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Chemistry An Introduction to General_ Organic_ and Biological

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Chemistry An Introduction to General_ Organic_ and Biological Powered By Docstoc
					                                Contents

.             Prologue
    A     Chemistry and Chemicals                 P-2
                                                                          .         2 Energy          and Matter
    B     Scientific Method: Thinking like a Scientist              P-4
               ENVIRONMENTAL NOTE                                             2.1 Energy 40
               DDT:Good Pesticide, Bad Pesticide P-7                                      ENVIRONMENTAL            NOTE
    C     A Study Plan for Learning Chemistry                P- 7                         Global Warming      44
                                                                              2.2    Energy and Nutrition 44
                                                                                          EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
.         1 Measu rements                                                                 Counting Calories
                                                                                          HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                                                 46

                                                                                          losing and Gaining Weight             47
    1.1   Units of Measurement               2                                2.3    Temperature Conversions               47
               EXPLORE YOUR WORLD                                                        CAREER FOCUS
               Units Listed on labels 5
                                                                                         Surgical Technologist        49
    1.2   Measured        Numbers     and                                                HEALTH NOTE
          Significant      Figures       8                                               Variation in BodyTemperature                51
    1.3   Significant      Figures   in Calculations    10                    2.4    Specific Heat    52
    1.4   Prefixes      and Equalities       14                               2.5    States of Matter    55
    1.5   Writing Conversion Factors 18                                       2.6    Changes of State 57
               EXPLORE YOUR WORLD                                                        CAREER FOCUS
               SI and Metric Equalities on                                               Histologist 58
               Product labels   20                                                       HEALTH NOTE
    1.6                                                                                  Steam Burns 61
          Problem Solving 22
               CAREER FOCUS                                                          Chapter Review   65
               Veterinary Technician (VT)          26                               Key Terms 66
    1.7   Density    28
                                                                                    Additional Questions and Problems       66
               EXPLORE YOUR WORLD                                                   Understanding the Concepts 67
              Sink or Float? 30                                                     Questions for Teamwork 68
              H£AlTH NOTE                                                           Answers 68
               Determination of Percentage of
               Body Fat 32
               HEALTH NOTE
                Specific Gravity of Urine 33
          Chapter Review 33
          Key Terms 34
          Additional Questions and Problems 34
          Understanding the Concepts 35
          Questions for Teamwork 36
          Answers 37
                                                                              4.2   Ionic Compounds            116
                                                                                         CAREER FOCUS
. 3          Atoms and Elements                                                          Physical Therapist     118
                                                                              4.3   Naming     and Writing      Ionic Formulas          119
3.1       Classification   of Matter       71                                 4.4   Polyatomic Ions 123
                                                                                         HEALTH NOTE
3.2       Elements and Symbols       75
                                                                                         Polyatomic Ions
3.3       The Periodic Table     78                                                      in Bones and
              HEALTH NOTE                                                                Teeth   125
              Elements Essential to Health           79
                                                                              4.5   Covalent
              HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                    Compounds           128
              Some Important Trace Elements in the Body              83
                                                                              4.6   Electronegativity     and
    3.4   The Atom    84
              EXPLORE YOUR WORLD                                                    Bond Polarity        135
                                                                              4.7   Shapes and Polarity of
              Repulsion and Attraction 87
                                                                                    Molecules  138
    3.5   Atomic Number and Mass Number                         88
              CAREER FOCUS                                                          Chapter Review 143
               Optician    89                                                       Key Terms 144
                                                                                    Additional Questions and
    3.6    Isotopes   and Atomic    Mass        91
                                                                                    Problems 144
    3.7    Electron Energy levels       93
                                                                                    Understanding the Concepts 145
                HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                    Questions for Teamwork 146
                Biological Reactions to UV Light           97                       Answers 146
    3.8    Periodic Trends      97
          ChapterReview 103
          Key Terms 104
          Additional Questions and Problems     105
                                                                          .         5   Chemical Reactions
          Understanding the Concepts 106
          Questions for Teamwork 107                                                     and Quantities
          Answers 107
                                                                              5.1   Chemical    Changes         150
                                                                              5.2   Chemical    Equations        152
                                                                              5.3   Types of Reactions          158
                                                                                        HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                        Smog and Health Concerns   161
                                                                              5.4   Oxidation-Reduction  Reactions     162
                                                                                        EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
                                                                                        Oxidation of Fruits and Vegetables         164
                                                                              5.5   The Mole     166
                                                                              5.6   Molar Mass  170
                                                                                        EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
                                                                                         Calculating Moles in the Kitchen        172
                                                                              5.7   Mole Relationships         in Chemical
                                                                                    Equations    174
                                                                              5.8   Mass Calculations         for Reactions      1 79

.                                                                             5.9
          4 Compounds      and
                                                                                    Energy in Chemical Reactions
                                                                                        HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                        Hot Packs and Cold Packs 184
                                                                                                                    183


                 Their Bonds
                                                                                    Chapter Review 188
                                                                                    Key Terms 189
    4.1    Octet Rule and Ions     111
                                                                                    Additional Questions and Problems     189
                HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                    Understanding the Concepts 191
                Some Uses for Noble Gases            113
                                                                                    Questions for Teamwork 191
                HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                    Answers 192
                Some Important     Ions in the Body         115
. 6           Gases          1
    6.1    Properties of Gases      195
               EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
               Forming a Gas 198
    6.2    Gas Pressure   198
               HEALTH NOTE
               Measuring Blood Pressure 200
    6.3    Pressure and Volume (Boyle's Law) 200
                HEALTH NOTE
                Pressure-Volume Relationship in Breathing        202       7.2    Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes              230
    6.4    Temperature    and Volume (Charles' Law)              204                   CAREER FOCUS
    6.5    Temperature and Pressure                                                    Orthopedic Physician Assistant           232
           (Gay-Lussac's Law) 206                                                      HEALTH NOTE
               CAREER FOCUS                                                            Electrolytes in Body Fluids        234
               Nurse Anesthetist 207                                       7.3    Solubility 235
    6.6    The Combined Gas Law           208                                          HEALTH NOTE
    6.7    Volume and Moles (Avogadro's            Law)    210                         Gout and Kidney Stones: A Problem
                                                                                       of Saturation in Body Fluids 236
    6.8    Partial Pressures (Dalton's      Law)     215                               EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
                HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                       Preparing Solutions     237
                Blood Gases 217
                HEALTH NOTE
                                                                           7.4    Percent Concentration         239

                 Hyperbaric Cham bers 218                                  7.5    Molarity    and Dilution      243
           Chapter Review 219                                              7.6    Solutions    in Chemical    Reactions         249
           Key Terms 220                                                   7.7    Properties of Solutions           252
           Additional Questions and Problems 220                                       HEALTH NOTE
           Understanding the Concepts 221                                              Colloids and Solutions in the Body             252
           Questions for Teamwork 222                                                  EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
           Answers 222                                                                 Everyday Osmosis       255
                                                                                       HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                       Dialysis by the Kidneys and the Artificial Kidney    258
                                                                                  ChapterReview 260
                                                                                  Key Terms 261
                                                                                  Additional Questions and Problems       261
                                                                                  Understanding the Concepts 262
                                                                                  Questions for Teamwork 263
                                                                                  Answers 263




                                                                       .         8 Acids and               Bases
                                                                           8.1    Acids and Bases       266
                                                                           8.2    Bn,msted-Lowry Acids and Bases 268
.         7 Solutions                                                      8.3    Strengths of Acids and Bases 272
                                                                           8.4    Ionization of Water 275
    7.1    Solutions   225                                                 8.5    The pH Scale       278
                 HEALTH NOTE                                                           HEALTH NOTE
               Water in the Body 229                                                   Stomach Acid, HCI 280
               EXPLORE YOUR WORLD                                                      EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
               Like Dissolves Like 230                                                 Using Vegetables and Flowers as pH Indicators        284
8.6    Reactions of Acids and Bases              284
            ENVIRONMENTAL           NOTE
            Acid Rain 285
            HEALTH NOTE
            Antacids  288
8.7    Buffers     290
            HEALTH NOTE
            Buffers in the Blood     292
       Chapter Review 294
       Key Terms 295
       Additional Questions and Problems     295
       Understanding the Concepts 296
                                                           9.6        Nuclear Fission and Fusion          321
                                                                           HEALTH NOTE
       Questions for Teamwork 296
       Answers 297                                                         Other Imaging Methods   322          ..
                                                                           ENVIRONMENTAL       NOTE
                                                                           Nuclear Power Plants 325
                                                                      Chapter Review 326
                                                                      Key Terms 326
                                                                      Additional Questions and Problems   327
                                                                      Understanding the Concepts 328
                                                                      Questions for Teamwork 329
                                                                      Answers 329




                                                       II1II

                                                                10       Introduction to Organic
                                                                           Chemistry: Alkanes
. 9       Nuclear Radiation
                                                               10.1 Organic Compounds
                                                               10.2   Alkanes         335
                                                                                                  332

                                                               10.3   Alkanes with Substituents     339
9.1    Natural Radioactivity         300                                   HEALTH NOTE
            HEALTH NOTE                                                    Common Uses of Halo alkanes          344
           Biological Effects of Radiation   304
                                                               10.4   Properties of Alkanes        346
 9.2   Nuclear Equations       305                                         HEALTH NOTE
           ENVIRONMENTAL           NOTE
                                                                            Incomplete Combustion   348
            Radon in Our Homes      307                                     ENVIRONMENTAL        NOTE
           HEALTH NOTE                                                      Crude Oil 349
            Beta Emitters in Medicine    308
                                                               10.5   Functional Groups 350
9.3    Radiation    Measurement            311                             CAREER FOCUS
            HEALTH NOTE
                                                                            Laboratory Technologist  350
            Radiation and Food       313                                    ENVIRONMENTAL         NOTE
 9.4   Half-Life of a Radioisotope 315                                      Functional Groups
            EXPLORE YOUR WORLD                                              in Familiar
            Modeling Half-Lives      317                                  Compounds       354
            ENVIRONMENTAL            NOTE                             Chapter Review 355
            Dating Ancient Objects         318                        Summary of Naming 356
 9.5   Medical Applications        Using                              Summary of Reactions 356
       Radioactivity    31 9                                          Key Terms 356
           HEALTH NOTE                                                Additional Questions and
            Radiation Doses in Diagnostic and                         Problems 357
            Therapeutic Procedures   321                              Understanding    the

                                                                      Concepts 358
                                                                      Questionsfor Teamwork 359
                                                                      Answers 359
.     11 Unsaturated
                 Hydrocarbons                    361
    11.1 Alkenes and Alkynes 362
               EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
               Ripening Fruit 363
               ENVIRONMENTAL         NOTE
                Fragrant Alkenes 366
    11.2   Cis-Trans    Isomers  365
                EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
               Modeling Cis-Trans Isomers  367
               ENVIRONMENTAL        NOTE
               Pheromones in Insect Communication
               HEALTH NOTE
                                                           368
                                                                 .12 Organic        Compounds with
                Cis-Trans Isomers for Night Vision 368                        Oxygen and Sulfur 384
    11.3   Addition Reactions       369
                EXPLORE YOUR WORLD                               12.1   Alcohols, Ethers, and Thiols      385
                Unsaturation in Fats and Oils 369                            EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
               HEALTH NOTE                                                   Alcohols in Household Products   386
               Hydrogenation   of Unsaturated    Fats    370                 HEALTH NOTE

    11.4   Polymers of Alkenes 372                                           Some Important Alcohols and Phenols                   388
               EXPLORE YOUR WORLD                                            HEALTH NOTE
                                                                             Ethers as Anesthetics 392
               Polymers and Recycling Plastics     373
    11.5   Aromatic Compounds         375                        12.2   Properties of Alcohols,           Phenols,
               HEALTH NOTE                                              and Ethers    392
               Some Common Aromatic Compounds              376   12.3   Reactions     of Alcohols         and Thiols       395
               HEALTH NOTE                                                   CAREER FOCUS
               Polycyclic Aromatic                                           Pharmacist 396
               Hydrocarbons (PAHs)      378                                  HEALTH NOTE
           ChapterReview 379                                                 Oxidation of Alcohol in the Body              398
           Summaryof Naming 379                                  12.4   Aldehydes and Ketones                399
           Summaryof Reactions 379                                           ENVIRONMENTAL                 NOTE
           KeyTerms 379                                                      Vanilla 402
           Additional Questions Problems 380
                              and                                            HEALTH NOTE
                       the
           Understanding Concepts 381                                        Some Important         Aldehydes and Ketones            404
                   for
           Questions Teamwork 381                                12.5   Properties of Aldehydes                and Ketones         405
           Answers 382                                           12.6   Chiral Molecules    409
                                                                             HEALTH         NOTE
                                                                             Enantiomers        in Biological    Systems     414
                                                                        Chapter Review      417
                                                                        Summary     of Naming      417
                                                                        Summary of Reactions        418
                                                                        Key Terms     418
                                                                        Additional Questions and Problems            419
                                                                        Understanding the Concepts         422
                                                                        Questions for Teamwork           423
                                                                        Answers 423
.13 Carboxylic                 Acids, Esters,            ..    14 £arbohydrates
             Amines, and Amides                               14.1   Carbohydrates   463
                                                              14.2   Structures   of
13.1 Carboxylic Acids 427                                            Monosaccharides    468
            HEALTH NOTE
                                                                           HEALTH NOTE
            Alpha Hydroxy Acids      430
                                                                          Hyperglycemia and
13.2   Properties    of Carboxylic   Acids         431                    Hypoglycemia         471
13.3   Esters     434
                                                              14.3 Cyclic Structures      of
            HEALTH NOTE                                            Monosaccharides              473
            Salicylic Acid and Aspirin 435
            ENVIRONMENTAL          NOTE                       14.4   Chemical Properties         of
                                                                     Monosaccharides            477
           Cleaning Action of Soaps   440                                 HEALTH NOTE
13.4   Amines     442
                                                                         Testing for Glucose
           HEALTH NOTE                                                   in Urine 478
           Amines in Health and Medicine   444
                                                              14.5   Disaccharides        480
           HEALTH NOTE
                                                                          EXPLORE      YOUR WORLD
           Alkaloids: Amines in Plants 447
                                                                          Sugar and Sweeteners        482
13.5   Amides   449                                                       HEALTH NOTE
           CAREER FOCUS
                                                                          How Sweet Is My Sweetener?          483
            Clinical Laboratory Technologist 450                          CAREER FOCUS
            HEALTH NOTE                                                   Phlebotomist  484
            Amides in Health and Medicine    452                          HEALTH NOTE
       Chapter Review 455                                                 Blood Types and Carbohydrates           485
       Summary of Naming 455
                                                              14.6   Polysaccharides       486
       Summary of Reactions 455                                           EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
       Key Terms 451
                                                                           Polysaccharides    486
       Additional Questions and Problems     451
                                                                     Chapter Review 489
       Understanding the Concepts 459                                Summary of Carbohydrates 490
       Questions for Teamwork 460
                                                                     Summary of Reactions 490
       Answers 460
                                                                     Key Terms 491
                                                                     Additional Questions and Problems      491
                                                                     Understanding the Concepts 492
                                                                     Questions for Teamwork 492
                                                                     Answers 493




                                                         ..15 lipids
                                                              15.1 Lipids      496
                                                                          EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
                                                                          Solubility of Fats and Oils       497
                                                              15.2   Fatty Acids 498
                                                                          HEALTH NOTE
                                                                          Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Fish Oils          502
                                                              15.3 Waxes, Fats, and Oils              504
                                                              15.4 Chemical Properties ofTriacylglycerols                  508
                                                                       HEALTH NOTE
                                                                       Olestra: A Fat Substitute 509
                                                                      HEALTH NOTE
                                                                          Trans Fatty Acids and Hydrogenation             510
                                                                          EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
                                                                          Types of Fats    512
 15.5 Glycerophospholipids 513                                             16.9   Enzyme      Cofactors        562
           CAREER FOCUS                                                           Chapter Review      565
           Physical Therapist        515                                          Key Terms     566
 15.6 Steroids: Cholesterol and Steroid Hormones                    515           Additional Questions and Problems           567
           HEALTH NOTE                                                            Understanding the Concepts          568
          Anabolic Steroids  521                                                  Questions for Teamwork       569
15.7 Cell Membranes            522                                                Answers     570
           HEALTH NOTE
          Transport Through Cell Membranes                    524
       Chapter eview 525
             R
       KeyTerms 526
                          and
       Additional Questions Problems 526
                    the
       Understanding Concepts 527
                for
       Questions Teamwork 528
       Answers 528




                                                                          .17        Nucleic Acids and
                                                                                        Protein Synthesis
                                                                           17.1   Components of Nucleic Acids                     574
.16      Amino Acids, Proteins,                                                      CAREER FOCUS
                                                                                       Occupational       Therapist         577
          and Enzymes                                                      17.2 Primary Structure of Nucleic Acids                      578
                                                                           17.3   DNA Double Helix             580
16.1   Functions   of Proteins 533
16.2 Amino Acids         534                                               17.4   RNA and the Genetic Code                    584

16.3 Amino Acids as Acids and Bases                     538                17.5 Protein Synthesis: Translation                    589
                                                                                       HEALTH NOTE
        CAREER FOCUS
                                                                                    Many Antibiotics Inhibit Protein Synthesis                592
           Rehabilitation   Specialist      538
                                                                           17.6 Genetic Mutations      593
16.4   Formation   of Peptides           539
                                                                                   EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
16.5 levels of Protein Structure               541
                                                                                       A Model for DNA Replication and Mutation                595
           HEALTH NOTE
                                                                          17.7    Viruses     597
           Natural Opiates in the Body            541
                                                                                       HEALTH NOTE
           HEALTH NOTE
                                                                                       Cancer     600
           Essential Amino Acids 546
           EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
           Denaturation of Milk Protein           549
           HEALTH NOTE
           Sickle-Cell Anemia   550
16.6   Enzymes     551
16.7   Enzyme Action 553
           HEALTH NOTE
           Isoenzymes as Diagnostic Tools            555
16.8   Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity                557
           EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
           Enzyme Activity      557
       Chapter Review        602
       Key Terms       602
       Additional   Questions and Problems           603
       Understanding     the Concepts         604
       Questions for Teamwork           604
       Answers    604




. 18       Metabolic Pathways and
               EnergyProduction
18.1 Metabolism and ATP Energy 608
             HEALTH NOTE
             ATP Energy and Ca2+ Needed
             to Contract Muscles 613

18.2   Digestion: Stage 1 613
            EXPLORE YOUR WORLD
             Carbohydrate          Digestion        615                                HEALTHNOTE
18.3   Important Coenzymes                in                                           Stored Fat and Obesity      646
       Metabolic Pathways                 617
           HEALTH NOTE
                                                                             18.9 Degradation of Amino Acids             648
                                                                                       HEALTH NOTE
           Lactose Intolerance                620
                                                                                       Ketone Bodies and Diabetes        649
18.4   Glycolysis:      Stage 2         620                                       Chapter Review 654
18.5   The Citric Acid Cycle: Stage 3                      627                    Summary of Key Reactions 655
18.6   Electron Transport               630                                       Key Terms 657
            HEALTH NOTE                                                           Additional Questions and Problems   658
             Toxins: Inhibitors of Electron Transport                  636        Understanding the Concepts 658
18.7   Oxidative Phosphorylation                    and ATP      636              Questions for Teamwork 659
           HEALTH NOTE                                                            Answers 659
             ATP Synthase and Heating the Body                   639
18.8   Oxidation of Fatty Acids 643                                          Credits   C-1
           EXPLORE YOUR WORLD                                                                   1-1
                                                                             Glossary/Index
             Fat Storage and Blubber                644

				
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