fun
            Use your resources (
   “Carry Over” Handout
Basic Language Techniques

  Family history, culture, societal norms
  Expansion
  Modeling
  Sabotage
  Screen Time
        Language Development
       Confirms linguistic principals
       Forms principals of language development
       Gives descriptions of language and cognitive development.
   Developmental Norms
       This information represents, on average, the age by which
        most monolingual speaking children will accomplish the listed
       Children typically do not master all items in a category until
        they reach the upper age in each age range. J
       Just because your child has not accomplished one skill within
        an age range does not mean the child has a disorder.
Developmental Norms -Kindergarten

    Listening
        Follow 1-2 simple directions in a sequence
        Listen to and understand age-appropriate stories read aloud
        Follow a simple conversation
    Speaking
        Be understood by most people
        Answer simple "yes/no" questions
        Answer open-ended questions (e.g., "What did you have for
         lunch today?")
        Retell a story or talk about an event
        Participate appropriately in conversations
        Show interest in and start conversations
Developmental Norms – First
    Listening
        Remember information
        Respond to instructions
        Follow 2-3 step directions in a sequence
    Speaking
        Be easily understood
        Answer more complex "yes/no" questions
        Tell and retell stories and events in a logical order
        Express ideas with a variety of complete sentences
        Use most parts of speech (grammar) correctly
        Ask and respond to "wh" questions (who, what, where, when, why)
        Stay on topic and take turns in conversation
        Give directions
        Start conversations
Developmental Norms - Second
    Listening
        Follow 3-4 oral directions in a sequence
        Understand direction words (e.g., location, space, and time words)
        Correctly answer questions about a grade-level story
    Speaking
        Be easily understood
        Answer more complex "yes/no" questions
        Ask and answer "wh" questions (e.g., who, what, where, when, why)
        Use increasingly complex sentence structures
        Clarify and explain words and ideas
        Give directions with 3-4 steps
        Use oral language to inform, to persuade, and to entertain
        Stay on topic, take turns, and use appropriate eye contact during
        Open and close conversation appropriately
Developmental Norms - Third
    Listening
        Listen attentively in group situations
        Understand grade-level material
    Speaking
        Speak clearly with an appropriate voice
        Ask and respond to questions
        Participate in conversations and group discussions
        Use subject-related vocabulary
        Stay on topic, use appropriate eye contact, and take turns in
        Summarize a story accurately
        Explain what has been learned
Developmental Norms - Fourth
    Listening
        Listen to and understand information presented by others
        Form opinions based on evidence
        Listen for specific purposes
    Speaking
        Use words appropriately in conversation
        Use language effectively for a variety of purposes
        Understand some figurative language
        Participate in group discussions
        Give accurate directions to others
        Summarize and restate ideas
        Organize information for clarity
        Use subject area information and vocabulary (e.g., social studies) for
        Make effective oral presentations
Developmental Norms – Fifth
    Listening
        Listen and draw conclusions in subject area learning activities
    Speaking
        Make planned oral presentations appropriate to the audience
        Maintain eye contact and use gestures, facial expressions,
         and appropriate voice during group presentations
        Participate in class discussions across subject areas
        Summarize main points
        Report about information gathered in group activities

     For more information visit
Language Building Techniques

    Keep eye contact
    Talk during daily activities

    Give child directions to follow

    Compare items (alike & different)

    Encourage your child to ask questions

    Answer questions when they arise

     Give your child opportunities to write
          Letters, diaries, stories
     Read often:
        Have your child retell story
        Discuss events of the story in order

        Encourage formation of opinions about what is
        Help your child solve problems in the story

        Help your child recognize spelling patterns
            Language Therapy

   When targeting language, therapy will:
     Follow Developmental Norms, treat
      language in sequence of normal acquisition
     Progression Levels:
           Word > Phrase > Sentence > Conversation
     Move from structured to natural and clinical
      to natural settings
     Carryover
   IEP Goal Examples:
     For Articulation:
    “Jane will produce the prevocalic /r/ phoneme
      in the initial position of words with 80%
     For Language:

    “John will demonstrate understanding and
      use of regular plurals with 90% accy.”
In conclusion….

  Voice and Fluency
  Website
  Ask your campus SLP
  Modeling speech (a.k.a. talking to your
   child) is the best practice!
  Questions?

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