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Speech - Language Information _ Strategies

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Speech - Language Information _ Strategies Powered By Docstoc
					Speech - Language
Information & Strategies
   Presented by
   Chelsi Hansen, M.S., CCC/SLP
   Courtney Miller, B.A., SLPA
   Jeanette McKnight, M.S., CCC/SLP
Agenda:
    What is Speech-Language Therapy?
        Purpose of therapy in the school setting
        Speech-Language RtI
        Language versus Speech
    Articulation
        Age Appropriate Sounds
        Treatment Hierarchy
        Common Errors
        Ideas for Practice
    Language
        Basic language strategies
        Language Development
        Treatment Hierarchy
       What is Speech-Language
               Therapy?
   Speech-Language Therapy is provided to prevent, identify, and
    assess communication disorders per IDEA.
   The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) provides a
    free, appropriate, public education for all children with disabilities,
    including speech, language, and hearing disorders.
   Possible communication disorders include: language, articulation,
    voice, and fluency (stuttering). See below for more details about
    the difference between speech and language.
   We provide services per IDEA to individuals, small groups or in a
    classroom setting
   We provide treatment to promote academic success. Speech-
    language therapy is provide as treatment not just as enrichment.
    We strive functional gain and do not intend speech therapy to be
    a life long service.
Response to Intervention:

      RtI is implemented to determine if a child
       will respond to interventions in the general
       education setting
      SLP will administer articulation or
       language screening instrument to students
       referred by parent or teacher. Based on
       results, SLP will select appropriate tier.
      Student progress will be evaluated every 3
       weeks.
RtI

      Tier 1
            SLP will provide folder to teacher containing
             specific intervention strategies and will consult
             with the teacher on implementation. Student
             progress will be evaluated every 3 weeks.
             Progress data will determine whether student
             remains at Tier 1 or moves to Tier 2.
RtI
      Tier 2
       Articulation: Student receives interventions for
        30 min. 1-3 days/week in Articulation Lab
        (Grades 5 and up, 5-10 min. pull-out per wk +
        parent consult, or may individualize)
       Language: SLP supports student’s language in
        gen. ed. environment minimum of 10 min/wk and
        provides 10 min. consult per/wk. Student may be
        pulled if SLP determines necessary
RtI

      Tier 3
          Articulation: Student receives 1-2 one-on-one
           interventions for 5-7 min/wk in addition
           continuation of Articulation Lab.(Grades 5 and
           up, 10-15 min. pull-out per wk + parent consult,
           or may individualize)
          Language: SLP supports student’s language in
           gen. ed. environment minimum of 15 min/wk and
           provides 10 min. consult per/wk. Again, pull-out
           maybe necessary as determined by SLP.
RtI

 Tier 4
         Pre-SAT and/or SAT meeting held to consider
          referral for Special Education Evaluation
        Speech and Language …
         What’s the Difference?
   Language is comprised of socially shared
    rules that include:
       Word meanings (e.g., "star" can refer to a bright
        object in the night sky or a celebrity)
       Creating new words (e.g., friend, friendly,
        unfriendly)
       Combing words to create complete thoughts (e.g.,
        "Peg walked to the new store" rather than "Peg
        walk store new")
       Socially appropriate language ("Would you mind
        moving your foot?" could quickly change to "Get off
        my foot, please!" if the first request did not produce
        results)
Language Disorder OR Speech Disorder?

     When a person has trouble understanding others
      (receptive language), or appropriately communicating
      thoughts and feelings (expressive language), then he
      or she has a language disorder .
     When a person is unable to produce speech sounds
      correctly or fluently, or has problems with his or her
      voice, then he or she has a speech disorder .


  American Speech-Language-Hearing Association ASHA.
         Web. 13 Jan. 2010. <http://www.asha.org>.
        Speech and Language…
         What’s the difference?
   Speech is the verbal means of
    communicating. Speech consists of the
    following:
       Articulation : How speech sounds are made (e.g.,
        children must learn how to produce the "r" sound in
        order to say "rabbit" instead of "wabbit").
       Voice : Use of the vocal folds and breathing to
        produce sound (e.g., vocal abuse can lead
        to hoarseness or loss of voice).
       Fluency : The rhythm of speech (e.g., hesitations or
        stuttering can affect fluency).
Speech - Articulation



Common Articulation
     Errors
       R, S, L, K, G
Placement of Sounds

    The appropriate placement for sound is
     the key. Students are first taught where
     they need to place their tongue/lips etc.
     according to the sound.
        Some Materials Used
          Diagram of the mouth/tongue
          Flavored tongue depressors

          Modeling

                    www.uiowa.edu
             Cues for Articulation
   The therapist will use many different cues for
    children with articulation problems.
       Examples
            K/G come from the back of the throat, the therapist may
             have the child touch their neck to remind them where the
             sound should come from.
            S is the “snake” sound. You can have the child draw a
             snake on the table with their fingers as they say the sound.
            You can cue the /L/ with a mirror. It is a very visual sound
             and the child can see if they are placing the tongue in the
             right position.
            R- Reminder of where tongue placement or for the more
             the children who are working on /r/ in conversation a
             simple sign that you and the child have come up with to let
             them know that they need to remember their /r/.
          Articulation Therapy
   When targeting sounds the therapist will start
    with:
       Sound in isolation: Example /k/
       Syllable level: k+vowel
       Word level: Initial position: Cat
                    Medial position: Raccoon
                    Final position: Sock
       Phrase level: Brown cat
       Sentence level: The big brown cat jumped on to the
        floor.
       Conversation level: Monitoring the use of carryover
        at the conversational level.
             Practicing at Home
   Fixed Up One Routine Handout (www.speech-
    language-pathology.com)
   Importance of practicing at home and creating a habit.
       Ideas for home practice
            Designate a Speech time to review sounds
            Avoid overcorrecting
            Use language that is age appropriate
            Try to avoid interruptions
            Praise is very important
            Listen to what the child says, not how your child talks
            Be patient
            Make homework fun
            Use your resources (www.quia.com/pages/havemorefun.html)
   “Carry Over” Handout
Basic Language Techniques


  Family history, culture, societal norms
  Expansion
  Modeling
  Sabotage
  Screen Time
        Language Development
   RESEARCH:
       Confirms linguistic principals
       Forms principals of language development
       Gives descriptions of language and cognitive development.
   Developmental Norms
       This information represents, on average, the age by which
        most monolingual speaking children will accomplish the listed
        skills.
       Children typically do not master all items in a category until
        they reach the upper age in each age range. J
       Just because your child has not accomplished one skill within
        an age range does not mean the child has a disorder.
Developmental Norms -Kindergarten

    Listening
        Follow 1-2 simple directions in a sequence
        Listen to and understand age-appropriate stories read aloud
        Follow a simple conversation
    Speaking
        Be understood by most people
        Answer simple "yes/no" questions
        Answer open-ended questions (e.g., "What did you have for
         lunch today?")
        Retell a story or talk about an event
        Participate appropriately in conversations
        Show interest in and start conversations
Developmental Norms – First
    Listening
        Remember information
        Respond to instructions
        Follow 2-3 step directions in a sequence
    Speaking
        Be easily understood
        Answer more complex "yes/no" questions
        Tell and retell stories and events in a logical order
        Express ideas with a variety of complete sentences
        Use most parts of speech (grammar) correctly
        Ask and respond to "wh" questions (who, what, where, when, why)
        Stay on topic and take turns in conversation
        Give directions
        Start conversations
Developmental Norms - Second
    Listening
        Follow 3-4 oral directions in a sequence
        Understand direction words (e.g., location, space, and time words)
        Correctly answer questions about a grade-level story
    Speaking
        Be easily understood
        Answer more complex "yes/no" questions
        Ask and answer "wh" questions (e.g., who, what, where, when, why)
        Use increasingly complex sentence structures
        Clarify and explain words and ideas
        Give directions with 3-4 steps
        Use oral language to inform, to persuade, and to entertain
        Stay on topic, take turns, and use appropriate eye contact during
         conversation
        Open and close conversation appropriately
Developmental Norms - Third
    Listening
        Listen attentively in group situations
        Understand grade-level material
    Speaking
        Speak clearly with an appropriate voice
        Ask and respond to questions
        Participate in conversations and group discussions
        Use subject-related vocabulary
        Stay on topic, use appropriate eye contact, and take turns in
         conversation
        Summarize a story accurately
        Explain what has been learned
Developmental Norms - Fourth
    Listening
        Listen to and understand information presented by others
        Form opinions based on evidence
        Listen for specific purposes
    Speaking
        Use words appropriately in conversation
        Use language effectively for a variety of purposes
        Understand some figurative language
        Participate in group discussions
        Give accurate directions to others
        Summarize and restate ideas
        Organize information for clarity
        Use subject area information and vocabulary (e.g., social studies) for
         learning
        Make effective oral presentations
Developmental Norms – Fifth
    Listening
        Listen and draw conclusions in subject area learning activities
    Speaking
        Make planned oral presentations appropriate to the audience
        Maintain eye contact and use gestures, facial expressions,
         and appropriate voice during group presentations
        Participate in class discussions across subject areas
        Summarize main points
        Report about information gathered in group activities


     For more information visit www.asha.org
Language Building Techniques


    Keep eye contact
    Talk during daily activities

    Give child directions to follow

    Compare items (alike & different)

    Encourage your child to ask questions

    Answer questions when they arise
READ and WRITE

     Give your child opportunities to write
          Letters, diaries, stories
     Read often:
        Have your child retell story
        Discuss events of the story in order

        Encourage formation of opinions about what is
         read
        Help your child solve problems in the story

        Help your child recognize spelling patterns
            Language Therapy

   When targeting language, therapy will:
     Follow Developmental Norms, treat
      language in sequence of normal acquisition
     Progression Levels:
           Word > Phrase > Sentence > Conversation
     Move from structured to natural and clinical
      to natural settings
     Carryover
   IEP Goal Examples:
     For Articulation:
    “Jane will produce the prevocalic /r/ phoneme
      in the initial position of words with 80%
      accuracy.”
     For Language:

    “John will demonstrate understanding and
      use of regular plurals with 90% accy.”
In conclusion….


  Voice and Fluency
  Website
  Ask your campus SLP
  Modeling speech (a.k.a. talking to your
   child) is the best practice!
  Questions?

				
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