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Speech - Language Information & Strategies Presented by Chelsi Hansen, M.S., CCC/SLP Courtney Miller, B.A., SLPA Jeanette McKnight, M.S., CCC/SLP Agenda: What is Speech-Language Therapy? Purpose of therapy in the school setting Speech-Language RtI Language versus Speech Articulation Age Appropriate Sounds Treatment Hierarchy Common Errors Ideas for Practice Language Basic language strategies Language Development Treatment Hierarchy What is Speech-Language Therapy? Speech-Language Therapy is provided to prevent, identify, and assess communication disorders per IDEA. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) provides a free, appropriate, public education for all children with disabilities, including speech, language, and hearing disorders. Possible communication disorders include: language, articulation, voice, and fluency (stuttering). See below for more details about the difference between speech and language. We provide services per IDEA to individuals, small groups or in a classroom setting We provide treatment to promote academic success. Speech- language therapy is provide as treatment not just as enrichment. We strive functional gain and do not intend speech therapy to be a life long service. Response to Intervention: RtI is implemented to determine if a child will respond to interventions in the general education setting SLP will administer articulation or language screening instrument to students referred by parent or teacher. Based on results, SLP will select appropriate tier. Student progress will be evaluated every 3 weeks. RtI Tier 1 SLP will provide folder to teacher containing specific intervention strategies and will consult with the teacher on implementation. Student progress will be evaluated every 3 weeks. Progress data will determine whether student remains at Tier 1 or moves to Tier 2. RtI Tier 2 Articulation: Student receives interventions for 30 min. 1-3 days/week in Articulation Lab (Grades 5 and up, 5-10 min. pull-out per wk + parent consult, or may individualize) Language: SLP supports student’s language in gen. ed. environment minimum of 10 min/wk and provides 10 min. consult per/wk. Student may be pulled if SLP determines necessary RtI Tier 3 Articulation: Student receives 1-2 one-on-one interventions for 5-7 min/wk in addition continuation of Articulation Lab.(Grades 5 and up, 10-15 min. pull-out per wk + parent consult, or may individualize) Language: SLP supports student’s language in gen. ed. environment minimum of 15 min/wk and provides 10 min. consult per/wk. Again, pull-out maybe necessary as determined by SLP. RtI Tier 4 Pre-SAT and/or SAT meeting held to consider referral for Special Education Evaluation Speech and Language … What’s the Difference? Language is comprised of socially shared rules that include: Word meanings (e.g., "star" can refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity) Creating new words (e.g., friend, friendly, unfriendly) Combing words to create complete thoughts (e.g., "Peg walked to the new store" rather than "Peg walk store new") Socially appropriate language ("Would you mind moving your foot?" could quickly change to "Get off my foot, please!" if the first request did not produce results) Language Disorder OR Speech Disorder? When a person has trouble understanding others (receptive language), or appropriately communicating thoughts and feelings (expressive language), then he or she has a language disorder . When a person is unable to produce speech sounds correctly or fluently, or has problems with his or her voice, then he or she has a speech disorder . American Speech-Language-Hearing Association ASHA. Web. 13 Jan. 2010. <http://www.asha.org>. Speech and Language… What’s the difference? Speech is the verbal means of communicating. Speech consists of the following: Articulation : How speech sounds are made (e.g., children must learn how to produce the "r" sound in order to say "rabbit" instead of "wabbit"). Voice : Use of the vocal folds and breathing to produce sound (e.g., vocal abuse can lead to hoarseness or loss of voice). Fluency : The rhythm of speech (e.g., hesitations or stuttering can affect fluency). Speech - Articulation Common Articulation Errors R, S, L, K, G Placement of Sounds The appropriate placement for sound is the key. Students are first taught where they need to place their tongue/lips etc. according to the sound. Some Materials Used Diagram of the mouth/tongue Flavored tongue depressors Modeling www.uiowa.edu Cues for Articulation The therapist will use many different cues for children with articulation problems. Examples K/G come from the back of the throat, the therapist may have the child touch their neck to remind them where the sound should come from. S is the “snake” sound. You can have the child draw a snake on the table with their fingers as they say the sound. You can cue the /L/ with a mirror. It is a very visual sound and the child can see if they are placing the tongue in the right position. R- Reminder of where tongue placement or for the more the children who are working on /r/ in conversation a simple sign that you and the child have come up with to let them know that they need to remember their /r/. Articulation Therapy When targeting sounds the therapist will start with: Sound in isolation: Example /k/ Syllable level: k+vowel Word level: Initial position: Cat Medial position: Raccoon Final position: Sock Phrase level: Brown cat Sentence level: The big brown cat jumped on to the floor. Conversation level: Monitoring the use of carryover at the conversational level. Practicing at Home Fixed Up One Routine Handout (www.speech- language-pathology.com) Importance of practicing at home and creating a habit. Ideas for home practice Designate a Speech time to review sounds Avoid overcorrecting Use language that is age appropriate Try to avoid interruptions Praise is very important Listen to what the child says, not how your child talks Be patient Make homework fun Use your resources (www.quia.com/pages/havemorefun.html) “Carry Over” Handout Basic Language Techniques Family history, culture, societal norms Expansion Modeling Sabotage Screen Time Language Development RESEARCH: Confirms linguistic principals Forms principals of language development Gives descriptions of language and cognitive development. Developmental Norms This information represents, on average, the age by which most monolingual speaking children will accomplish the listed skills. Children typically do not master all items in a category until they reach the upper age in each age range. J Just because your child has not accomplished one skill within an age range does not mean the child has a disorder. Developmental Norms -Kindergarten Listening Follow 1-2 simple directions in a sequence Listen to and understand age-appropriate stories read aloud Follow a simple conversation Speaking Be understood by most people Answer simple "yes/no" questions Answer open-ended questions (e.g., "What did you have for lunch today?") Retell a story or talk about an event Participate appropriately in conversations Show interest in and start conversations Developmental Norms – First Listening Remember information Respond to instructions Follow 2-3 step directions in a sequence Speaking Be easily understood Answer more complex "yes/no" questions Tell and retell stories and events in a logical order Express ideas with a variety of complete sentences Use most parts of speech (grammar) correctly Ask and respond to "wh" questions (who, what, where, when, why) Stay on topic and take turns in conversation Give directions Start conversations Developmental Norms - Second Listening Follow 3-4 oral directions in a sequence Understand direction words (e.g., location, space, and time words) Correctly answer questions about a grade-level story Speaking Be easily understood Answer more complex "yes/no" questions Ask and answer "wh" questions (e.g., who, what, where, when, why) Use increasingly complex sentence structures Clarify and explain words and ideas Give directions with 3-4 steps Use oral language to inform, to persuade, and to entertain Stay on topic, take turns, and use appropriate eye contact during conversation Open and close conversation appropriately Developmental Norms - Third Listening Listen attentively in group situations Understand grade-level material Speaking Speak clearly with an appropriate voice Ask and respond to questions Participate in conversations and group discussions Use subject-related vocabulary Stay on topic, use appropriate eye contact, and take turns in conversation Summarize a story accurately Explain what has been learned Developmental Norms - Fourth Listening Listen to and understand information presented by others Form opinions based on evidence Listen for specific purposes Speaking Use words appropriately in conversation Use language effectively for a variety of purposes Understand some figurative language Participate in group discussions Give accurate directions to others Summarize and restate ideas Organize information for clarity Use subject area information and vocabulary (e.g., social studies) for learning Make effective oral presentations Developmental Norms – Fifth Listening Listen and draw conclusions in subject area learning activities Speaking Make planned oral presentations appropriate to the audience Maintain eye contact and use gestures, facial expressions, and appropriate voice during group presentations Participate in class discussions across subject areas Summarize main points Report about information gathered in group activities For more information visit www.asha.org Language Building Techniques Keep eye contact Talk during daily activities Give child directions to follow Compare items (alike & different) Encourage your child to ask questions Answer questions when they arise READ and WRITE Give your child opportunities to write Letters, diaries, stories Read often: Have your child retell story Discuss events of the story in order Encourage formation of opinions about what is read Help your child solve problems in the story Help your child recognize spelling patterns Language Therapy When targeting language, therapy will: Follow Developmental Norms, treat language in sequence of normal acquisition Progression Levels: Word > Phrase > Sentence > Conversation Move from structured to natural and clinical to natural settings Carryover IEP Goal Examples: For Articulation: “Jane will produce the prevocalic /r/ phoneme in the initial position of words with 80% accuracy.” For Language: “John will demonstrate understanding and use of regular plurals with 90% accy.” In conclusion…. Voice and Fluency Website Ask your campus SLP Modeling speech (a.k.a. talking to your child) is the best practice! Questions?
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