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A                                           B
African Charter on Human and Peoples’       BAAC (Bank for Agriculture and Coopera-
    Rights, 217                                 tives) (Thailand), 142 – 44
Agarwal, Bina, 200                          Baan Hong district, 134 – 35, 136
Agriculture. See also Land and agrarian     Bantu Authorities Act (South Africa), 58
    reform; Small farmers                   Barraclough, Solon, 310, 311
 ecological balance and, 87 – 88            Berger, Oscar, 38
 feminization of, 90                        Betancourt, Rómulo, 251
 in food sovereignty vs. dominant model,    Black Laws Amendment Act (South Africa),
      309                                       58
 industrialization of, 5 – 8, 77 – 79       Blacks Resettlement Act of 1954 (South
 irrigation and, 79 – 81                        Africa), 58
 sustainable, 226, 244 – 46                 Bolivia
 World Bank and, 79                           fact-finding mission to, 195 – 96
Alliance for Progress, 30, 100, 266           gender equality and, 195 – 96, 200
Alvarez, Braulio, 259                         grassroots movements in, 222
Amnesty International, 275                    land and agrarian reform in, 101
ANAP (National Association of Small           land redistribution outcomes in, 113
    Farmers) (Cuba), 231, 239, 242 – 46     Brazil, 177 – 91, 265 – 300. See also MST
ANC (African National Congress), 11           agriculture in, 177 – 78, 290 – 94
ANC (National Campesino Association), 34      antireform efforts in, 115 – 16, 280
Aquino, Corazon, 9                            grassroots movements in, 222 – 23, 266,
Arauca, 173                                       280 – 85
Arbenz, Jacobo, 28 – 30, 36                   indigenous peoples of, 210
Arévalo, Juan Jose, 28                        land distribution in, 178
Argentina, 124, 222                           landlessness in, 181
Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal-, 125                land occupations in, 222 – 23, 256, 269 –
ASESA (Agreement on Socioeconomic and             70, 280 – 81, 312
    Agrarian Issues) (Guatemala), 34 – 38     land redistribution outcomes in, 112, 114



                                                                                    371
372   Index

Brazil (continued)                            Chavez, Hugo, 221, 249, 250, 252 – 59, 310
 land resistance in, 280 – 81                 Chayanov, Alexander, 5
 land titling in, 309                         Chile
 market-led agrarian reform in, 110, 112,      indigenous peoples of, 210, 217
      118, 121, 122, 177 – 91                  land and agrarian reform in, 17
 models of land reform in, 267 – 68            land redistribution outcomes in, 112, 113, 115
 period of land reform in, 17                  poverty in, 113
 political compromise in, 16                  Chimurenga, 41, 43 – 44
 regional impacts of land reform in, 289 –    China
      300                                      economic development of, 317
 rural population of, 202                      land and agrarian reform in, 14, 16, 17, 119,
 settlements in, 277 – 300                          120, 312
 small farmers in, 178, 315                    land redistribution outcomes in, 114
Bretton Woods conference, 13                   poverty in, 113
Bri Bri, 212                                   state farms in, 101
British South Africa Company (BSA), 41 – 42   Chiquita, 28. See also UFC
Buglé, 212                                    CIA, 30
                                              Ciba Geigy, 79
C                                             CLOC (Coordinadora Latinoamericana de
Cabrera, 173                                      Organizaciones del Campo), 207
CACIF (Coordinating Committee of              CNOC (National Coordination of Campesino
   Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial,          Organizations), 34
   and Financial Associations), 34            CNTC, 196
Calamar, 173                                  Cochambamba seminar, 197 – 201, 204, 206,
Cambodia, 210 – 11                                207
Canada, 204, 210, 212                         Cold War
CANEZ (National Agricultural Coordinator       end of, 6, 18, 95, 101
   Ezequiel Zamora) (Venezuela), 259, 260      land reform during, 15, 16 – 18, 100
CAN (National Agricultural Commission)        Collective farms
   (Venezuela), 258                            in Cuba, 235 – 36
Cardenas, Lazaro, 115                          efficiency and, 101, 102
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, 178 – 79           formation of, 100
Cargill, 79                                   Colombia, 165 – 76
Carrera, Rafael, 26                            antireform efforts in, 116
Castillo Armas, Carlos, 30                     campesino reserves in, 172 – 74
Castro, Fidel, 230                             genuine social transformation in, 170 – 74
CCSs (Credit and Service Cooperatives)         grassroots movements in, 174 – 76
   (Cuba), 231, 238 – 39, 245                  indigenous peoples of, 210
Cédula da Terra program                        land and agrarian reform in, 97, 110, 121,
 creation of, 180                                   122, 165 – 76
 objectives of, 180 – 83                       land redistribution outcomes in, 112
 official name of, 180                         land titling in, 309
 problems with, 96, 183 – 91                   rural population of, 165
 target participants for, 181                  violence in, 165 – 66, 169, 173
Cerezo, Vinicio, 34                           Colonialism
CFU (Commercial Farmers Union), 46 – 47        Guatemala and, 26
Chavez, Adán, 256                              India and, 73 – 74
                                                                                Index     373

 indigenous peoples and, 98                     Deforestation, 82 – 83, 87
 land crisis created by, 72, 117                Delahaye, Olivier, 255
 Zimbabwe and, 41 – 44                          Denis, Roland, 253
Commercial Farmers Union (CFU), 46 – 47         Development Trust and Land Act (South
Common-property regimes, 88, 90 – 92               Africa), 58
CONCRAB (Confederacao Nacional das              Diaz, Porfiro, 149
   Cooperativas de Reforma Agraria do           Dutch Disease, 250 – 51, 260, 262
   Brasil), 271
CONIC (National Coordination of Indige-         E
   nous Peoples and Campesinos), 32, 34         Ecuador, 113
CONTAG (Confederação Nacional de                Egypt, 113, 118
   Traballhadores na Agricultura), 266          El Salvador, 16, 17, 102, 113, 115
Continental, 79                                 Emberá, 212
Coordinadora Latinoamericana de Organiza-       Environmental issues, 87 – 88, 318 – 19
   ciones del Campo (CLOC), 207                 Erosion, 87 – 88
COPMAGUA (Coordination of Organiza-
   tions of Mayan Peoples), 34 – 35             F
Costa Rica, 113                                 FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization),
CPAs (agricultural production cooperatives)         36, 38–39
   (Cuba), 226, 227, 231, 236, 245              Federación Nacional de Mujeres Campesinas
Cuba, 225 – 48                                      de Bolivia “Bartolina Sisa,” 195
 economic development of, 317                   First International School for Sociopolitical
 farmer-to-farmer training in, 242 – 44             Training, 207
 food sovereignty in, 227 – 28, 247, 310, 311   FONTIERRAS, 38
 land redistribution outcomes in, 113           FoodFirst Information and Action Network
 market mechanisms introduced in, 240 –42           (FIAN), 110, 194 – 95, 196, 205
 new agrarian reform in, 221, 227, 233 – 39,    Food sovereignty, 301 – 21
     246 – 48, 310                                benefits of, 305, 308
 original agrarian reform in, 16, 229 – 32        in Cuba, 227 – 28, 247, 310, 311
 period of land reform in, 17                     dominant model vs., 305 – 8
 poverty in, 113                                  food security vs., 305, 306
 pre-revolution agriculture in, 228 – 29          importance of, 301 – 2
 Soviet Union and, 230, 232                       in India, 85 – 86
 Special Period in, 225 – 28, 232 – 33, 246       rural crisis addressed by, 302 – 4
 sustainable agriculture in, 226, 244 – 46        in Venezuela, 263 – 64
 United States and, 225, 229, 230, 232          Forestry, 82 – 83, 87, 133, 157
CUC (Committee of Campesino Unity), 34          Fraser, Nancy, 202
CVA (Venezuelan Agrarian Corporation),          Freire, Paulo, 272
   255, 261, 262, 263                           Frente Ezequiel Zamora, 260
                                                FONTIERRAS, 38
D                                               Fukuyama, Francis, 95
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous         Fundación del Centavo, 38
   Peoples, 214 – 15, 217
Decolonization, 13, 100, 101                    G
Decree 900 (Guatemala), 29, 30                  Garcia Granados, Miguel, 26
Decree 1551 (Guatemala), 30 – 31, 36            GCAR (Global Campaign for Agrarian
Deere, Carmen Diana, 197, 198, 199                 Reform), 195 – 97, 207
374    Index

GEAR (Growth, Employment, and                    Human rights, 203 – 6
   Redistribution) strategy, 68 – 69             Hunger, 306, 308 – 9
Gender, 192 – 207. See also Women
 division of labor and, 89 – 90                  I
 equality and, 194, 204 – 5, 206 – 7             IAN (National Agrarian Institute)
 human rights and, 203 – 6                           (Venezuela), 251, 255
 land and, 3, 90, 102, 195 – 207, 273 – 74       IMF (International Monetary Fund)
GENTs, 235                                         Brazil and, 182
Germany, 16, 17                                    establishment of, 13
Global Campaign for Agrarian Reform                India and, 76
   (GCAR), 195 – 97, 207                           land reform policies of, 18
Gómez, Juan Vicente, 250                           structural adjustment policies of, 193, 270,
Goulart, Joao, 266                                     302
Grassroots movements. See also individual          Zimbabwe and, 49
   countries and movements                       Incora, 165 – 69, 172, 173
 emergence of, 311 – 12, 313                     INCRA (National Settlement and Agrarian
 neoliberalism and, 8, 11                            Reform Institute) (Brazil), 178, 179, 189,
Green revolution, 78 – 79, 178, 221                  279
Group Areas Act of 1950 (South Africa), 58       INDER (National Institute for Rural
Guatemala, 23 – 39                                   Development) (Venezuela), 255, 261, 263
 agrarian history of, 20, 26                     India, 73 – 92
 coffee industry in, 27 – 28                       colonialism and, 73 – 74
 colonialism and, 26                               commercialization of agriculture in, 77 – 79
 farm size in, 25 – 26, 33                         economic development in, 86
 future of, 38 – 39                                food security and, 85 – 86
 grassroots movements in, 32, 34 – 35, 38 –        forestry projects in, 82 – 83, 87
     39, 222                                       future of, 85 – 92
 indigenous peoples of, 23, 26, 27, 31, 212        grassroots movements in, 222
 land and agrarian reform in, 14 – 15, 16, 17,     land and agrarian reform in, 16, 17, 74 –
     23 – 24, 26 – 39                                  92, 120
 land distribution in, 24 – 26, 32 – 33, 112       land degradation in, 87 – 88
 landlessness in, 24, 31, 33 – 34                  landlessness in, 74, 84, 88
 land redistribution outcomes in, 112              land reform history, 313
 1996 Peace Accords, 23 – 24, 34 – 38              land-related legal issues in, 74 – 76
 United States and, 28, 30                         land titling in, 96
Guevara, Che, 275                                  poverty in, 74, 113
Guzman Blanco, Antonio, 250                        tribal peoples of, 88 – 89
                                                   urban population of, 84
H                                                  water sector restructuring projects in, 79 –
Hoechst, 79                                            81
Honduras                                           women in, 89 – 90
 grassroots movements in, 196, 222                 women’s access to land markets in, 200–
 land and agrarian reform in, 16, 17                   201
 land distribution in, 9                         Indigenous peoples, 208 – 17. See also
 rural population of, 9                              individual countries
 small farmers in, 9                               autonomy and, 216 – 17
 women in, 196                                     colonialism and, 98
                                                                                   Index     375

  local government of, 214 – 15                    categories of, 15 – 16
  political representation and, 216                changing global context for, 5 – 8, 100 – 102
  poverty and, 215                                 common-property regimes and, 88, 90 – 92
  relationship of land and, 208 – 13               as contradictory process, 266 – 68
  rights of, 102, 210, 211, 214 – 15, 216 – 17     decolonization and, 13, 101
  self-determination for, 217                      economic bases for, 104
  social organization of, 213 – 14                 economic development and, 315 – 18
  sustainable development and, 216                 environment and, 318 – 19
Indonesia, 222                                     guidelines for, 319 – 21
Influx Control Act (South Africa), 59              history of, 13 – 19
INRA (National Institute for Agrarian              measuring success of, 12 – 13, 312 – 13
    Reform) (Cuba), 230                            people-centered, 70 – 71
INTA (National Institute for Agrarian              periods of, by country, 17
    Transformation) (Guatemala), 36 – 37, 38       poverty and, 112 – 13, 126, 145 – 47, 313 – 14
International Labour Organization, 210, 215        productivity and, 314 – 15
International Monetary Fund. See IMF               sociopolitical bases for, 104 – 5
INTI (National Land Institute) (Venezuela),        sustainability and, 82 – 83
    255, 256, 257, 258, 259                      Land Appointment Act of 1930 (Zimbabwe),
Inuit, 212                                           42
Irrigation management turnover (IMT), 81         Land Bank (Banco da Terra) (Brazil), 179, 180
ITERRA (Instituto de Capacitacao Tecnica e       Land Credit (Crédito Fundiário) (Brazil), 179,
    Pequisa da Reforma Agraria), 272                 180 – 81
                                                 Land distribution
J                                                  in Brazil, 178
Jajmani system, 73                                 causes of uneven, 10 – 11
Japan                                              in Guatemala, 24 – 26, 32 – 33
  economic development of, 317                     in Honduras, 9
  land and agrarian reform in, 16, 17, 100,        in the Philippines, 9 – 10
     118, 119, 312                                 in South Africa, 64
  land redistribution outcomes in, 113             in Tanzania, 10
  poverty in, 113                                  in Thailand, 130, 137 – 39
                                                   in Venezuela, 249 – 50, 251 – 52
K                                                  in Zimbabwe, 42
Kautsky, Karl, 5                                 Land Institute Foundation, 130, 138
Kenya, 44                                        Landlessness
Khoi, 58                                           in Brazil, 181
Kuna, 212                                          in Guatemala, 24, 31, 33 – 34
                                                   in India, 74, 84, 88
L                                                  pervasiveness of, 3, 4, 9
Lancaster House Agreement, 44 – 45, 50 – 51,       in the Philippines, 9
   52, 55–56                                       in South Africa, 57
Land Acquisition Act of 1986 (Zimbabwe), 46        in Thailand, 130
Land and agrarian reform. See also                 in Zimbabwe, 46, 55
   Grassroots movements; Market-led              Land occupations, 222–23, 311, 312, 321. See
   agrarian reform (MLAR); State-led                 also Grassroots movements; MST
   agrarian reform (SLAR); individual              in Brazil, 222 – 23, 256, 269 – 70, 280 – 81,
   countries                                           312
376    Index

Land occupations (continued)                     in Mexico, 150 – 64
  in Guatemala, 34                               in the Philippines, 110, 122
  in Honduras, 196                               power differences and, 98
  in Thailand, 136 – 37                          purported advantages of, 18, 37
  in Venezuela, 256                              redistribution of wealth and, 127
  in Zimbabwe, 49, 51, 55                        sequence of policies for, 95 – 96
Land Redistribution for Agricultural             in South Africa, 66 – 67, 110, 118, 122
    Development (LRAD) Program (South            in Thailand, 129, 131 – 35, 137 – 47
    Africa), 68, 70                              in Zimbabwe, 46 – 53
Land Reform and Resettlement Program            Masai people, 10
    (LRRP) (Zimbabwe), 45 – 49                  Maya, 23, 212. See also COPMAGUA
Land Research and Action Network (LRAN),        Meer, Shamim, 197, 207
    15, 110, 207                                Mercal Mission, 264
Land-size ceiling laws, 103                     Mexico, 148 – 64. See also PROCEDE
Land titling                                     agrarian structure of, 150
  in Brazil, 309                                 farm collectives in, 101
  in Colombia, 309                               grassroots movements in, 222
  in India, 96                                   indigenous peoples of, 156, 211, 217
  in Mexico, 152 – 58, 309                       land and agrarian reform in, 14, 16, 17, 101,
  problems with, 309                                 119, 148 – 64
  in Thailand, 96 – 97, 129, 131 – 47, 309       land redistribution outcomes in, 113, 115
  in Venezuela, 257 – 58                         land titling in, 152 – 58, 309
Ligas Camponesas (Peasant Leagues), 266         Miskitos, 210
Lozada-Guayabero, 173                           Mission Zamora, 257
LRAD (Land Redistribution for Agricultural      MLAR. See Market-led agrarian reform
    Development Program) (South Africa),        Monsanto, 79
    68, 70                                      Morris-Carter Commission, 42
LRAN (Land Research and Action Network),        MST (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais
    15, 110, 207                                   Sem Terra), 208, 265 – 76
LRRP (Land Reform and Resettlement               appeal of, 275 – 76
    Program) (Zimbabwe), 45 – 49                 collective settlements of, 223, 270 – 71
                                                 educational activities of, 271 – 74
M                                                emergence of, 265
Magdalena Medio, 173                             influence of, 265
Malawi, 43                                       land occupations by, 222 – 23, 256, 269 –
Mapuche, 210                                         70, 312
Market-led agrarian reform (MLAR)                Popular Project construction by, 273, 274–75
 in Brazil, 110, 112, 118, 121, 122, 177 – 91    social appropriation model of, 268, 309
 in Colombia, 110, 118, 121, 122, 165 – 70       success of, 222, 312
 efficiency and, 67                              women in, 273 – 74
 emergence of, 18
 failures of, 37                                N
 homogenous nature of, 127                      Naso, 212
 implementation of, 107, 110                    National Forum on Agrarian Reform and
 in India, 76 – 77                                 Rural Justice, 177, 180
 key features of, 108 – 9                       National Land Committee (NLC) (South
 land redistribution outcomes under, 112           Africa), 65, 68
                                                                              Index    377

National Seeds Project (NSP) (India), 78       Participation, definition of, 266
National Union of Wheat Growers                Participatory irrigation management (PIM),
   (Guatemala), 32                                 81
Native Land Act (South Africa), 58             Pastrana, Andrés, 169
Native Land Husbandry Act (Zimbabwe), 43       Pato-Balsillas, 173
Natives Laws Amendment Act (South              Peasant identity, revalorization of, 201 – 3
   Africa), 58                                 Perez Jimenez, Marcos, 251
Native Trust Act (South Africa), 58            Permanent Settlement Act 1793, 73
Neoliberal land policies, 99 – 128. See also   Peru, 101, 113, 118
   Market-led agrarian reform (MLAR)           Philippines
 emergence of, 6, 99                             antireform efforts in, 120
 failure of, 11 – 13, 18 – 19, 302 – 3           indigenous peoples of, 210, 217
 grassroots movements and, 8, 11                 land and agrarian reform in, 16, 17, 110,
 implementation of, 107, 110                         111, 114, 115, 119, 122, 125
 paradigm shift in, 6 – 7                        land distribution in, 9 – 10
 types of, 99                                    landlessness in, 9
New Forest Policy (NFP) (India), 83              land policies in, 95
New Rural World, 178 – 79                        land redistribution outcomes in, 112, 113,
New Seed Policy (India), 79                          114, 115
Ngöbe, 212                                       small farmers in, 10
Nicaragua                                        voluntary land transfer (VLT) scheme, 100,
 grassroots movements in, 222                        115–116, 117, 119, 121, 124
 indigenous peoples of, 210                    Pioneer, 79
 land redistribution outcomes in, 112, 114     Plan Ezequiel Zamora, 256 – 57
Niger, 119                                     Popular Project, 273, 274 – 75
NLC (National Land Committee) (South           Poverty
   Africa), 65, 68                               in Chile, 113
Northern Peasants’ Federation, 142               in China, 113
North Vietnam, 16, 17                            in Cuba, 113
NSP (National Seeds Project) (India), 78         in India, 74, 113
                                                 indigenous peoples and, 215
O                                                in Japan, 113
OCB (Organizacao das Cooperativas do             land reform and, 112 – 13, 126, 145 – 47,
    Brasil), 271                                     313 – 14
October Revolution (Guatemala), 28               in South Africa, 62
Office of Development Assistance (ODA)           in South Korea, 113
    (United Kingdom), 51 – 52                    in Thailand, 145 – 47
Organizacao das Cooperativas do Brasil         Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act (South
    (OCB), 271                                     Africa), 58
Organization of African Unity, 217             PRNA (National Agrarian Reform Plan)
Otaiza, Eliecer, 257, 258                          (Brazil), 279, 280
                                               PROCEDE (Program for Certification of
P                                                  Ejidal Rights)
Paine, Thomas, 4                                 adoption difficulties with, 154 – 56
Panama, 210, 212                                 agrarian conflict and, 158 – 60
Panchsheela principles, 88 – 89                  common-use lands and, 156 – 57
Paraguay, 222                                    continued adoption of, 157 – 58
378    Index

PROCEDE (continued)                               Sociedade Brasileira Rural (SBR), 268, 271
 creation of, 148, 152                            South Africa, 57 – 72
 forestry and, 157                                  antireform efforts in, 116
 historical background for, 148 – 52                apartheid legacy, 21, 72, 117
 land market and, 160 – 63                          grassroots movements in, 222
 problems with, 163 – 64                            income inequality in, 62 – 63
 after 10 years in operation, 153 – 54              land and agrarian reform in, 11 – 12, 16, 17,
Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act                  57, 63 – 72, 102, 110, 122, 125
   (South Africa), 58                               land distribution in, 64
PRONAF women’s credit program, 197                  landlessness in, 57
Property, definition of, 7                          land redistribution outcomes in, 112, 113, 114
Property rights                                     migrant labor in, 43
 privatization and individualization of, 3 – 4,     population of, 60 – 61
     96, 102 – 3, 111                               postapartheid land reform, 60, 67–68
 as relationships, 110 – 11                         poverty in, 62
 of women, 3, 90, 102, 195 – 207, 273 – 74          relocation and segregation of blacks in,
PROVEA (Venezuelan Program of Action-                   58 – 59
   Education on Human Rights), 259                  rural vs. urban, 61, 63, 69
                                                    unemployment in, 62
R                                                 South Korea
RDP (Reconstruction and Development                 economic development of, 317
   Program) (South Africa), 65, 110                 land and agrarian reform in, 16, 17, 71,
Reale, Miguel, Junior, 268                              100, 118, 119, 312
Rhodes, John Cecil, 41                              land redistribution outcomes in, 113
Ricaurte, 173                                       poverty in, 113
Rufino Barrios, Justo, 26                         South Vietnam, 16, 17
                                                  Soviet Union
S                                                   Cuba and, 230, 232
San Blas Kuna, 210                                  farm size in, 5
Sandoz, 79                                          land and agrarian reform in, 14, 16, 17
Sardar Sarovar Project, 80                        State farms, 100
SBR (Sociedade Brasileira Rural), 268, 271          in Cuba, 221, 226–27, 231, 233 – 35
Self-determination, 217                             efficiency and, 101, 102
Seligman, Milton, 189                               formation of, 100
SLAR. See State-led agrarian reform                 in Soviet Union, 14
Small farmers                                       in Zimbabwe, 30–31, 35, 36, 47, 51
  in Brazil, 178, 315                             State-led agrarian reform (SLAR)
  in Cuba, 226, 242 – 44                            in China, 119, 120
  economic development and, 316 – 17                in Cuba, 16, 221, 227, 229 – 39, 246 – 48,
  efficiency and, 5, 6 – 7, 69, 100, 304, 315           310
  environment and, 318 – 19                         efficiency and, 103, 106, 116 – 18
  in Guatemala, 25 – 26, 33                         in Egypt, 118
  in Honduras, 9                                    financial cost of, 124 – 25
  in India, 75                                      heterogeneous nature of, 127
  in the Philippines, 10                            in India, 120
  in the United States, 316, 318                    investments and, 123 – 24
  in Venezuela, 251                                 in Japan, 118, 119
Social property, 34                                 key features of, 108 – 9
                                                                                  Index    379

 land market and, 106, 121 – 22                   UDR (Uniao Democratica Ruralista), 267, 271
 land redistribution outcomes under, 111 –        UFC (United Fruit Company), 28, 29, 30
      12, 113                                     UNAH (Agrarian University of Havana),
 in Mexico, 119                                      245 – 46
 in Niger, 119                                    Uniao Democratica Ruralista (UDR), 267
 in Peru, 118                                     Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemal-
 in Philippines, 119                                 teca, 23
 poverty eradication and, 112 – 13, 126           United Fruit Company (UFC), 28, 29, 30
 promarket critique of, 102 – 3, 106 – 7, 110 –   United Kingdom
      27                                           India and, 73
 in South Korea, 118, 119                          Zimbabwe and, 44 – 45, 50 – 53
 in Taiwan, 118, 119                              United Nations
 in Venezuela, 221 – 22, 310                       Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous
 in Zimbabwe, 53 – 55                                  Peoples, 214 – 15, 217
Sustainability                                     Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),
 agriculture and, 226, 244 – 46                        36, 38 – 39
 indigenous peoples and, 216                      United States
 land reform and, 82 – 83                          in the Cold War, 15, 100, 266
Syria, 113                                         colonial period of, 4
                                                   Cuba and, 225, 229, 230, 232
T                                                  Guatemala and, 28, 30
Taiwan                                             small farmers in, 316, 318
  economic development of, 317                    USAID
  land and agrarian reform in, 16, 17, 71, 118,    Guatemala and, 30, 31, 37 – 38
      119, 312                                     India and, 78
  land redistribution outcomes in, 113             land reform policies of, 18
Tanzania
  indigenous peoples in, 10                       V
  land distribution in, 10                        Valle del río Cimitarra, 173
  women’s rights in, 205                          Venezuela, 249 – 64
Terai Seed Corporation (TSC), 78                    Chavez administration’s land reform in,
Thailand, 129 – 47                                       221 – 22, 252 – 56, 310
  agriculture in, 129 – 30                          food sovereignty in, 263 – 64
  credit and debit in, 141 – 44                     future of, 263 – 64
  grassroots movements in, 135 – 37, 222            history of land reform in, 249 – 52
  land distribution in, 130, 137 – 39               land distribution in, 249 – 50, 251 – 52
  landlessness in, 130                              land redistribution outcomes in, 113
  land price escalation in, 139 – 41                land titling in, 257 – 58
  land titling in, 17, 96 – 97, 129, 131 – 35,      oil industry in, 250 – 51, 262
      137 – 47, 309                                 opposition to land reform in, 253 – 54,
  poverty in, 145 – 47                                   256 – 59, 261
Tomachipán, 173                                     peasant organizations in, 260 – 61
TSC (Terai Seed Corporation), 78                    problems with land reform in, 259 – 63
                                                    small farmers in, 251
U                                                   urbanization of, 250 – 51
Ubico, Jorge, 28                                  Vestey, Lord, 258
UBPCs (basic units of cooperative produc-         Via Campesina, La, 308
   tion) (Cuba), 227, 236 – 38, 240                 ANAP and, 242
380    Index

Via Campesina, La (continued)                    land reform policies of, 18, 95 – 96, 309
  collaboration between FIAN and, 110,           Mexico and, 150 – 51, 156, 158, 161 – 64
      194 – 95, 197                              South Africa and, 64, 125
  creation of, 192 – 93                          Thailand and, 129, 131 – 35, 137 – 47
  food sovereignty model and, 304, 305, 308,     Zimbabwe and, 49, 53
      310                                       World Food Summit, 194 – 95, 313
  framework of, for measuring success in        World Forum on Agrarian Reform, 206
      agrarian reform, 12                       World Trade Organization, 193, 209, 215, 302
  gender equality and, 194–96, 197, 206 – 7     Wounaan, 212
  Global Campaign for Agrarian Reform,
      192                                       Y
  goals of, 193 – 94, 201 – 2                   Yanomami, 210
  mística of, 201 – 2                           Young, Iris Marion, 201 – 2
  peasant identity and, 201 – 2
  Venezuelan agrarian reform and, 263           Z
Vietnam, 101, 317. See also North Vietnam;      Zamindari system, 73
    South Vietnam                               Zamora, Ezequiel, 250, 252
                                                ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union),
W                                                  40, 43 – 45
Water sector restructuring projects, 79 – 81    Zapatista uprising, 155–56, 211, 313
WGIP (Working Group on Indigenous               ZAPU (Zimbabwe African People’s Union),
   Peoples), 216                                   43 – 45
White Paper on South African Land Policy,       Zedillo, Ernesto, 153
   65                                           Zimbabwe, 40 – 56
Women. See also Gender                           colonialism and, 41 – 44
 division of labor and, 89 – 90                  grassroots movements in, 49 – 50, 222
 equality for, 194, 204 – 5, 206 – 7             Lancaster House Agreement, 44 – 45, 50 –
 human rights and, 203 – 6                            51, 52
 in the MST, 273 – 74                            land and agrarian reform in, 16, 17, 40,
 property rights of, 3, 90, 102, 195 – 207            45 – 56, 112
Working Group on Indigenous Peoples              land distribution in, 42
   (WGIP), 216                                   landlessness in, 46, 55
World Bank                                       migrant labor in, 43
 agriculture and, 79                             United Kingdom and, 44 – 45, 50 – 53
 Brazil and, 177 – 92                           Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU),
 Colombia and, 165, 166 – 69, 172, 174             40, 43 – 45
 establishment of, 13                           Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU),
 failure of policies of, 12, 95, 96, 309 – 10      43 – 45
 India and, 76 – 83

				
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posted:10/10/2012
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