Ch 5 Human Resources and Natural Disasters..indd by wuzhenguang

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									                                                                          determine your association’s capabilities and limitations and even
    Human Resources Management and Natural Disaster                       its survival, in some cases. Hiring is critical to smooth business
                 Preparedness (6 credits)                                 operations because your employee is your representative to the
                Part I: Human Resources                                   world; he or she is the face and personality of your association.
      Part II: Preventing Leaks During Hurricanes
                                                                          Hiring is also critical because employee turnover costs a great
                                                                          deal of money and time. It has been estimated that over three
Objectives:                                                               months of training are necessary for a new employee to approach
                                                                          the level of accuracy, speed, and ability that a seasoned veteran
Part I: Human Resources Management                                        can contribute to a job. Every time you make a poor decision in
                                                                          filling a job vacancy, you cost yourself and your association time,
              Explain how employee turnover wastes an employ-             effort, and money, so take the time necessary to fill the job right.
              er’s money and time                                         It will save you a great deal of trouble in the end.
              List some of the questions that should be asked in an
              exit interview, and explain why that information is         This chapter discusses the hiring process, including:
              useful
              Define a needs analysis and explain why is it the                     - Your first steps
              foundation of good hiring practices                                  - Designing a legal application form
              List the components of a legal application form                      - Screening to select the best candidates
              List three questions that should never be asked in                   - How to conduct an interview
              interviews                                                           - What not to ask in an interview
              Define a job description and explain its significance                  - Reference checking
              in human resources                                                   - Procurement and RFPs
              List the key elements in profiling a job                              - Soliciting bids
              Name four federal laws that prohibit discrimination                  - Legal contracts
              in hiring and who they protect                                       - Human resource policies
              List the essential basics of interviewing and refer-
              ence-checking                                               Needs Assessment
              List common mistakes in hiring that can lead to legal       A good needs assessment or needs analysis is the foundation
              liability                                                   for all good hiring decisions. It will determine your advertis-
                                                                          ing strategies for the position and the job requirements, among
Part II: Preventing Leaks During Hurricanes (Wind-Driven                  other important details. In general, a “needs analysis” is a human
Rain and Water Intrusion)                                                 resources term referring to a process with the following steps:
                                                                                    • An evaluation of the association’s hiring needs for the
              List the primary locations where water is likely to                     near and not-so-near future, including your expecta-
              find its way into a house in hurricane conditions, and                   tions of the association’s need in one, two, and five
              methods for minimizing entry                                            years into the future.
              Explain why the existence of even small cracks may                    • The assessment and conclusion that an additional
              be significant in a hurricane, and what factors should                   employee or contractor is necessary to the association’s
              be considered in the choice of caulks or sealants                       operations and growth.
              Determine if the community association structure has                  • Discussion with the immediate supervisor of the
              been built using high-wind building code and impact                     position for which you are hiring, to determine his or
              resistance, and list the steps necessary to address                     her needs for the position.
              window and door construction deficits                                  • Discussion with the coworkers of the position for
              List some of the common problems with keeping a                         which you are hiring, to determine their needs for the
              window in place during a hurricane, and four ways to                    position, as well as their strengths and weaknesses, to
              strengthen it                                                           complement and support them in their positions.
              Explain why double entry or “French doors” are                        • Discussion with association members and other stake
              problematic in cases of hurricanes, and ways to                         holders who will interact or be affected by the indi-
              address the problem                                                     vidual in the position, to determine what they require in
              List 4 ways to reduce leaks around entry doors                          a good candidate for the job.
                                                                                    • Consideration of the responsibilities and role of the in-
Introduction                                                                          dividual in the position and expectations for the role in
As an association manager, you are probably responsible for                           the future of the association
hiring decisions and following human resource policies. This
course will guide you through common human resource practices             An important objective of the needs assessment is an understand-
and the hiring process, with strategies for selecting good can-           ing of the workplace culture and needs of the association in
didates who will be good employees or contractors. You will               general. Most employment requires an individual to interact with
find that hiring decisions are among the most important decisions          other individuals, so consider how your decision will affect the
a manager can make. Hiring the right person for the job can               association, globally, rather than assuming you are hiring for an
                                                                      1
isolated position.                                                          You need to know three main categories of information: the
                                                                            position itself; how the position fits into the larger organization;
Exit Interview                                                              and the functional and technical aspects of the job. To explore
If the position you are filling is not a new one, a great deal of use-       these areas, you need to analyze the position at three levels: the
ful information can come from the exit interview of the outgoing            association; the department or team, and the individual.
individual who currently holds or formerly held the job. An exit
interview is an effective way for you to become familiar with               Briefly describe your organization; begin by answering the fol-
the position. Not all individuals leave a company amicably, and             lowing questions:
you will need to temper the information you receive according                       • Why does the association exist?
to the attitude of the individual, the length of time he/she was                    • Who are it members?
employed, his/her success or lack of success in the position, and                   • What is its purpose/function?
the level of camaraderie he/she shared with coworkers. In most                      • Whom does it serve?
cases, you can count on the exiting individual to be honest in his/
her responses to your questions, but even this cannot be taken for          Once you have defined the association in a short, simple state-
granted. Some useful questions you might ask include:                       ment, ask the same questions regarding the department or team:
          • What are your key responsibilities?                             why does the team exist; who are its members; what is its pur-
          • How would you characterize your supervisor?                     pose/function; and whom does it serve? Then ask: how do the as-
          • What kind of personality would work most effectively            sociation and department fit together; what is their relationship or
            with your supervisor?                                           interaction? Now ask the same questions regarding the job; why
          • What are the primary challenges you face in your day-           does the position exist, what is its purpose/function; and whom
            to-day work?                                                    does it serve. Also ask about the relationship or nature of interac-
          • What are the most routine or boring aspects of your             tion among the association, department or team, and position,
            job?                                                            itself. Once you have a brief description of these three levels
          • What changes would you be likely to make, if you                of the organization and their scope of activity, you can begin to
            could change aspects of your job?                               sketch in the detail of the position.
          • What training would have made you more effective in
            your work?                                                      This next step involves more asking questions, listening, and
          • What kind of person would you hire to replace you?              observation. You’ll need to talk to the person currently in the
          • How do you feel toward the association, as a whole?             position, as well as he people who interact with him/her. Co-
          • Do you feel the association is a good employer?                 workers typically know a great deal about what the job involves,
          • What aspects of the association would you change if             and probably have an opinion regarding what type of individual
            you had the opportunity?                                        would be successful in that position. So, complete an informa-
                                                                            tional interview or an exit interview with the outgoing person,
If you’ve developed a job description for the vacancy, or are               observe the employee and his/her coworkers performing their
working from an old description that may or may not be accu-                jobs, and ask questions about their work. You need to know the
rate, use the opportunity of the exit interview to troubleshoot the         specific responsibilities of the job, the skills required, and the
position before hiring a new person. You will want to ask the               performance level required.
outgoing individual if the responsibilities and scope of work in
the job description accurately reflect the job, and if the skills and        The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) re-
educational requirements are still valid. For example, are there            quires that a job analysis: “describe all important work behaviors,
any new tasks related to technological changes that are not cov-            their relative importance, and their level of frequency or diffi-
ered in the description? Are there any responsibilities listed that         culty.” Denying employment to someone in a protected category,
are outdated or irrelevant? Most job descriptions change over               such as a member of a minority group, specific age group, or dis-
time, so do not feel reluctant to modify the description to more            ability, must be associated with their ability to carry out the spe-
accurately reflect the needs and scope of work the job entails.              cific responsibilities of the job. A job analysis or profile that does
                                                                            not show the employment-related objectives required, justifying
It may be useful to observe the jobholder on the job and ask him/           candidate requirements for a position, may appear arbitrary, leav-
her questions before the exit interview, as well. This will allow           ing you open to accusations or claims of unfair discrimination.
you to understand the job more fully, and see how coworkers
interact with the individual.                                               Potential for error in a job analysis profile can be costly to you.
                                                                            Overestimating qualifications for a new position means you will
Job Analysis                                                                probably pay more than you needed to, as you are paying for
Hiring and keeping good people requires that you know the facts             skills that are not necessary to the job. Overqualified people also
regarding a position so you can find the right person for the job.           tend to get bored or dissatisfied with a position more quickly then
When you prepare a job analysis, you learn the reason or reasons            someone who is appropriately qualified. Underestimating a job’s
for the job’s existence and the specific tasks and skills required           level of complexity is also dangerous, as you risk hiring someone
for the position. Conducting a job analysis requires an assess-             who lacks the abilities you require in the position.
ment of the obligations and operations of the position, including
the qualifications required of the job.                                      Job Description
                                                                            The job description is written documentation that describes the
                                                                        2
responsibilities and duties of a specific job, its location in the           a significant positive effect on job performance and are highly
organization, and how it interacts with the other parts of the asso-        correlated with success in the position.
ciation. The job description should state the title of the position,
work involved, major and minor responsibilities, and its relation-          These fundamental characteristics are the educational, experi-
ship to the rest of the association. At minimum, it should include          ential, physical, and emotional criteria for the job, and should
identification of the job, including its title, the date, title of the       answer the following questions:
employee’s immediate supervisor, and whether the position is ex-                      • What level of experience is required?
empt or non-exempt, as well as a brief summary of the position’s                      • Is it a managerial position?
responsibilities and duties.                                                          • What technical skills are required?
                                                                                      • Does it require contact with customers or other
In developing a job description, it is sometimes helpful to ex-                         personnel?
amine the duties required first. This is usually the largest part of                   • Does it require the use of machines or computers?
the job description, and should include each task required, how                       • Does the job involve working with hazardous
it is performed, and its function. Organize the duties listing the                      materials?
most important first, to the least important, last. Be as specific                      • How much training will the job offer?
and detailed as possible. List each step of multi-step processes,                     • What field or fields of experience are required?
and indicate how frequently each task must be completed (daily,                       • What level of education is required to perform effec-
monthly, etc.). While it will not be possible to include every                           tively in the position?
detail of the position, make sure you include the most important                      • What specialized training or skills are required?
duties and responsibilities.                                                          • What certification, or bonding, if any, is required?
                                                                                      • What physical skills or strength is necessary?
Consider the responsibilities required of the position, includ-                       • What personality traits are useful in this position?
ing their relative importance. Describe supervisory oversight or                      • Is there room for promotional development?
authority over the position, amount and nature of contact with                        • Is there anything else unusual or unique about the job?
individuals inside and outside the association, if the position re-
quires access to confidential information, what level of complex-            To review, first develop short descriptions that provide a simple
ity or technical skills are required; what machinery or equipment           overview of the job; then add the detail regarding specific duties
is used, decision-making skills, conditions or terms of employ-             and responsibilities. Then, using observational and conversation-
ment, and anything else you consider relevant. After you have               al data with the person currently or formerly in the job, his/her
developed the job description, let the current jobholder review the         coworkers, and other people with similar jobs in the organization,
information for ease of understanding and accuracy. Once you                revise the job description, specs, and criteria for the job.
have made any necessary changes, you will use this job descrip-
tion to determine the job specifications.                                    Including too much information in the job description can be
                                                                            counterproductive. It is best to focus on responsibilities and out-
Job Specifications                                                           comes, rather than listing every detail of how the work is done.
Job specifications, or “specs,” describe the qualifications of the            Try to present a balanced picture of the position. It should help
job and any unusual aspects of the position. As you review the              you understand the position and how it interacts with the entire
job description, consider these questions:                                  organization. Always include as much technical and performance
         • What is the job’s purpose?                                       information as possible so that the candidates have a basic under-
         • What duties and day-to-day tasks are performed on the            standing of the job and what it requires.
            job?
         • Who supervises the position or has authority over it?            Technical skills are those that relate to specific skills, knowledge,
         • Who does this position supervise or have authority               or procedures, and/or the manipulation of certain materials or
            over?                                                           tools. Specifically include any required expertise with special-
         • What machines or equipment are required?                         ized tools, machinery, computer hardware or software. For ex-
         • What paperwork or recordkeeping is required?                     ample: use of a PC or Mac and software used to prepare reports,
         • Does the position require analytical abilities?                  schedule projects, or track inventory; or the ability to perform
         • What technical skills are required?                              routine maintenance on copy machines.
         • How much independent judgment is necessary?
         • What internal or external communication or contact is            You may have to determine whether you will require previous ex-
            required?                                                       perience and familiarity with specific technical skills and demand
                                                                            some level of expertise, or if you plan to provide some level of
Once you have determined the kind of personality, and amount                training. Technical skills are more easily learned on the job than
of experience, education, and intellect required of the job, you            performance skills, but you will probably want to require some
can begin to determine hiring criteria. You should establish these          level of basic or related experience.
requirements objectively, building from the information you have
considered in the job analysis, and listed in the job description,          If the position will require the performance of technical skills
and job specifics. It is important that you arrive at the selec-             immediately, as soon as employed, you will have to identify these
tion criteria independently. The best way to formulate selection            skills and confirm that the applicant will be able to learn a new
criteria is to isolate a number of distinct characteristics that have       or different system within 3 months, and that should be in the
                                                                        3
description. If, on the other hand, few or no technical skills are           When profiling a job:
needed, say so. Only list the technical skills that are necessary                   • Define the outcomes of the position: why does job ex-
(not just desirable) on the job. Listing unnecessary skills will                      ist, what impact does it have, what benefits result from
eliminate otherwise good candidates for the position. If the skill                    it?
is still desired later, you can train the person in the position. List              • List major job functions by completing the sentence:
only what is needed, then identify the performance skills.                            “The person in this position will accomplish objectives
                                                                                      by…”
Performance skills are associated with the manner in which an in-                   • Detail specific tasks to be completed;
dividual carries out responsibilities and duties. Performance skills                • List any unusual responsibilities, such as:
are work habits that characterize an individual’s personality traits                          • Dangerous or risky conditions (i.e., firefight-
and are reflected in good work habits such as enthusiasm on the                                  ers, police)
job, or the ability to learn new technical skills. Performance skills                         • Deadline pressure (i.e., paramedic, journalist)
include the way the individual interacts with his/her supervisor,                             • Complaint department (working with dissatis-
coworkers, and members. Performance skills entail:                                              fied clients or customers)
          • Ability to manage other individuals                                               • Travel or unusual working hours or conditions
          • Long and short-term planning abilities                                            • Responsibility to more than one supervisor
          • Decision-making abilities                                                         • Working from a remote location or home
          • Ability to follow policies and rules                                    • Establish the relative importance of each task
          • Collaborating/cooperating with other individuals or
            teams                                                            In this last step, consider all the jobs tasks that are primary to
          • Thinking independently or strategically                          achieving the position’s goals. Which tasks must be done well
          • Working with individuals inside and/or outside the               for the job to accomplish its primary objectives, and which can
            organization                                                     be done at a less proficient level of expertise, or are not really
          • Meeting deadlines                                                required at all? Ensuring that specific activities are completed
          • Persistence in the face of adversity or difficulties              exactly as they should be requires honestly assessing the rela-
          • Attention to detail                                              tive importance of each responsibility toward achieving the job’s
          • Learning new skills                                              mission. Evaluate each task according to the following criteria,
          • Expertise in technical or performance skills                     using an appropriate scale for frequency and duration of task,
                                                                             which provide some sense of job intensity, and communicate the
Using the right words is key to attracting the right people for              degree of expertise or how adept the candidate must be with a
the job. Be sure you are using the appropriate words to describe             task. For example:
what you need. Phrases like, “able to work in a fast-paced envi-
ronment and meet tight deadlines,” is very descriptive and will                       • How vital or critical is the task to achieving the
likely attract the kind of person who does best in that kind of job.                    position’s ultimate outcome?
If the job entails dealing with complaints, working late on a regu-                            Absolutely necessary to the objectives of the
lar basis, frequent travel, or other unusual characteristics, be sure                          job
to include it in the statement. Your application should also have                              Important but not necessary to the objectives of
a section in which the applicant can fill in his level of experience                            the job
in specific technical and performance skills, which will make it                                Less important and not necessary to the
easier for you to evaluate and compare the candidates on a com-                                objectives of the job
mon scale.
                                                                                      • At what intervals or how frequently is the task per
Responsibilities of a job are the objectives the individual is                          formed?
responsible for achieving. Duties are the physical acts that allow                            Multiple times daily
an individual to carry out those responsibilities. For example,                               At least once daily
to fulfill the objectives of making a sale, a person may have to                               Multiple times per week
carry out the duty of making cold calls to potential customers. To                            At least once per week
handle incoming phone calls, an individual would, for example,                                Multiple times per month
be required to answer all incoming calls by the third ring and                                At least once per month
be able to refer them to the appropriate individual. Establish the                            Multiple times per year
responsibilities of the job, first, then establish the methods for                             At least once per year
carrying out the required duties.
                                                                                      • For what period of time is the task performed
In describing the job, you may also set standards for essential                         (duration)?
job functions; these are minimum levels of certain capabilities,                               Continuously
including lifting or other physical requirements of a job, that are                            Several hours
critical to the position. Similarly, you may need to establish an                              At least one hour
expected level of performance; setting minimum guidelines for                                  Several minutes
qualified candidates, such as typing at least 40 words per minute.                              At least one minute
                                                                                               Less than one minute
                                                                         4
In addition to rating the relative value and importance of specific         a minimum wage and overtime after more than 40 working hours
required duties of the job, you may also need to evaluate the              per week. This rule does not apply to executive or professional
criteria related to human qualities that underlie a person’s ability       employees.
or proficiency. For example:
                                                                           Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) prohibits dis-
         • How proficient does the individual holding the position          crimination based on age for individuals at least 40 years of age,
           need to be to perform the tasks to product acceptable           meaning the criteria of age can not be used to pay one individual
           results?                                                        more than another, or as a reason to prefer one person over an-
                    Mastery/expertise                                      other in hiring. Positions, however, may reflect use of a senior-
                    Highly competent                                       ity system. If age is relevant to a position, it can be consider a
                    Competent                                              criterion.
                    Student/trainee
                                                                           The Vietnam Era Veteran’s Adjustment Assistance Act established
Compensation                                                               affirmative action for qualified disabled veterans of the Vietnam
Do some research before you set the range of compensation: De-             era. Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Vietnam
termine competitive rates by learning what similar companies in            Era Re-adjustment Assistance Act, and other laws require federal
and out of your area are paying similar employees. Review clas-            contractors and subcontractors to provide equal employment
sified ads or catalogues that provide common pay scales. Contact            opportunity regardless of race, gender, color, religion, national or-
the Chamber of Commerce or trade organizations in your area.               igin, disability, or Vietnam-era veteran status. Section 503 of the
                                                                           Rehab act of 73 requires federal contractors and subcontractors
You may have to determine if the position will pay hourly wages            with government contracts of more than $10,000 to take affirma-
or a salary. Certain conditions must be met for either category of         tive action to employ qualified individuals with disabilities.
pay, both exempt and non-exempt. Check the labor laws pertain-
ing to your area and association. These vary from state to state,          More relevant to small businesses is the Enforcement of Execu-
so best to review legal issues with a lawyer or consultant who             tive Order 11246, the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA),
knows employment law.                                                      which prohibits job discrimination in businesses with 15 or more
                                                                           employees. Both Section 503 and the ADA apply to individuals
Compensation may include incentives, such as a bonus or com-               with mental or physical impairments that limit hearing, vision,
mission, in addition to a salary or hourly pay. Perks may include          walking, performing manual tasks, among other impairments, and
travel expenses, use of a car, educational benefits, profit sharing,         also applies to individuals with AIDS, mental illness, former ad-
and/or stock options. If the position has potential for growth, it         dicts, or alcoholics, as these are defined as disabilities.
should be mentioned. If there is no room to move up or within
the organization, say so.                                                  Only individuals otherwise qualified for a position are protected
                                                                           by section 503 and the ADA. This means an individual must have
Legal Aspects of Hiring                                                    the minimum education, skill, training, or other required abili-
Before engaging in the process of hiring or developing a hiring            ties, and must be able to perform the essential functions of the
plan, consult a lawyer or consulting organization that specializes         job, with or without reasonable accommodation. This statement
in labor and employment law. Even the smallest associations                refers to adjustments or modifications in the job, environment, or
are required to follow legal codes regarding staffing, and there            equipment, among other changes, that enable an individual with
are a substantial number of do’s and don’ts inherent in human              disabilities to perform essential job functions. It requires reason-
resource policies and the hiring process. This section will review         able accommodation of a physical or mental disability, unless to
some of the rules and regulations of hiring, but it is by no means         do so would impose a critical difficulty or hardship, determined
complete. For further information regarding this topic, see the            by cost and effort to the business. For further information, refer to
Department of Labor Employment Standards Administration at                 http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/docs/accommodation.html
http://www.dol.gov/esa.
                                                                           It is unlawful to ask an applicant with a disability about the
Both the federal and state levels of government prohibit discrimi-         nature or degree of the disability, or use a medical examination
nation against people based on age, gender, race or ethnicity,             to screen applicants to determine disability. You may inquire
appearance, marital status, nationality or place of origin, religion       regarding an applicant’s ability to perform job-related functions,
or belief, disability, or pregnancy. Hiring criteria must be based         or ask an individual to demonstrate or explain how the individual
on legitimate business needs. This means that unless specific cri-          would be able to perform specific job-related tasks with reason-
terion is job based, it cannot be used in determining who is hired.        able accommodation. You may require a medical exam only if all
For more information, refer to: http://www.dol.gov/esa/regs/com-           employees applying for the position are required to undergo the
pliance/ofccp/how2/ofcpch6.htm                                             same relevant medical exam or answer the same questions. For
                                                                           more information, or any questions regarding job descriptions,
The Equal Pay Act of 1963, which applies to companies of two or            equal employment opportunity, drug-testing, training, safety
more workers, prohibits pay differentials on the basis of gender.          programs, employee handbooks, contracts, etc., contact the Office
“Equal pay for equal work” means equal use of skills and effort            of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP).
on the job as well as equal responsibility and working conditions.
The Fair Labor Standards Act requires employers to pay at least
                                                                       5
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 relates to
all employers, and prohibits the hiring of illegal aliens, impos-
ing sanctions on employers not in compliance. In practice, this
translates into a requirement, within 3 business days of the first
work day, for new employees to read and sign Form I-9, Em-
ployment Eligibility Verification, to certify eligibility to work,
and provide appropriate proof or documentation. Employers are
required to review the information, sign and keep a record of it.
Keep the form for at least 3 years, or one year beyond the last day
of the individual’s employment. Form I-9 may be requested by
the Immigration and Naturalization Service or the Dept of Labor
for inspection. Failure to verify an employee’s eligibility to work
can subject an employer to civil penalties. Do not forget this
simple verification and documentation procedure, as substantial
penalties may result.

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconcilia-
tion Act of 1996 requires reporting to federal and state agencies
specific information relating to a new employee, to insure there is
no fraudulent activity related to unemployment insurance, Med-
icaid, food stamps, or other sources of welfare, and may include
locating parents for child support, or to establish or enforce an
order of payment.

Keep employment documents, such as applications and referenc-
es, confidential and on-file. In some cases, these documents are
necessary to support or defend against employment-related law
suits regarding unfair employment practices or incompetence.
Do not write notes on an application or otherwise add comments
to it. If the information written on an application or resume is
inaccurate, return it to the applicant for clarification or correc-
tion. Store documents in an organized manner. All parts of an
application, interview notes, evaluations, or tests may be used to
defend against a claim of discrimination in hiring. Keep records
of employees for 3-5 years after the last day of employment.

You have a legal responsibility to hire within lawful guidelines.
Know your rights and the rights of applicants. Appropriate hiring
practices are your defense against negligent hiring claims. If you
do an adequate pre-employment background check, you cannot
be held liable for negligence in hiring. The importance of this
responsibility, due diligence, has resulted in many states enact-
ing statutes giving employers extra latitude in checking employ-
ment references. A comprehensive and well written employment
application is critically important to protect yourself from legal li-
ability. Make sure the application form you use is legally compli-
ant and meets the needs of your association.




                                                                         6
The Application Form
A good application form gives you the information you need to evaluate the applicant’s experience, skills, and knowledge, among
other job qualifications, for employment. Many employers have a standard application form that they adapt or tailor for each specific
job opening. The following application may be used as a guide for developing a basic application. Your specific needs will require
some adaptation of the form, as not all sections will be applicable to every job, and you may also wish to add more spaces for employ-
ment history or other sections in which you require more information.
Application Form
Date of Application________________
Applicant Name:

____________________                         ____________________                    ________
       Last (Family)                                First                            Middle

Current address:

____________________________                                               ____________________________
       Street address                                                             City, State, Zip Code

Permanent address (if different than current address):

____________________________                                               ____________________________
       Street address                                                             City, State, Zip Code

Contact telephone number with Area Code:

(    )                              (    )                                 (     )
Home                                Cell                                   Other

Type of employment desired:

            Full-Time                            Part-Time                    Summer/Temporary

Job/Work for which you are applying:

____________________________                             ____________________________
       First preference                                         Second preference

Any restriction regarding work location:


_______________________________________________________________________

Any restriction regarding work schedule:

_______________________________________________________________________

Date available for work:_________________                        Minimum salary required:___________________

Personal information:

_________________                               Eligible to work in the United States:           Yes               No
Social Security Number

Are you 18 years of age or older?                Yes                  No

Have you ever been convicted of a felony?                   No                 Yes Date of felony _________________

Do you have a relative employed at this company?            No                 Yes Name _________________

Have you ever applied at this company before?               No                  Yes Date _________________
                                                                      7
U.S. Military experience:

________________________            ______________           ______________
Branch of service                   Dates of service         Highest rank

Do you have obligations to the Reserve Armed Forces?            No            Yes

Note any special training received in service:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Educational history:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Most recent high school address and location

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Did you graduate from high school?           No _______________________         Yes_________
                                                  Highest grade completed            Date


Business or Technical school address and location

__________________________________________________________________________________________________


__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Certificate or degree received                     Dates attended

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
College or University address and location

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Certificate or degree received                     Dates attended

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Employment history: (List your most recent employment first)

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Business name                       Dates of employment       (Area code) phone number

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Business address, City, State, and Zip Code

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Job title                                         Reason for leaving

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Starting salary / Ending salary     Supervisor’s name and title

List main responsibilities:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________


__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Business name                       Dates of employment       (Area code) phone number

                                                                8
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Business address, City, State, and Zip Code

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Job title                                         Reason for leaving

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Starting salary / Ending salary     Supervisor’s name and title


List main responsibilities:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________


__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Business name                       Dates of employment       (Area code) phone number


__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Business address, City, State, and Zip Code


__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Job title                                         Reason for leaving


__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Starting salary / Ending salary     Supervisor’s name and title

List main responsibilities:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

List three references who know your work but were not supervisors:
Reference #1:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Name                                Contact telephone #1         Contact telephone #2


__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Title or position                   Company or organization Length of time known

How do you know the applicant?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Reference #2:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Name                                Contact telephone #1         Contact telephone #2

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Title or position                   Company or organization Length of time known

How do you know the applicant?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                9
Reference #3

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Name                                Contact telephone #1         Contact telephone #2

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Title or position                   Company or organization Length of time known


How do you know the applicant?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

My signature below certifies that all information on this application is correct and complete to the best of my knowledge. I understand
that intentionally false information, or any misrepresentation or omission of information requested on this application may be cause
for rejection of the application or subsequent dismissal from employment. I authorize any employers, schools, or individuals named
above to provide information regarding my education, employment, character, qualifications, and credentials. I authorize an investiga-
tion into any of the facts written in this application, and give permission to check my educational or business records, professional
or personal references, licensing information, criminal record, driving record, and credit record. I release any and all persons, busi-
nesses, agencies, and organizations responding to the investigation from liability for any damages related to the release of information
pertaining to this application. I understand I will be required to provide information for compliance with the Immigration Reform and
Control Act. I understand I may be required to have a physical examination, pre-employment evaluation, or drug test. I understand
and agree that employment with this company is voluntary and I may resign at any time.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
       Signature                                          Date

                                        Application will be active for a period of up to 90 days

If driving is required, you will need to add an additional section asking the following information:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Driver’s license number             State         Expiration date

Is this license valid?                  No                 Yes

Have you ever been denied a license, permit, or privilege to operate a motor vehicle?
   No               Yes Date ___________

Have you ever had a license, permit, or privilege to operate a motor vehicle suspended or revoked?
   No                Yes Date ___________

Have you had any traffic convictions or forfeitures in the past five years (do not include parking violations)?
#1
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
City and State                    Date                          Charge                     Penalty

#2
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
City and State                     Date                        Charge         Penalty
(Add page if more than two convictions or forfeitures in the past five years.)

Have you been in an accident in the past 5 years?         No              Yes     Date(s) ___________

Describe accident #1 (list nature of accident and injuries sustained)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Describe accident #2 (list nature of accident and injuries sustained)
(Add page if more than two accidents in the past five years.)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                   10
What to include on the application form: It is best to ask only             Age-related information: It is illegal to ask an applicant’s age,
about the information you need in order to evaluate the candidate.          unless it is specific to the job requirements. For example, certain
Once you have made a hiring decision, you can gather additional             positions require the applicant to be at least 18, or in some cases,
information. You will definitely need the applicant’s name, ad-              21 years of age.
dress, and contact telephone number. You will also need to know
the position for which the applicant is applying, his/her educa-            Some employers include personal questions regarding the ap-
tional experience and work history; training or skills required             plicant’s job-related aspirations or objectives. For example, how
by the position; ability to work the required hours and schedule;           do they expect this position to relate to their future career goals?
the date the applicant will be available for employment; whether            While this can be done, it is generally best to consider the follow-
he/she has the necessary experience, skills, and credentials; and           ing questions in regard to inquiries discussing any nonessential
whether the employment is full-time, part-time, temporary or                information:
seasonal, 9-5 or shift work.
                                                                                     (1) Is this information required now, or could this
Contact information: You may want to provide space for a home,                       question be asked after the job is awarded?
business, and cell phone number along with an address, and/or
ask for the best time to reach the individual. If the person is cur-                 (2) Does this question refer to a job-relevant responsibil-
rently employed, he or she may not want to accept phone calls re-                    ity or objective?
garding another job at his/her place of work. You may also want
to ask if there is a number where you can leave a message. Leave            If your answer to either question is “no,” do not include the ques-
enough space to provide ample room for all relevant information             tion on the application. The job application should not contain
to be clearly printed.                                                      questions that are not relevant to the job, or questions that are
                                                                            illegal. If you are an Equal Opportunity Employer (EOE), be sure
Special skills or experience: Include adequate sections and spac-           it is stated on the application form and in all other hiring docu-
es on the application form to learn information about job-relevant          ments, and do not ask any questions regarding the applicant’s
skills, experience, or knowledge. You may want information                  age, race or ethnicity, religion, national origin, gender, marital
related to driving experience and licensing, typing/keyboard                status, or disability. Also note if you encourage applications from
ability (including words per minute and accuracy rate), and/or              qualified applicants with disabilities. You may want to include
teaching/training or supervisory experience. It is best to include          a statement saying, “I understand that this employment applica-
questions that will help you determine if the individual meets the          tion, alone or with other documents and policy statements, is not
prerequisites for essential job functions, for example, asking the          a contract of employment.” To ensure your application is legal,
individual to state what languages he/she speaks fluently, or how            have it reviewed by legal counsel before putting it into use.
many words per minute he/she types. It is still necessary to test
or evaluate these skills in an interview to insure that the informa-        Include statements regarding the following:
tion is valid.
                                                                                     • Certification by the applicant that the information
Educational experience: At minimum, educational history                                provided is factual and complete to the best of his/her
should include high school, tech/vocational school, college/                           knowledge; evidence of false statements may lead to
university credit or experience in years, degree achieved, dates                       applicant dismissal without recourse
attended, Grade Point Average (GPA), honors, achievements, or                        • Authorization by the applicant regarding investigation
extracurricular activities, languages spoken fluently, military or                      of any information in the application
other special training. Do not require a degree if it is not neces-                  • Authorization by the applicant to check any or all of
sary to do the work competently.                                                       the following: criminal record, driving record, credit
                                                                                       history and rating, educational history, professional
Employment history: Past employment is one of the most signifi-                         certificates, degrees, or credentials, and references
cant pieces of information you can collect. Most employers ask                         Without this authorization, you may risk liability for
for at least three previous positions, while many ask for as many                      invasion of the applicant’s privacy
as five. You will need to learn the company or business name,                         • Notify the applicant that any offer of employment is
address, and telephone numbers; the dates of employment, start-                        conditional on confirmation of background check, drug
ing and ending salaries; contact information for the applicant’s                       test, or pre-employment evaluation, etc.
former supervisor; and the reason for leaving the position.                          • Note that the applicant must provide information
                                                                                       related to Immigration Reform and Control Act
References: You must ask for permission to check references                            compliance
along with contact information for each reference. While person-                     • Note that the employer may require a physical
al references will do if no professional references are available,                     examination, drug test, or other pre-employment
personal references do not provide the most relevant information;                      evaluations
that is, how the applicant performs in job-related functions. Ask-                   • If it is allowed in your state, you may want to:
ing how long and under what circumstances the applicant knew                                     • Include an “employment-at-will” statement,
the reference will provide a starting point from which you can                                     which reads: I understand and agree that my
learn more about the applicant and the nature of the reference.                                    employment is voluntary and that I may resign
                                                                                                   at any time.
                                                                       11
                  • Include a statement (if desired) that reads:            “Work History” should be examined with a critical eye. Con-
                    My employment may be terminated for any                 sider these specific areas: qualifications, experience, and career
                    reason at any time without previous notice.             evolution, and beware of any unexplained gaps in employment,
                                                                            or jumps from one job to another without career advancement.
The following questions or subjects should also be avoided:                 Learn to distinguish substantive language from “filler,” and look
                                                                            for specific job skills that you will need. For example, is the
         • Questions regarding gender, race, color, religious               applicant familiar with the word processing program your office
           denomination, or observance of religious holidays                uses? If so, he or she will be able to settle in and be useful that
         • Questions about family lineage, nationality, or any              much sooner than an applicant without this experience.
           questions regarding the applicant’s parents or spouse
         • Whether the applicant is married, divorced, or                   While appearance and format are important, do not let style rule
           separated, has a spouse, child, or children                      over substance. The appearance of the resume will, and should,
         • Whether the applicant plans to have a family or                  influence your feelings about how the applicant will suit the job.
           children, either currently or in the future                      If you’re looking for a creative person who thinks “outside the
         • How old the applicant is; you can ask if the individual          box,” you may look for a resume that has some decorative flair or
           is at least 18 years of age                                      appeal, with interesting font or a design and color that stands out.
         • If the applicant has ever been arrested; you can ask if          Similarly, if the office environment is very corporate or conserva-
           he or she has ever been convicted of a crime                     tive, you may be attracted to a resume that uses a more traditional
         • You cannot ask for information regarding the                     style on an off-white background.
           applicant’s birthplace or the applicant’s parents’ birth
           places or the applicant’s spouse’s birthplace.                   In looking through resumes, scan for red flags, or danger signals,
         • Has the applicant ever been treated for any impairment           as well as indications of potential and achievement. Very general
           or malady; you can ask if the applicant has any work-            or broad job descriptions with little specificity are usually more
           related disability or impairment.                                dangerous than named, quantifiable qualifications. Be aware that
         • The applicant’s maiden name; you can ask if the                  advanced degrees may hide lack of on-the-job experience. Look
           applicant has ever worked under any other name                   for skills attained as well as degrees achieved. If the resume con-
         • Any questions regarding the applicant’s citizenship or           veys emotion, what emotion is it? Does hostility show through?
           country of origin, except you can ask: Are you a                 If you feel “attitude” in a resume, you may also sense it surfacing
           citizen of the USA?                                              on the job.
         • Any questions regarding military experience outside of
           the USA.                                                         It is your responsibility to guard against false information by
                                                                            checking references and educational records. Applicants who
Resumes                                                                     lie or distort information are betting that you will not be looking
While resumes, or curriculum vitae, come in many different                  into their histories in detail. Research studies suggest that a great
formats and levels of complexity, they all tend to give a positive          many people “creatively embellish” the content of their resume,
or idealized impression of the applicant’s abilities and experience.        misrepresenting academic credentials other historical elements
There is little evidence that a good resume means a good employ-            even thought these details can be checked relatively easily.
ee, so you will need to scrutinize resumes and applications care-
fully and skeptically, reading between the lines. Most resumes              Screening Applicants
have three or four main sections: Objectives, Educational History,          Perhaps the first step in screening resumes or applications is re-
Work History, and “other,” miscellaneous information.                       moving the most obviously mismatched individuals from the pile,
                                                                            and keeping those who show promise. Many interviewers make
The “Objectives” section of a resume typically includes a short             three piles: yes, maybe, and no. Those in the “no” pile receive
statement summarizing the applicant’s career goals. Check to                rejection letters immediately, while the maybes and the yeses
see if the stated career objectives match or relate to the position         move on to the next screening stage.
for which you are hiring, and review the statement for clarity and
specificity. Does the statement make sense? If it is vague or inde-          It is sometimes useful to have someone not involved in hiring
cisive, it may be indicative of a person with unclear employment            decisions review all applications, pulling out information that
goals. While this is not alone a reason to reject an applicant, it          has been included on the application or resume that should not
will give you some idea about how the applicant expresses him/              be there or be used as hiring criteria, for example, date of birth
herself in writing.                                                         and information about one’s marital status should be crossed out,
                                                                            and any photos or unnecessary personal information should be
“Educational History” includes formal educational programs as               removed from a file so neither can influence hiring in one way or
well as any specialized training, professional development, or              another.
technical programs, usually including degrees or certificates re-
ceived, if the applicant graduated from the course or courses, and          Once you receive the application, you can review it for some
Grade Point Average (GPA), class standing, or academic honors               basic information. Note any “danger signs,” such as a spotty job
achieved. Look for an educational background that clearly meets             history with long periods of unemployment, repeatedly changing
the requirements, plus any items that indicate an openness and              jobs after short periods of employment, and/or moving fre-
interest in learning skills related to the position.                        quently. You may also want to note salary requirements far out of
                                                                       12
your range, a great deal of education and experience not needed              Applicant   Education   Experience Salary    Ability A   Ability B
for the job, or any restrictions in hours available that would make          Applicant   14          7          10        7           2
scheduling a trial.                                                          A
                                                                             Applicant   10          2          5         10          6
         • Pull out messy or incomplete applications and resumes.            B
           Illegible handwriting or sloppiness in completing the             Applicant   5           9          2         6           10
           application is usually a red flag, although there are              C
           exceptions to this rule.                                          Applicant   8           1          2         3           4
         • Note inconsistencies or errors                                    D
         • Look at the specific training, skills, and experience
           required for the job. Does this applicant meet the               Telephone screening interview: The screening interview is a
           “must have” attributes?                                          useful way to discriminate among a large number of candidates
         • Look for obvious reasons not to hire an individual;              quickly and fairly. Screening interviews should be scheduled in
           significant deficiencies in areas in which you cannot              advance, like an interview, and typically take place on the phone
           afford to be flexible.                                            or through e-mail. They consist of a short series of questions tak-
         • Consider information omitted from the application,               ing only a few minutes to answer.
           including any blanks in necessary areas of education or
           job experience.                                                  In a screening interview, the caller verifies that the applicant
         • Look for a general evolution or advancement in                   meets all the basic requirements of the job description: the “must
           position, salary, responsibilities, etc.                         haves.” Questions might include:
         • Has the applicant stayed a short time at many different
           businesses? If so, there is probably a greater likelihood                 What is your current position and what don’t you like
           that he/she will leave your employ, unless the job suits                  about it?
           him/her very well
         • Is the applicant’s salary in line with what you are                       Do you meet clients in your current job?
           planning to offer? Depending on the economy and
           the position, you may be able to eliminate applicants                     What word processing or other software programs do
           looking for much higher compensation than you can                         you use in your job or have experience with?
           give. If the salary you are offering is much more or
           less than the applicant has made in prior positions, you                  How many words per minute do you type?
           may be underestimating the experience and skills
           required for the job.                                                     Are you responsible for all the office accounting?
         • Look for long or frequent gaps in employment history.
           The ending date of one job should be followed by the                      Would you be able to work every Saturday?
           starting date of another. If the rest of the application
           or resume looks good, note these gaps for follow-up                       Are you fluent in any other language?
           during the interview.
         • Note any applicants with a great deal of movement                If you leave the conversation feeling the candidate is qualified,
          from one career or industry to another. If the rest of the        you might want to set up a follow-up interview, in person. An
          application or resume looks good, note these areas for            invitation for interview should be e-mail or mailed traditionally.
           follow-up during the interview.                                  The note should also include the applicant’s date, name, and ad-
         • Are the reasons for leaving plausible, given the                 dress, your name and title, and a statement such as:
           applicant’s movement from one job to another? Has
           the applicant moved laterally, but not upward in                          Thank you for responding to our employment opportu-
           position?                                                                 nity. I would like to meet with you to discuss your suit-
         • Look for employment stability.                                            ability for the position. Please contact me to schedule a
         • Identify anything else that requires some attention in                    personal interview.
           the interview.
                                                                            If you have chosen a date and time for the interview, it is custom-
A selection matrix like that below can help you rate final contend-          ary to inform the applicant how long the interview will last and
ers, those you will call for a screening interview or invite for a          how many people he or she will be meeting with that day. If you
personal interview. This is a way to note attributes necessary to           are unsure or think they do not meet the requirements, thank them
the job and the degree to which the applicant matches required              for talking with you in the screening interview and send a formal
attributes, on a scale, for example of 1-10, in which 1 is equal to         rejection letter, which should include the date, their name and ad-
“not at all,” and 10 is equal to “exact match.”                             dress, your name and title, and a statement such as:

                                                                                     Thank you for your interest in our company. Your
                                                                                     qualifications were not a suitable match for this posi-
                                                                                     tion. We will keep your resume on file for a period of 6
                                                                                     months, and will consider you, should a position for
                                                                       13
         which you are suited become available.                            suggesting by your words or tone that one answer versus another
                                                                           is right, wrong, or preferred in any way, or expressing a precon-
Preparing for the Interview                                                ceived notion or assumption about the individual. For example,
When you schedule an interview, make sure that the location will           “Are you cold?” is preferable to “You’re not cold, are you?” The
be quiet and conducive to the occasion. An in-depth interview              second question is more likely to skew the client’s response be-
can take anywhere from a half-hour to three hours, but in most             cause it suggests the practitioner’s anticipation or predisposition
cases, should probably take a maximum of about 45 minutes                  to hearing a negative response.
with each person the candidate is required to meet. Try to give
candidates a realistic idea, in advance, of how long the meeting(s)        You can ask questions about many different topics, including past
will be so he she can plan or schedule accordingly. You’ll want            positions, the current job opening, the applicant’s work habits and
to leave enough time for the candidate to respond fully to your            values, personal preferences, attitudes and opinions, skills and
questions as well as ask his/her own questions of you.                     abilities. There are specific questions, however, that you should
                                                                           not ask. The EEOC has set up guidelines regarding selection
The central purpose of the interview is an opportunity for the             criteria that require interview questions to be based on job-related
employer and applicant to get to know one another. The inter-              standards. Criteria used to select employees must be demonstra-
viewer will be trying to determine if the applicant is qualified            bly related to job duties. To help you avoid dangerous territory,
for the job, will fit in with the office culture or environment, and         ask the following:
if and how the applicant will benefit the company. Before you
schedule an interview, you should develop list of questions that                    Does this question screen out a particular category of
will help you narrow down the field of candidates. In asking good                    person?
questions, you channel the direction of a conversation, to get                      Is the question absolutely necessary for judging job
specific information or learn more about a subject. Make sure                        capability?
the speaker understands the context of your questions and reasons                   Is this discriminatory?
for asking them so he/she can provide the most specific, relevant
information.                                                               Is this question necessary and relevant to the job? If not, don’t
                                                                           ask it. It is, however, always acceptable to ask all applicants if
Open-ended questions encourage exploration. They are broad                 they have any condition that would prevent them from perform-
and non-specific, giving the individual freedom to express both             ing the job. Avoid questions about the applicant’s personal life,
the amount and depth of information he/she chooses. Open-                  including plans to start a family or have more children. Asking
ended questions provide an opportunity for a skillful interviewer          for information on the grounds that something might interfere
to learn more about the applicant and communicate a willingness            with the job is not enough.
to listen. Open-ended questions help the speaker talk more about
what he or she is thinking and feeling: “Tell me about your quali-         Do not ask about race, religion, national origin, or ethnicity.
fications,” for example, or “What were some of your accomplish-             Do not ask for educational requirements in the job that are not
ments in your last position,” are open-ended questions that invite         required of the position.
the applicant to address a topic in their own words and at greater         Do not ask about arrests and/or convictions.
length. Some open-ended questions or statements are:                       Do not ask about gender, marital, or familial situation.
                                                                           Do not ask questions relating to physical properties of the indi-
         What kind of job are you looking for?                             vidual except when they are specific to the job (i.e., be able to lift
         Tell me about your last position.                                 and carry 50 pound boxes).
         Why did you resign from your last job?                            Do not ask questions related to age.

Closed-ended questions tend to emphasize facts over feelings,              Avoid the following or questions like them:
and elicit shorter, more specific responses, but can risk the possi-
bility of missing significant details about an individual’s thoughts        How old are you?
and feelings. An example of a closed-ended question is: “What              When did you graduate from high school?
was your salary in your last full-time job?” Such questions have           What was your maiden name?
their place but tend to overlook important information if they are         What clubs do you belong to?
the only questions asked. Other examples of closed-ended ques-             What church do you belong to?
tions are:                                                                 What is your background?
                                                                           Are you married/planning to get married?
         Have you ever run a cash register?                                Do you have children/Are you planning to have children?
         Do you use a computer?
         Do you speak Spanish fluently?                                     The Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 includes in its definition
                                                                           of handicapped individuals those with non-contagious diseases
Questions should be phrased in a neutral or unbiased way to                who can perform their duties without risk to themselves or others.
avoid “leading” the speaker in a particular direction. Seemingly           The Americans with Disabilities ACT (ADA) protects individuals
minor differences in wording can encourage wildly different                with AIDS as with any other disability, and an employer cannot
responses. Examine your phrasing to avoid any language that                discriminate on that basis unless the employer can demonstrate
might cue the speaker to respond in a particular way, such as              that the disability (or illness) would adversely affect the individu-
                                                                      14
al’s ability to perform the job.                                            What are your strengths and weaknesses related to this kind of
                                                                            work?
Do not ask: Do you have a disability?                                       What do you see yourself doing five to ten years from now?
Do ask: Do you have any impairment that would keep you from                 Why should you be hired in this position?
fulfilling job requirements?                                                 Do you have any questions?

The bulk of the interview time will be spent asking questions               Active Listening: In active listening, you give the individual your
and learning as much as possible about the applicant. If you are            full attention, both in regard to verbal and non-verbal communi-
concerned about the applicant’s ability to work long hours, ask             cation. Apply these principles of active listening to increase the
him or her, specifically, about the ability to work overtime, and            accuracy and reliability of information shared by the applicant:
explain that is what the job requires. False advertising serves
neither the applicant nor the interviewer. Both of you want to                          • Don’t “multitask” when you speak to him/her, in per-
make the most informed decisions you can make.                                            son or on the phone, or let competing business matters,
                                                                                          calls, paperwork, or other aspects of your work keep
Keep application materials and employment records for a period                            you from listening attentively to what an applicant has
of at least one year after hiring in case an applicant files any kind                      to say.
of grievance against you or the association. Retain job applica-                        • Give adequate time for answers. Never interrupt or
tions for those you have hired for a period of at least three years.                      rush a response.
                                                                                        • Paraphrase the response. Accurately restating his/her
Conducting interviews                                                                     comments in your own words is a way to confirm that
If you will be requiring any written evaluation or test, such as a                        you interpreted the statement correctly.
typing test, for example, it makes sense to administer it before an                     • Address any inconsistencies or misunderstandings and
interview, as those who do not do well on the test will not need to                       clarify ambiguities.
be interviewed. The same holds true for writing samples; review-                        • Summarize what you have heard, reviewing the most
ing them some time before interviews are schedules allows you to                          significant points and relevant implications.
save interview time by only interviewing those individuals who
provide acceptable writing samples.                                         If you are anxious or rushed, you will probably be a poor listener.
                                                                            Ask pertinent questions regarding work history, educational expe-
Arrange a time and place where you will not be interrupted and              rience, and professional objectives. Allow the applicant to fully
there are few distractions. It is customary to take written notes,          answer your questions, without rushing a response. Remember
not only to confirm that you have covered all the topics, but to             that you do not need to fill every silent moment with words.
ensure you remember important details and/or follow-up ques-                Sometimes, at these moments, it is best to remind yourself that
tions. Always listen carefully to each response, and do not miss            you do not have to keep the conversation “going.” Spend your
an answer because you are thinking ahead to the next question.              time listening and asking questions, rather than responding with
                                                                            lengthy discussion. You will find that speaking less encourages
In the first part of the interview, you should try to make the ap-           the applicant to speak more.
plicant feel comfortable and at ease. Once you have introduced
yourself, discuss the objectives of the interview, how the inter-           Periods of silence can also be educational parts of the interview.
view will proceed, and the kind of information you’ll be requir-            Use silence to study the candidate, or ask him/her if he/she has
ing. You might say, “I’ll tell you a bit about the association, and         any questions. Pay attention to the applicant’s verbal and non-
you can tell me a bit about yourself.” Let the applicant know               verbal communication. Is the individual comfortable with eye
about how long you expect the interview, or your part of it, to             contact? At the end of the interview, it is customary to ask the
take, and let the applicant know you will be happy to answer any            applicant if he/she has any questions. You can sometimes learn
questions they have. Explain that hiring decisions are not made             about the applicant from the kind of questions he/she asks. For
at the end of the interview, and that they will be notified in writ-         example, if the client knows something about your association, it
ing at some later date. You may want to tell the applicant if more          may show initiative, curiosity, or the presence of mind or ability
than one interview will be necessary.                                       to investigate or prepare before the interview.

The interrogative portion of the interview delves into the appli-            Negative                 Nonverbal Communi-    Positive
cant’s background, skills, and goals. Select from the questions                                       cation
you have prepared in advance. If the applicant volunteers per-               Discourages communi-                           Encourages communi-
sonal information relating to any of the off-limit areas discussed           cation                                         cation
earlier, steer him/her away from the topic, saying, “We don’t use
that information in hiring decisions.” Then return to a pertinent            Staring; shifting gaze   Eye Contact           Appropriate eye contact
question regarding the job, such as:
                                                                             Does not match emo-      Facial Expression     Matches emotional
                                                                             tional expression and                          expression and tone of
Tell me about yourself.                                                      tone of speaker; cold;                         speaker; compassionate;
Why do you want this position?                                               detached                                       warm
What educational or business experience have you had to prepare
for this job?
                                                                       15
 Too loud; too soft;          Tone of Voice                 Matches emotional tone            Initiative         Rating ?        Rating ?          Rating ?
 speaks into hand,                                          of speaker and situation,         Ambition/drive     Rating ?        Rating ?          Rating ?
 mumbles;                                                   speaks clearly; warm
                                                                                              Manner/affect      Rating ?        Rating ?          Rating ?
 Does not speak at            Speaking Rate                 Speaks at a natural,              Speaking ability   Rating ?        Rating ?          Rating ?
 conversational pace; too                                   deliberate pace                   Writing ability    Rating ?        Rating ?          Rating ?
 fast; too slow; sounds
 nervous or uncom-                                                                            Enthusiasm/        Rating ?        Rating ?          Rating ?
 fortable; may sound                                                                          energy
 impatient                                                                                    Question(s)
 Tense, jerky, or distract-   Gestures                      Natural, appropriate              Notes
 ing movements that                                         movements
                                                                                              Summary rating     Rating ?        Rating ?          Rating ?
 don’t facilitate com-
 munication
                                                                                             Background Checks
 Crowds speaker, or sits      Personal Space                Maintains appropriate            A background check usually includes the following:
 too far away                                               (arms-length) distance                   • Confirmation of Employment
 Leans or turns away;         Physical Bearing              Leans toward speaker;                    • Confirmation of Education
 uncomfortable                                              relaxed                                  • Confirmation of Licensing
 Sleepy; lethargic; has       Energy Level                  Alert and attentive                      • Credit Rating
 trouble concentrating                                      throughout interaction                   • Driving Record
                                                                                                     • Criminal Record
Before the end of the interview, confirm that you have the cor-
rect contact information for follow-up with the applicant. Tell                              A Consumer Report can provide a great deal of this type of data
the applicant approximately when and how they will be notified                                in a relatively short period of time, including employment history,
of your decision, if you know, and that you will be contacting                               residential and other personal information. There are two types
references listed in the application Review your notes to ensure                             of consumer reports. Both are written or verbal statements to the
that you have asked about all essential topics. Take a few minutes                           employer discussing the applicant’s credit rating and potential for
after the interview, when it is fresh in your mind to write yourself                         further credit, as well as other personal characteristics.
notes summarizing the interview or rate the applicant on neces-
sary attributes [see qualification matrix, below]. Note any of these                          Investigative credit reports have all the information of basic
interview warning signs:                                                                     consumer reports, but can also have interview data from neigh-
                                                                                             bors, colleagues, and friends. While much of this is public data,
           - Applicant arrives late without an explanation                                   the Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1997 requires that
           - Applicant quit a job without adequate notice                                    employers disclose to the applicant in the application that they
           - Applicant does not provide verifiable business refer                             will be using consumer reporting data in hiring decisions. Failure
             ences, or provides only personal references                                     to do so may constitute a violation of the applicant’s privacy.
           - Applicant reveals confidential information
           - Applicant speaks negatively about one or a number of                            If you deny employment because of information in a consumer
             coworkers, etc.                                                                 report, you need to provide the applicant a copy of the report and
           - Applicant is involved with a wrongful termination suit                          a list of legal rights relating to the use of credit reports. Rules
           - Applicant cannot provide specific examples to support                            regarding credit checks vary from state to state, so it is best to use
             general statements he/she makes                                                 credit reports according to qualified legal advise.
           - Applicant is very vague about job responsibilities
           - Applicant talks very little or only about non-job-related                       Reference Checks
             subjects                                                                        Past job performance is generally the most accurate predictor
                                                                                             of future performance, so checking references is one of the best
In evaluating the interview:                                                                 things you can do to assure yourself a good employee. Surpris-
         • Base judgments on demonstrated performance, not                                   ingly, only a small percentage—perhaps 10-15 percent—of
           expected performance.                                                             employers check an adequate number of references. The prob-
         • Do not assume expertise in one area suggests expertise                            lem with reference checks is they are only effective when done
           in another area.                                                                  correctly, and this takes some time and effort.
         • Compare performances on measurable observable
           standards, rather than among competitors                                          Many references will be “good;” that is, “positive,” but few will
                                                                                             be effective in providing the information you need to make hiring
                              Qualification Matrix                                            decision. It is hard to tell, for example, from an isolated inter-
 Area                   Applicant A           Applicant B          Applicant C               view, if you are getting objective or biased information. You may
 Job-related educa-     Rating ?              Rating ?             Rating ?                  also find individuals resistant or unhappy about providing refer-
 tion                                                                                        ences. This can happen for a number of reason: Some businesses
 Job-related expe-      Rating ?              Rating ?             Rating ?                  have a policy of releasing only very general information about
 rience                                                                                      a former employee, such as the fact that he/she was employed
                                                                                             at the company, and the dates, but no opinion or substantive
                                                                                        16
information beyond those facts. Former supervisors with negative             working through the network of individuals with whom the ap-
information may be worried about possible litigation by the ap-              plicant has been employed, you can usually complete enough
plicant for defamation. Personnel or Human Resource divisions                in-depth reference checks to insure the applicant is a good bet.
may also be hesitant to provide information on former employees              Lawyers recommend getting at least three references from rel-
for fear of being sued.                                                      evant sources, such as former supervisors or managers, cowork-
                                                                             ers, or customers. This means you have a minimum of 9 refer-
Be as persuasive as possible. Verify that all the information                ences, which will usually take you beyond the applicant’s list of
discussed is strictly confidential. Stress that the applicant will            business references.
benefit from the conversation, as you are not able to employ an
individual without confirming specific facts. If the individual is             With each person, introduce yourself and say that you are consid-
still uncomfortable or resistant, ask to speak with his/her superior,        ering the applicant for a positioning with your company. Confirm
to secure permission, or have the applicant call each reference to           that you are talking with someone who worked directly with the
give his/her specific approval. Getting useful information out of a           applicant. Confirm job title of applicant at the time employed,
reference takes some finesse and interviewing ability, but persis-            length of time applicant was employed at the company, and/or
tence usually proves effective                                               dates of employment, responsibilities required of him/her, in the
                                                                             position, the nature of the work, if the applicant was promoted,
Avoid asking for a reference. Instead, ask if you can double-                and starting or ending salary, if relevant. It is usually best to use a
check or verify a few points regarding the applicant’s history.              structured list of questions to insure you ask everything neces-
Be friendly, and begin with the most basic factual information,              sary, but do not hesitate to ask questions you had not planned in
Most of what you will be doing in verifying references is simply             advance, if they are pertinent to your decision. You might ask:
confirming the dates of employment, specific titles, and names of
supervisors. Stick to factual information, and confirm any skills                      - How long have known [applicant]?
claimed by the applicant. You may also ask about personal char-                       - When did [applicant] work with/for you?
acteristics and/or any other areas of concern to you.                                 - What was [applicant’s] title?
                                                                                      - What was [applicant’s] starting and ending salary?
The following people make the best references, for your purpos-                       - What were [applicant’s] responsibilities?
es: any previous supervisor, colleague, manager, or customer—all                      - Why did [applicant] leave the job or company?
can be useful. The least useful references typically come from the                    - How did [applicant] work with others?
human resources or personnel team, because these people usually                       - Was [applicant’s] performance above or below aver-
did not work closely with the applicant on a daily basis. The                           age?
best and most detailed information typically comes from a recent                      - How would you describe [applicant’s] work habits?
former manager or supervisor. In a small company, speaking to                         - How would you describe [applicant’s] personality?
the owner of the company may prove useful.                                            - How would you describe [applicant’s] attitude?
                                                                                      - How did [applicant] deal with adversity?
For accuracy as well as legal protection (you can be held liable                      - Did [applicant] follow instructions?
for negligent hiring practices related to reference checks), you                      - How many days did [applicant] miss due to illness?
need to check information with a number of references. Informa-                       - Was applicant frequently late?
tion from one reference is highly suspect. By checking a number                       - Would you rehire the applicant for this job?
of references in adequate depth you are better able to identify
an unreliable or problematic reference among them. With each                 Checking references by phone will give you more nonverbal
contact with whom you speak, you can more accurately judge the               communication cues than e-mail or mail communication—people
reliability of the information, overall. Don’t skimp on this step.           tend to reveal more in speaking than writing. Phone calls are im-
Contact as many references as you need to, to feel certain about             mediate and efficient ways to check reference. Avoid relying on
the candidate.                                                               personal references or letters of recommendation. These individ-
                                                                             uals are highly unlikely to provide negative comments. In many
You may find it useful to require an information sheet with in-               cases, letters of recommendation are written by the applicant, and
depth information about each reference, reference’s company,                 signed by the reference.
location, position and title, previous supervisor, title and period
of time employed by the company. Include a statement such                    Many employers choose to check references after the interview,
as “Are there any former employers, coworkers, supervisors,                  but a more prudent, cost-effective strategy is to call before sched-
managers, or personal references that you would not like me to               uling the interview screen ing out candidates who do not pass
contact? This gives you a context to the reference. If there are             confirmation of their application materials or resume. Interviews
difficulties with any individuals, it will likely come out in this            are very time consuming and labor intensive. Checking refer-
section.                                                                     ences before interviewing can also provide subject matter for the
                                                                             interview
Ask everyone with whom you speak if he or she will give you
the name of someone else in the company who is familiar with                 It is relatively common that the applicant does not want you to
the applicant’s abilities. Rather than speak to the contact person           contact his/her current employer because it will inform him or her
specifically mentioned by the applicant, use that person to meet              that he/she is looking for a new job. To overcome this obstacle,
another person who is familiar with the applicant’s work. By                 you may want to tell applicant that employment with your orga-
                                                                        17
nization is contingent upon getting a positive reference from the           sequent work. If a manager or board member is not intimately
current employer.                                                           acquainted with the needs of the project, he or she should engage
                                                                            in research, consult local vendors, manufacturers, and suppliers,
Making an Offer                                                             and consider hiring a project manager with the appropriate skills,
A written offer to the final candidate should include:                       i.e., engineer, contractor, architect, etc, not to bid on the project,
         • Job title                                                        personally, but provide oversight, as needed.
         • Job location
         • Person to report to                                              Project specifications that clearly describe the work required
         • Start date and time                                              should include these details:
         • Responsibilities and requirements                                         • Bonding rate and requirements.
         • Compensation, including benefits                                           • Geographic location where the work is required,
         • Review dates                                                                including the building address, units involved, and
         • Special compensation, such as moving expenses                               common areas included or affected by the project.
         • Information required by law, such as proof of citizen-                      Usually, a map of the area is included.
           ship or work visa                                                         • Insurance and liability: minimum requirements for
         • Any contingency information required, such as a final                        general liability and workers’ compensation, owned
           reference check                                                             and non-owned automobile coverage; naming of the
                                                                                       association as additional insured, and confirmation of
Bidding, Procurement, and RFP’s                                                        proof of insurance by the first day of work. Also
Projects, such as maintenance or building services, usually                            details who is responsible for any damage to property,
require labor in the form of independent contractors, who may                          as well as how claims will be handled and resolved.
or may not be responsible for their own equipment, materials,                        • Known contractors, subcontractors, and employees: list
machinery, and related supplies. Management’s responsibility                           of contact information including business name,
for procurement includes getting bids, choosing a contractor,                          contact, mailing address, fax and telephone numbers,
and project management related to any work performed for the                           etc…
association, including any maintenance, replacement, or repair of                    • Known vendors and suppliers: list of contact informa-
association property.                                                                  tion including business name, contact person, mailing
                                                                                       address, fax and telephone numbers, etc…
Soliciting Bids                                                                      • Locations at the association where contractors may
An association’s governing documents typically specify the                             store their supplies and equipment.
parameters associated with contractual work and bids; these may                      • Permits and licensing: specifies required permits and
include a specific dollar amount, over or under which a bid is or                       licensing, who is responsible for obtaining them, and
is not required, the time-frame required for the service, repair,                      conformation of proof of permits and business licenses
or replacement, as well as the frequency or level of difficulty the                     before work begins.
project entails. Bids are usually required for projects of a larger                  • Product data sheets: Formal documentation for
scale, and for regular or ongoing needs. Some of the initial issues                    products, including how to use it, colors and types
and questions related to bid specifications include:                                    available, and composition.
          • The amount and source of required funds                                  • Project expectations: the extent of repair, replacement,
          • The amount of time and process associated with releas-                     or modification required
            ing appropriate funds                                                    • Supervision and inspections: frequency and intervals
          • The length of time required from initiation to project                     for inspecting work in progress and completion, who
            completion                                                                 is responsible for on-site supervision, inspections, and
          • The level of expertise required of labor and appropriate                   final approval.
            certification of workers                                                  • Supplies/materials: What party chooses, purchases,
          • Equipment, machinery, materials, and other supplies                        and provides required materials and supplies; should
                                                                                       include details regarding appearance, color, amount,
Association managers should recognize and be realistic about                           transportation and delivery, storage, etc.
their own limitations regarding work for the association. While                      • Terms of payment: describes the method and dates of
association managers may handle some maintenance requests,                             required payments, billing and invoicing specifications,
managers commonly work with contractors of goods and                                   and any percentage of retention to be kept by the
services, which usually involves preparation of the Request for                        association until work is complete.
Proposal (RFP) or bid form and distribution to potential contrac-                    • Timeframe and penalties: should include a schedule
tors, choice of contractor, and development of a viable contract.                      that stipulates project deadlines, including the date by
Association managers who are able to write effective RFP’s have                        which the contractor must begin the project and the
great value, as they are able to find and select capable contrac-                       date of completion. Failure to meet these deadlines
tors who can get the job done within the necessary timeframe and                       may result in penalties, the amount and terms of which
budget.                                                                                should be specified. Penalties may also result from
                                                                                       failure to comply with contract provisions.
Managers should not hesitate to hire personnel with the necessary                    • Trash and cleanup: specifies who is responsible for
expertise to assist them in managing the bidding process and sub-                      daily and final cleanup and trash disposal
                                                                       18
         • Warranties: parts and materials that are covered by                        (b) It is preferred that the contractor be capable of cover-
           manufacturer warranties, and labor covered                                    ing the entire state;
           by the contractor. Specifications usually stipulate the                        however, this is not a bid requirement; It is required
           delivery of manufacturer service manuals including                            that bidders give their geographic coverage by county
           warranty terms and repair.                                                    or zip code;

The RFP                                                                      Subcontractor Technical Requirements. During the period of
Once required specifications have been established, a formal                  this Agreement, Subcontractor agrees that it will maintain, at a
request for proposal (RFP) or a more informal “letter of interest”           minimum, the following performance and technical capabilities:
can be developed and distributed to interested vendors or contrac-                    (a) Subcontractor shall maintain an e-mail capability
tors specifying information relevant to the project and refer-                            sufficient to handle the work capacity covered by this
ences for similar work completed previously by an individual or                           agreement, and must be able to receive initial land-
company.                                                                                  scaping orders and order-related communications via
                                                                                          email on a 24-hour basis;
Provide the most specific information possible, especially regard-                     (b) Subcontractor shall have facsimile equipment
ing your needs and budget. In interviewing candidates, be certain                         sufficient to handle the work capacity covered by this
the individual or company is familiar with the community’s                                agreement, and must be able to receive landscaping
governing documents. Make sure to specify each task required                              orders and order-related communications via facsimi-
and who is responsible for its completion. Ensure the company is                          le on a 24-hour basis;
familiar with applicable codes and community requirements for                         (c) Subcontractor shall be familiar with, and meet all
repairs or remodeling. Above all, engage professionals; individu-                         computer security requirements mandated by the
als who are experts in the required area.                                                 applicable provisions of federal law and regulations,
                                                                                          and the Y/X M&M prime contract;
RFP’s for large projects with many specifications should include                       (d) Subcontractor shall have digital camera equipment
a cover letter summarizing information in the RFP and announc-                            sufficient to handle the capacity covered by this
ing the deadline for receipt of bids. Many managers also in-                              agreement;
clude a date or dates for a required on-site meeting in which the                     (e) Subcontractor shall maintain proof of certifications
manager and interested bidders will walk through and discuss the                          and licenses required for each employee used in
project. Managers may also include a response form with the                               performance of this subcontract agreement, and for
bid. This documents assists the manager and board to evaluate                             all State specific requirements;
the bids by standardizing some of the required information in a                       (f) Subcontractor shall maintain insurance(s) that meets
list or summary form.                                                                     or exceeds the X Insurance Requirements. If multiple
                                                                                          states are covered, the subcontractor shall maintain
                 Sample RFP                                                               insurance coverage in all specific states meeting or
LANDSCAPING SERVICES RFP                                                                  exceeding X requirements. Subcontractor shall
                                                                                          provide evidence of coverage to X every six months
LANDSCAPING SERVICES RFP FLORIDA                                                          from the start of any contract award and will advise
DESCRIPTION OF SERVICES                                                                   X of any changes of coverage; failure to do so may
                                                                                          be grounds for revocation of your agreement.
The purpose of this solicitation is to provide X with landscaping                     (g) Subcontractor hereby warrants that no current
services at a competitive rate for all properties for the term of one                     employee, consultant or subcontractor, has been
year and any renewal periods agreed upon. X is contracted with                            convicted of a felony charge, either in State or
Y to market and manage all properties in the State of Florida. The                        Federal court, nor is any misdemeanor or felony
following description of services details the scope and content of                        charge stemming from facts relative to issues of fraud
services as it will apply to Y properties for X.                                          or moral turpitude, pending in any jurisdiction or
                                                                                          before any tribunal;
Bidders should read the entire set of specifications carefully, as                     (h) Subcontractor shall ensure that sufficient personnel
these will form the basis of the contractual agreement with X.                            are maintained and available for subcontractor to
Failure to comply with the specifications may provide grounds                              perform landscaping services required by the
to nullify the contract agreement. Bids should reflect only the                            scope of this Agreement.
expected cost to X associated with landscaping congruent to the
specifications listed herein.                                                 CONTRACTOR TIMELINESS
                                                                                  (a) All initial landscaping must be completed within 48
REQUIREMENTS                                                                          hours of request. In extreme cases where 48 hours are
Contractor Qualifications. During the period of this agreement,                        not enough time, X must be notified within 24 hours
subcontractor agrees that it will utilize personnel for the perfor-                   of assignment.
mance of duties pursuant to this Agreement that meet the follow-
ing qualifications:                                                           GENERAL SUBCONTRACTOR RESPONSIBILITIES
         (a) All subcontractors must be experienced in perform-              Landscaping. On work order basis as requested by X, the subcon-
             ing Landscaping services                                        tractor shall conduct a thorough visual inspection of the grounds
                                                                        19
and evaluate the conditions in readily accessible areas at the time         not submitted a request for an extension due to extraordinary
of landscaping. Generally accepted professional landscaping                 circumstances (weather, or property condition beyond realm of
standards and methods shall be used. Subcontractor is required to           specification) payment of full contract for that month will be
perform landscaping services to all premises to be covered in the           delayed until correction has been made.
contract on a work order basis. The subcontractor shall furnish
all supervision, labor, materials, and equipment necessary to ac-           X reserves the right to terminate the contract without notice
complish the landscaping services. The initial landscaping service          for excessive non-compliance issues.
is to be completed within 48 hours of assignment.
                                                                            RESPONSE TO RFP
The subcontractor shall contact X via telephone or email notifica-           As time is of the essence all bids must be received by 5:00 p.m.
tion, from location, of property, deficiencies that require 24 hour          PST, August 26, 2004 Bids may be faxed, mailed or emailed;
responses, health/safety hazards and security breaches.                     to the attention of the Vendor Manager, XYZ., 5312 Bolsa Ave.
                                                                            Huntington Beach, Florida Fax: 914-474-6610; E-mail: land-
Landscaping Specifications                                                   scapingrfp@xyz All bids must be submitted by the deadline on
       • Lawn services to include cutting grass not to exceed               company stationery and include the State(s), Counties (if entire
         2”, edging all property exterior (front, back, side, etc.),        county is covered) and Zip-codes of proposed coverage area.
         and weed abatement. If grass/weeds are excessively
         overgrown, or other conditions are present that are not                                 Sample RFP Summary
         in the scope of this agreement, contractor will notify X           LEGAL ADVERTISEMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
         within 24 hours and will send bid and photos to request            THE BOARD OF SOUTHGLEN SARASOTA ASSOCIATION,
         additional consideration.                                          FLORIDA will select a qualified engineering firm under the
       • Weed removal of lawns, beds, fence lines, driveways,               provisions of the Consultants’ Competitive Negotiation Act to
         and curbs.                                                         provide the following professional services:
       • All exterior holes and indentures in the lawn are to be            SOUTHGLEN SARASOTA ASSOCIATION ¬ HVAC RENO-
         filled to eliminate trip hazards.                                   VATION
       • Removal of litter/trash/debris, grass clippings, tree
        trimmings, leaves, etc. (All are to be properly disposed            The scope shall include design and construction administration to
        of by contractor off of property location)                          renovate the HVAC system including new chiller, thermal energy
       • Sweeping paved areas.                                              storage system, piping, and airside systems at the referenced loca-
       • All lawn maintenance, shrubbery, and snow removal                  tion. The project budget is approximately $50,000.00.
         must be consistent with neighborhood standards and in
         compliance with local code/ordinance.                              Interested engineering firms shall submit a letter of interest in-
       • Reporting of any adverse property findings (.i.e.                   cluding one (1) completed copy of a GSA Standard Form 254 and
         vandalism, unsecured openings, abandoned vehicles,                 a Board of Sarasota County Professional Qualifications Supple-
         broken windows, diseased trees, etc.) to be reported to            ment (PQS) form. ALL DATA MUST BE CURRENT AS OF
         X immediately upon discovery.                                      DATE OF SUBMISSION AND RECEIVED PRIOR TO 4:00 PM
                                                                            ON OCTOBER 8, 2003.
Condominiums, Reporting, Sign-In, Inspection and
Monitoring                                                                  Submit to:        Charles Dover, Chairman
Subcontractor agrees if the unit is found to be a Condominium,                                Professional Services Selection Committee
having lawn maintenance and snow removal performed by the as-                                 Sarasota County, Florida
sociation, to notify X in writing (email or fax). X will determine                            Sarasota, FL 34240
if the property will be removed from the subcontractor’s inven-
tory. Subcontractor agrees not to perform or invoice for services           In accordance with Board Rule #6.102, the Professional Services
on these properties. Subcontractor agrees to notify X, upon                 Selection Committee will rank the top three (3) firms and submit
discovery of any health, safety, hazards, or securing problems              such ranked firms to the Superintendent.
present at the time of services. Subcontractor agrees to have all
personnel sign-in on the Sign-In Sheet each and every time the              THE BOARD OF SOUTHGLEN SARASOTA ASSOCIATION,
Subcontractor performs services with respect to Assigned Proper-            FLORIDA
ties. Subcontractor will not be paid for properties where sign-in
was not made. Performance is monitored bimonthly by X local                 By: Gina Wilson, Chairman
inspectors. Findings are reported bimonthly to the Contractor               Dates of Advertisement: 9/23/2003
Compliance Manager.                                                                  Construction Services Department
                                                                                     Charles Dover, Director
Adverse Findings & Contract Non-Compliance                                           Sarasota, Florida 34240
Adverse findings reported by X local Inspectors, Y Inspectors,                        Phone (941) xxx-xxxx Fax (941) xxx-xxxx
and Code Enforcement Officials will be reported to the con-
tractor. The contractor has 24 hours to cure. Another follow-up             Sample Bid Response Form
inspection will be performed by X local Inspector 24 hours after
notification. If correction has not been made, or contractor has             Deadline for Bid Receipt
                                                                       20
Time and Date of Bidders’ Meeting (required personnel attend-            Contracts
ing)                                                                     Once a contractor is selected to do the work, a binding contract
                                                                         is required between the association and the contractor. Risk is
Date of Board Decision                                                   an issue with any contract, and must be managed through careful
                                                                         crafting of the document and appropriate insurance coverage. A
Association Address and Contact Information [telephone, fax,             contract should not expose the association to excessive risk. A
cell, e-mail]                                                            licensed attorney should review any contract.

Bidder Name                                                              An association may choose a long-term service contract for
                                                                         completion of any painting required, or may engage a contrac-
Bidder Address                                                           tor for a single occasion or need. Associations may engage one
                                                                         company to fulfill a range of services over some length of time,
Bidder Contact Information                                               or may contract with an individual for a specific repair that is re-
                                                                         quired only occasionally. Painting, for example, may be required
License Number and Issuing Agency                                        infrequently.

Bonding Rate                                                             A service contract might relate to landscaping, pool maintenance,
                                                                         garbage removal or recycling, or cleaning services. In each case,
Insurance Carrier #1 [type]                                              the service contract should detail the level of service the con-
                                                                         tracting company will undertake, where, when, and with what
Insurance Carrier #2 [type]                                              frequency the services will be provided, who is responsible for
                                                                         supplying materials, supervision, and/or labor, what the service
Similar Projects: must be within past 5-year period                      will cost, and how the association will be paying for the work.

Reference #1: Include association name, address, contact infor-          A preventive maintenance contract is an efficient way to take care
mation, contact person, date of service, description of project          of routine maintenance on an ongoing basis. Retaining the ser-
                                                                         vices of a qualified electrician who can periodically check or con-
Reference #2: Include association name, address, contact infor-          firm the health of the electrical system may be a more efficient
mation, contact person, date of service, description of project          use of funds than waiting until an electrical emergency requires
                                                                         immediate service. Regular maintenance not only extends the
Reference #3: Include association name, address, contact infor-          life of valuable equipment, it is required under warranty terms.
mation, contact person, date of service, description of project
                                                                         Contracts should specifically include the following details relat-
The date and time of a bid’s receipt should be identified on the          ing to materials, labor, the scope of the project, compensation and
outside of the bid. Usually the manager and specified commit-             liability/responsibility. Any changes in scope of contract typically
tee or board members open and review the bids together. Bids             must be authorized in writing with a “change order” that specifies
are evaluated on a number of variables: Any bid that does not            new details and cost.
conform to the specifications outlined in the bid can usually
be eliminated from the competition. If there are any questions                    • Contacts must describe, in detail, the scope of work
regarding the scope of work required or associated details, they                    desired. Contractors must have adequate staff, and
should be clarified as quickly and directly as possible. Then, all                   supervise that staff appropriately. They should main-
references must be carefully checked and documented.                                tain and store their own tools and equipment, clean up
                                                                                    the area after the project is completed, keep agreed-to
Once references have been confirmed, bids and their associated                       working hours and overtime limits. Contractors must
prices can be compared. Bids that are unusually high may reflect                     purchase materials that meet contract specifications,
a high profit margin or some confusion regarding project needs,                      including quality, colors, price, and quantity. Confirm
while low bids may represent unfeasible expectations about the                      any required transportation or delivery of materials
cost of materials or labor. The best candidates are likely to be                  • Always use complete legal names, and accurate
somewhere between the highest and lowest estimates. It should                       addresses and contact information, including telephone
be a company with a good history of completing work success-                        numbers, for each of the two parties in the contract.
fully and on time.                                                                  Managers should not be named individually, but
                                                                                    through the legal name of the association found in the
Managers and/or committee and/or board members should                               governing documents.
recommend the candidate who they feel is most qualified to                         • Contract must specify compensation for specific
complete the work, exhibits the most thorough understanding of                      products/service. Terms of payment and a start date
the project, and provides a reasonable estimate. Board members                      and deadline for completion must be recorded in
make a written recommendation for a candidate after reviewing                       writing. Incentives are commonly built into a contract
the bids and reference information for each company.                                timeline, as are strategies such as progression
                                                                                    payments (payments made to the contractor based upon
                                                                                    completion of project portions) or withholding final
                                                                    21
          payment until project is complete.                              be caused by reason or on account of any strike of workman-
                                                                          ship, any Act of God, unavoidable accidents, inability to secure
        • Always specify who is responsible for what, leaving             materials or to use materials in the performance of the work by
          nothing to chance. The contractor must meet building            reason of laws or regulations of the United States of America or
          codes and industry and manufacturer standards, at               the State of [state] , or any other circumstance beyond their
          minimum. Work should have warrantees, with terms                control, other than the want of funds. No such delay shall be
          and details fully spelled out: what is covered, for what        deemed a default on the part of the contractors, and, in the event
          period of time. The contract should be clear regard-            of any such delay, the contractor’s time limit for performance of
          ing any damage caused by contractors, subcontractors,           the work shall be correspondingly extended.
          or other employees or agents. What are the terms of
          indemnification? What constitutes default? What rights           Workmen’s Compensation and Public Liability Insurance on the
          does each party have if other does not fulfill the               above work shall be provided by the Contractor.
          obligations of the contract? What is sufficient notice
          and cause for termination of contract? The contract             This Contract shall be deemed null and void if not signed within
          should also specify that the contractor is responsible          thirty days.
          for meeting all federal , state, and local laws, codes,
          and any other regulations appropriate to the project and        Respectfully,
          association.                                                    ACCEPTED;
        • The contractor and association must purchase and
          maintain appropriate insurance coverage, including               By____________________________
          workers’ compensation, liability, and coverage for              ______________________________
          specific vehicles being used. The contractor must                      OWNER
          produce proof of insurance to the association listing           Date__________________________
          the association as an additional insured on all relevant
          policies. Similarly, the contractor must produce
          evidence of all required licenses and permits, before           Chapter 718.3025-3026 of the Florida Statutes says the following
          the project begins. Associations may have protection            about contractual agreements and bids related to condominium
          from contractor defaults through strategies including           associations:
          performance or payment bonds, which act as a third-                      718.3025 Agreements for operation, maintenance, or
          party guarantee, protecting the association if the                       management of condominiums; specific require-
          contractor does not complete the project; or waiver of                   ments.--
          lien, a document that protects the association in cases                  (1) No written contract between a party contracting to
          where the contractor does not pay employees,                             provide maintenance or management services and an
          suppliers, or subcontractors                                             association which contract provides for operation,
                                                                                   maintenance, or management of a condominium associa-
SAMPLE SERVICE CONTRACT                                                            tion or property serving the unit owners of a condomini-
                                                                                   um shall be valid or enforceable unless the contract:
We hereby propose to furnish all materials and perform all labor                             (a) Specifies the services, obligations, and
necessary for the completion of PROJECT of the following                                     responsibilities of the party contracting to pro-
specifications:                                                                               vide maintenance or management services to
                                                                                             the unit owners.
        List project specifications and materials                                             (b) Specifies those costs incurred in the per-
                                                                                             formance of those services, obligations, or
This work is to be performed on Lot_____Blk________Sub.                                      responsibilities which are to be reimbursed by
Div.____ for [name of owner] , Owner, in accordance with                                     the association to the party contracting to prov-
the drawings and specifications submitted for the above work.                                 ide maintenance or management services.
The total cost including state tax is [amount]. Payments to be                               (c) Provides an indication of how often each
made as follows : the sum of [amount] to be paid upon the                                    service, obligation, or responsibility is to be
approval of this contract and the balance of [amount] upon the                               performed, whether stated for each service,
completion of the work.                                                                      obligation, or responsibility or in categories
                                                                                             thereof.
Any alteration or deviation from the above specifications involv-                             (d) Specifies a minimum number of personnel
ing extra cost of material or labor will only be executed upon                               to be employed by the party contracting to
written orders for same and will become an extra charge over the                             provide maintenance or management services
sum mentioned in this contract. All agreements must be made in                               for the purpose of providing service to the as-
writing.                                                                                     sociation.
                                                                                             (e) Discloses any financial or ownership
Property lines shall be designated by substantial marks, by owner                            interest which the developer, if the developer
or his certified engineer. The contractors shall not be liable, as                            is in control of the association, holds with
regards to the completion of the work, for any delay which may                               regard to the party contracting to provide main-
                                                                     22
                   tenance or management services.                                              provision that allows the board to cancel the
         (2) In any case in which the party contracting to provide                              contract on 30 days’ notice. Materials, equip-
         maintenance or management services fails to provide                                    ment, or services provided to a
         such services in accordance with the contract, the                                     condominium under a local govern-
         association is authorized to procure such services from                                ment franchise agreement by a franchise holder
         some other party and shall be entitled to collect any                                  are not subject to the competitive bid require -
         fees or charges paid for service performed by another                                  ments of this section. A contract with a
         party from the party contracting to provide maintenance                                manager, if made by a competitive bid, may
         or management services.                                                                be made for up to 3 years. A condominium
         (3) Any services or obligations not stated on the face of                              whose declaration or bylaws provides for
         the contract shall be unenforceable.                                                   competitive bidding for services may operate
         (4) Notwithstanding the fact that certain vendors                                      under the provisions of that declaration or
         contract with associations to maintain equipment or                                    bylaws in lieu of this section if those provisions
         property which is made available to serve unit                                         are not less stringent than the requirements of
         owners, it is the intent of the Legislature that this section                          this section.
         applies to contracts for maintenance or management                                     (b) Nothing contained herein is intended to
         services for which the association pays compensation.                                  limit the ability of an association to obtain
         This section does not apply to contracts for services                                  needed products and services in an emergency.
         or property made available for the convenience of unit                                 (c) This section shall not apply if the business
         owners by lessees or licensees of the association, such                                entity with which the association desires to en-
         as coin-operated laundry, food, soft drink, or telephone                               ter into a contract is the only source of supply
         vendors; cable television operators; retail store opera-                               within the county serving the association.
         tors; businesses; restaurants; or similar vendors.                                     (d) Nothing contained herein shall excuse a
         History.--s. 5, ch. 78-340; s. 12, ch. 79-314; s. 7, ch. 86-                           party contracting to provide maintenance or
         175.                                                                                   management services from compliance with s.
                                                                                                718.3025.
718.3026 Contracts for products and services; in writing;                                       History.--s. 13, ch. 91-103; s. 5, ch. 91-426; s.
bids; exceptions.--Associations with less than 100 units may opt                                10, ch. 92-49; s. 44, ch. 95-274.1
out of the provisions of this section if two-thirds of the unit own-
ers vote to do so, which opt-out may be accomplished by a proxy               The following passages describe contractual requirements for
specifically setting forth the exception from this section.                    cooperative associations:
          (1) All contracts as further described herein or any
          contract that is not to be fully performed within 1 year            719.3026 Contracts for products and services; in writing;
          after the making thereof, for the purchase, lease, or               bids; exceptions.--Associations with less than 100 units may opt
          renting of materials or equipment to be used by the                 out of the provisions of this section if two-thirds of the unit own-
          association in accomplishing its purposes under this                ers vote to do so, which opt-out may be accomplished by a proxy
          chapter, and all contracts for the provision of services,           specifically setting forth the exception from this section.
          shall be in writing. If a contract for the purchase, lease,                   (1) All contracts as further described herein or any
          or renting of materials or equipment, or for the provi-                       contract that is not to be fully performed within 1 year
          sion of services, requires payment by the association on                      after the making thereof, for the purchase, lease, or
          behalf of any condominium operated by the association                         renting of materials or equipment to be used by the
          in the aggregate that exceeds 5 percent of the total                          association in accomplishing its purposes under this
          annual budget of the association, including reserves, the                     chapter, and all contracts for the provision of services,
          association shall obtain competitive bids for the                             shall be in writing. If a contract for the purchase, lease,
          materials, equipment, or services. Nothing contained                          or renting of materials or equipment, or for the provision
          herein shall be construed to require the association to                       of services, requires payment by the association in an
          accept the lowest bid.                                                        amount which in the aggregate exceeds 5 percent of the
          (2)(a)1. Notwithstanding the foregoing, contracts with                        association’s budget, including reserves, the association
          employees of the association, and contracts for attorney,                     shall obtain competitive bids for the materials, equip-
          accountant, architect, community association manager,                         ment, or services. Nothing contained herein shall be
          timeshare management firm, engineering, and landscape                          construed to require the association to accept the lowest
          architect services are not subject to the provisions of this                  bid.
          section.                                                                                (a)1. Notwithstanding the foregoing, contracts
                    2. A contract executed before January 1, 1992,                                with employees of the association, and
                    and any renewal thereof, is not subject to the                                contracts for attorney, accountant, architect,
                    competitive bid requirements of this section.                                 community association manager, timeshare
                    If a contract was awarded under the competi-                                  management firm, engineering, and landscape
                    tive bid procedures of this section, any renewal                              architect services shall not be subject to the
                    of that contract is not subject to such competi-                              provisions of this section.
                    tive bid requirements if the contract contains a                              2. A contract executed before January 1, 1992,
                                                                         23
                  and any renewal thereof, is not subject to the                              of that contract is not subject to such competi-
                  competitive bid requirements of this section.                               tive bid requirements if the contract contains a
                  If a contract was awarded under the                                         provision that allows the board to cancel the
                  competitive bid procedures of this section,                                 contract on 30 days’ notice. Materials, equip-
                  any renewal of that contract is not subject                                 ment, or services provided to an association
                  to such competitive bid requirements if the                                 under a local government franchise agree-
                  contract contains a provision that allows the                               ment by a franchise holder are not subject to
                  board to cancel the contract on 30 days’ notice.                            the competitive bid requirements of this
                  Materials, equipment, or services provided to                               section. A contract with a manager, if made by
                  a cooperative pursuant to a local government                                a competitive bid, may be made for up to 3
                  franchise agreement by a franchise holder are                               years. An association whose declaration or
                  not subject to the competitive bid requirement.                             bylaws provide for competitive bidding for
                  A contract with a manager, if made by a                                     services may operate under the provisions of
                  competitive bid, may be made for up to 3 years.                             that declaration or bylaws in lieu of this section
                  A condominium whose declaration or bylaws                                   if those provisions are not less stringent than
                  provides for competitive bidding for services                               the requirements of this section.
                  may operate under the provisions of that                                    (b) Nothing contained in this section is intend-
                  declaration or bylaws in lieu of this section if                            ed to limit the ability of an association to obtain
                  those provisions are not less stringent than the                            needed products and services in an emergency.
                  requirements of this section.                                               (c) This section does not apply if the business
                  (b) This section does not limit the ability of an                           entity with which the association desires to en-
                  association to obtain needed products and                                   ter into a contract is the only source of supply
                  services in an emergency.                                                   within the county serving the association.
                  (c) This section does not apply if the business                             (d) Nothing contained in this section shall ex-
                  entity with which the association desires to                                cuse a party contracting to provide maintenance
                  enter into a contract is the only source of                                 or management services from compliance with
                  supply within the county serving the associa-                               s. 720.309.
                  tion.                                                                       History.--s. 21, ch. 2004-345; s. 18, ch. 2004-
                  History.--s. 26, ch. 92-49; s. 4, ch. 2000-302.2                            353.

The following passages discuss contractual obligations related to           720.309 Agreements entered into by the association.--Any
homeowners associations:                                                    grant or reservation made by any document, and any contract
                                                                            with a term in excess of 10 years made by an association before
720.3055 Contracts for products and services; in writing;                   control of the association is turned over to the members other
bids; exceptions.--                                                         than the developer, which provide for operation, maintenance, or
         (1) All contracts as further described in this section or          management of the association or common areas must be fair and
         any contract that is not to be fully performed within 1            reasonable.
         year after the making thereof for the purchase, lease, or          History.--s. 59, ch. 95-274; s. 51, ch. 2000-258.
         renting of materials or equipment to be used by the                Note.--Former s. 617.309.3
         association in accomplishing its purposes under this
         chapter or the governing documents, and all contracts              Once a valid contract is drawn up and signed, a project manager
         for the provision of services, shall be in writing. If a           should be selected. Again, it is best when this position is distinct
         contract for the purchase, lease, or renting of materials          from that of the association manager. Remember that, in Florida,
         or equipment, or for the provision of services, requires           a licensed community association manager must not perform any
         payment by the association that exceeds 10 percent of              responsibility that should be performed by another qualified pro-
         the total annual budget of the association, including              fessional unless licensed and authorized to do so. Project manag-
         reserves, the association must obtain competitive bids             ers are responsible for ensuring that the project conforms to the
         for the materials, equipment, or services. Nothing                 specifications of the RFP and contractual agreement.
         contained in this section shall be construed to require the
         association to accept the lowest bid.                              Human Resource Policies
         (2)(a)1. Notwithstanding the foregoing, contracts with             An organization or business must have policies and procedures in
         employees of the association, and contracts for attorney,          place to guide its operations. Just about every aspect of the busi-
         accountant, architect, community association manager,              ness is governed by established rules that should be written down
         engineering, and landscape architect services are not              and provided to every employee. Some companies have highly
         subject to the provisions of this section.                         detailed rules and regulations; others are general in nature. While
                   2. A contract executed before October 1, 2004,           practices from company to company differ, certain legal require-
                   and any renewal thereof, is not subject to the           ments, should be covered in the handbook and should be used for
                   competitive bid requirements of this section.            reviewed in employee orientation and training. The information
                   If a contract was awarded under the competi-             presented here is provided as a guide only and is not intended
                   tive bid procedures of this section, any renewal         to represent a complete description of an employer’s policies or
                                                                       24
procedures.                                                                 at the beginning of the first day of employment to complete em-
                                                                            ployment paperwork and authorizations in a file that includes:
Policies should:                                                                     • Application, Resume, and reference check confirma-
         • Be thoughtfully developed and tested                                        tion
         • Be flexible                                                                • Signed and dated W-4 form
         • Have internal consistency                                                 • Insurance enrollment card
         • Be unbiased                                                               • Charge account agreement
         • Be compliant with state and federal requirements                          • Incentive Payment Agreement
         • Be clear and concise                                                      • Form I-9
         • Promote effective communication and understanding                         • Work permit, if required
           among workers
                                                                            Confidentiality of Personnel Files
The purpose of an employee handbook or personnel policy                     This company policy is established to protect and safeguard the
manual is to provide all employees with the systems and rules               privacy of employee’s personal information to the fullest extent
of the organization. At its most basic level, a policy handbook             possible, consistent with all legal and business practices.
explicitly spells out policies to prevent potential dangerous or
illegal situations. A clearly written handbook should tell em-              Definitions:
ployees about all company policies they are responsible to follow           Employee: Any person currently employed, laid-off with reem-
and provide a template for expected conduct and performance                 ployment rights, or on leave of absence.
standards. Perhaps most important, the employee handbook for-
mally introduces the organization to the employee, and helps the            Personnel file: Any record maintained by the association that has
employee know what is expected of him or her.                               been used or may be used to influence an employee’s qualifica-
                                                                            tions for employment, promotion, additional compensation, or
Certain sections of the employee handbook will be standard                  disciplinary action.
statements, for example, policies against harassment or discrimi-
nation based on race or religion. By distributing an employee               It is the policy of the association that: The association collects,
handbook, you assure that the employee has access to the rules of           maintains, and uses employee personal information in a manner
the workplace, and can refer to them should questions arise. The            that ensures its accuracy, preserves privacy of the information,
employee handbook should have answers to the questions you                  meets business needs, and conforms to legal requirements. To
are most used to hearing from employees, as well as information             preserve privacy, only those with a legitimate need to know may
and services available to them through employment with your                 have access to employee information. The disclosure of this data
organization.                                                               must proceed according to association policy.

Getting employees to read and understand the handbook is very               Personnel files should be reviewed to insure that only pertinent
important. Explain to employees that they will be responsible               and necessary data is kept. Personnel files for each employee
for knowing the information in the book and acting accordingly.             must be retained according to an established record retention
Notify employees that you expect them to read and understand                schedule. The personnel file should contain only documentation
the policies written in the handbook, and, along with it, distribute        that pertains to and is officially used to record or influence quali-
a form that can act as a receipt, acknowledging that the book has           fication for employment, promotion, compensation, or disciplin-
been distributed to the employee. The employee should read and              ary action, such as:
sign the form acknowledging that the employee has received,                           • Employment applications, curriculum vitae, references,
read, and understands the content of the handbook, and agrees                           employment offer letters, acceptance letters, etc.
to abide by all policies written in it. Keep this receipt with the                    • Wages/salary
employees personnel file. In case there are any disputes with an                       • Documentation of changes in compensation, including
employee, you will have confirmation that they were provided                             date of hire, job titles, birth date, and authorizations for
with the necessary information and understood the expected stan-                        taxable withholding
dards of the workplace.                                                               • Disciplinary warnings
                                                                                      • Attendance records
New Employee Orientation                                                              • Retirement records
The introduction to the employee handbook should welcome new                          • Performance evaluations/appraisals
employees and contain orientation materials and information. It                       • Educational information
should discuss basic employment issues of which all employees
should be aware.                                                            The following information will not and should not be included in
                                                                            the employee’s personnel file:
New employees typically must complete paperwork on their first                        • Medical records or information
day of employment to insure payroll is notified in a timely matter                    • Security information
and employee benefits begin when they are supposed to. Orien-                         • Letters of reference
tation to the association and the specific job duties are usually                     • Civil or criminal proceedings
provided by department supervisors or managers. In most cases,                       • Grievance proceedings
new employees should report to the Human Resources Manager                           • Salary forecast
                                                                       25
Applicants and employees must be advised, prior to the prepara-                      partment, and forward the subpoena or other legal
tion of an investigative report about them by an outside agency,                     request along with the relevant information to the
if so required by federal or state law. Employees are advised of                     Legal Department
the association’s practices regarding privacy and information
disclosure through orientation programs, employee handbooks,               Employment and Compensation Policies
and association publications. Divulging confidential information            Hours of work: Work hours are maintained in accordance with
regarding the association or its members will result in immediate          federal and state regulations, for the maintenance of an efficient
dismissal.                                                                 work schedule. The Fair Labor Standards Act requires employers
                                                                           to maintain an accurate record of hours worked as well as pay-
Information considered personal and confidential, including                 ment of time and one-half of the standard hourly pay rate to every
payroll, financial statements, and personnel records should be              nonexempt employee working overtime. Overtime is defined as
handled with care. Managers should instruct staff members                  any hours worked over 40 hours per workweek. The Fair Labor
coming into contact with such information that all file materials           Standards Act permits exemption of specific professional, admin-
of a confidential nature should be labeled “CONFIDENTIAL.”                  istrative, and executive position, and certain sales positions, as
Materials labeled this way will be left sealed, to be opened only          defined in the statutes for compliance with this Act.
by the individual to whom they are addressed.
                                                                           Meals and breaks: Each employee’s meal time will be set by
Requests for employee information: This policy has been estab-             his/her supervisor. All employees must have the opportunity to
lished to prevent inappropriate disclosure of personnel, payroll,          take a 30-minute period of uninterrupted time for a meal, which
or medical information to unauthorized persons. It is the policy           should be reflected in the time sheet. Two break periods of 15
of this association that requests for information and/or records           minutes each per 8-hour work day will be scheduled by the em-
concerning employees are referred to the appropriate supervisor            ployee’s supervisor, and are paid for by the company.
or Human Resource Director, except as provided below.
                                                                           Any training periods, including meetings, lectures, or seminars,
Employees who are not in the Human Resource Department do                  will be paid for by the company if they occur during working
not furnish information regarding employees to external sources            hours.
without prior approval by the Human Resource Director. Human
Resource employees do not furnish employee information unless              Timesheets: All employees must record when they begin and
it is specifically authorized Requests for employee information             end work each day, and when they leave and return from lunch.
from organizations with the legal right and authority to obtain            Hourly employees are required to use the time clock according to
this information are handled in the following way:                         the following standards: employees must not punch in more than
          • Requests from government agencies and federal,                 five minutes before their scheduled working time or punch out
            state, county, and local courts and law enforcement            more than five minutes past their scheduled quitting time. Any
            agencies are directed to the Human Resource Depart -           time an employee leaves the company premises, he/she should
            ment, for review prior to release                              also punch out. No employee may use or punch another employ-
          • Requests from federal, state, county and municipal tax         ee’s time card for any purpose. Any changes made to time cards
            units regarding employee’s earnings are referred to the        must be initialed by a supervisor before the time card is submitted
            Payroll Department                                             to payroll. The workweek begins at 12:01 AM Monday through
          • Requests from the Bureau of Unemployment Com-                  12 Midnight the following Sunday.
            pensation and Welfare (usually only required as the
            result of a claim filed by an employee or employees.)           Attendance, punctuality, and absences: Repeated absenteeism
           Any information that expedites the settlement of a              and tardiness negatively affects productivity, disrupts the normal
            claim will be promptly furnished. Earnings informa-            operating schedule, and reduces efficiency, as well as burdening
            tion is supplied by the Payroll Department                     other employees who must complete the work of the person who
                                                                           is absent. Absenteeism and tardiness are grounds for disciplinary
No other requests for information contained in personnel records           action, as well as termination.
will be honored unless:
         • Explicit written permission to release specified infor-          Punctuality is important to the operation of the company. It is
           mation is obtained from the employee. His/her written           each employee’s responsibility to be in the workplace at the
           authorization will be reviewed by the law department            scheduled starting time at the beginning of the day and after
           prior to the release of any information, unless the             lunch. Occasionally, an unavoidable situation may result in tardi-
           authorization is meant to release information pertaining        ness. Two or more unexcused occurrences of tardiness within
           to credit references, loans, mortgages, or credit card          one month will result in disciplinary measures.
           applications
         • A subpoena or other legal request is served to the              If it is necessary for an employee to be absent from work, due to
           association. In such a case, the employee receiving             illness, injury, or personal reasons, the employee should give his/
           the document should immediately contact the Human               her supervisor as much advance notice as possible before that
           Resources Department                                            day so that arrangements to handle the work can be made. If the
         • The Human Resources representative who receives                 absence is not known about in advance, the employee should
           the document should immediately contact the legal               notify his/her supervisor as soon after their starting time as pos-
                                                                      26
sible, on the first day they are absent. Absences may be excused                       with an individual’s work performance, or creating an
or unexcused.                                                                         intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.

Excused absences are holidays, vacation days, “comp time,” sick              Under these guidelines, the EEOC will hold both management
time, and leaves of absence. Any absence lasting more than three             and/or supervisory persons and the company liable for any viola-
days must be accompanied by a physician’s statement. Excused                 tions of this Act.
absences include emergency absences, with pay, of up to 7 days
per year, authorized for illness, bereavement in the immediate               Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Title I of the ADA pro-
family, or other approved reasons. Confirmation of the validity               hibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities
of an excused absence may be required.                                       in job application procedures, hiring, discharge, promotion, job
                                                                             training, and other similar conditions of employment. Title I ap-
Unexcused absences are a failure to report to work when expect-              plies to nonexempt employers with 15 or more employees. One
ed. Two or more unexcused absences within a 3-month period                   of Title I’s most important requirements is that employers must
will result in disciplinary measures. Whenever an employee is                make “reasonable accommodations” for an individual’s known
not at work for a period of two hours or more, he/she must fill               disabilities, unless doing so would pose an “undue hardship.”
out an Absence Report Sheet and submit it to his/her supervisor              Granting leave to an employee, either paid or unpaid, can be a
before he goes or upon his return, if the illness or emergency is            form of reasonable accommodation, as long as the period of leave
not anticipated.                                                             does not place an undue burden on the employer. The ADA also
                                                                             contains a number of exemptions and exclusions from the term
Equal Employment Opportunity                                                 “disability.”
This section should include a statement discussing the organiza-
tion’s commitment to equal opportunity, including a working                  The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
environment free of harassment and discrimination. It should                 enforces the ADA. The EEOC has, in many states, entered into
include descriptions of:                                                     agreements with various state human rights commissions and
                                                                             state agencies whereby the state agency or commission is autho-
Equal Employment Opportunity Policies: The association pro-                  rized to receive complaints filed under the federal ADA, investi-
vides equal employment opportunities to all employees, regard-               gate complaints, and refer valid claims to the EEOC for litigation
less of race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, age, marital sta-        or enforcement.
tus, and other protected status and commitment to a fair working
environment. It is the policy of this company, in compliance with            Posting/notice requirements: An employer must post notices in
a federal executive order, through a positive and continuing pro-            a format accessible to applicants and employees, describing the
gram, to provide equal opportunity in employment for all quali-              applicable provisions of the act, in the manner prescribed by
fied persons, to prohibit discrimination in employment because of             Section 711 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (ADA Sec. 105).
race, creed, color, sex, age, national origin, religion, physical or         The notices are required to mention specific provisions of the
mental handicap, and to encourage the employment of veterans                 ADA, including the reasonable accommodation obligation, and
except where gender is an occupational qualification.                         they must be posted in conspicuous places on the employer’s
                                                                             premises. Such notices should be posted in employment offices
Affirmative Action Policy: It is our policy to offer equal employ-            and other places where applicants and employees can readily see
ment opportunity to all persons without regard to race, creed,               them. The notices must be accessible, as needed, to persons with
color, sex, age, national origin, religion, physical or mental               visual or other reading disabilities.
handicap, or veteran’s status. No applicant is to be discriminated
against or given preference because of these factors. This policy            Guide for Disciplinary Action
applies to recruiting, hiring, promotion, layoffs, termination, ben-         Following rules and regulations is critical to the efficient opera-
efits, and all other privileges, terms, and conditions of employ-             tion of the association. A guide for disciplinary action has been
ment.                                                                        developed and implemented for the benefit of all employees. The
                                                                             following rules apply uniformly to everyone in all departments.
Sexual Harassment Policy: The Equal Employment Opportunity                   Committing any breach of a company rule or regulation, whether
Commission has issued regulations under Title VII of the Civil               intentional or accidental, may be considered sufficient grounds
Rights Act of 1964 entitled “Sexual Harassment.” It states that              for disciplinary action, from a verbal warning to immediate dis-
the EEOC will consider any behavior constituting harassment on               missal based on the seriousness of the violation.
the basis of sex, either physical or verbal in nature, a violation of
the Act. The term “sexual harassment” refers to any unwelcome                Every employee has the responsibility to conduct him/herself
sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or any other verbal or          responsibly, according to rules of good behavior, conduct, and
physical behavior of a sexual nature, including the following:               performance. Employees are expected to read, understand and
          - Submission to the conduct as an explicit or implicit             follow rules of the workplace every day. Failure to follow as-
            term or condition of employment                                  sociation rules will result in disciplinary action, from a verbal
          - Submission to or rejection of such conduct by an                 warning to termination, depending on the severity of the offense.
            individual used as a basis for employment decisions              If an employee does not violate association work rules within a
            affecting that person                                            12-month period, the association will consider the employee’s
          - The conduct has the purpose or effect of interfering             record clean.
                                                                        27
 Behavior                                 Penalty                         the Verbal Warning complaint form, retaining one copy in the
 Misrepresentation or omission of facts   Dismissal
                                                                          employee’s personnel file, and sending one copy to the Human
 in employment application                                                Resource Department.
 Altering or falsifying quality control   Dismissal
 records                                                                  A Written Warning: if the problem continues, the supervisor
 Defacing, damaging, or destruction of    Warning                         should approach the employee again, and tell the employee about
 association or employee property                                         the problematic behavioral issue, to confirm that he or she is
 Altering or falsifying one’s own time    Dismissal                       aware of the problem or issue. The supervisor should prepare
 card or another employee’s time card                                     a written summary using the Written Warning complaint form
 Participating in organized gambling      Dismissal                       describing the inappropriate behavior or performance and the
 on premises                                                              corrective action required. The employee must sign the written
 Disorderly conduct, fighting, or caus-    Dismissal                       notice, signifying and acknowledging that the conversation took
 ing bodily injury                                                        place. As with the Verbal Warning complaint form, one copy is
 Immoral or indecent conduct              Dismissal                       kept in the employee’s personnel file and another copy should be
 Leaving the work area without per-       Warning                         sent to the Human Resource Department.
 mission or loitering
 Poor performance of duties               Warning                         Further complaints: If the poor behavior or job performance
 Theft or unauthorized removal of as-     Dismissal                       continues, the supervisor may choose to suspend the employee
 sociation or employee’s property                                         who refuses to make the necessary changes. Conversations and
 Bringing in or using weapons on as-      Dismissal                       decisions surrounding the suspension of an employee should
 sociation premises                                                       be discussed in written form and signed by the employee and
 Intimidating or threatening behavior     Warning                         supervisor, with copies placed in the personnel file and with the
 Criminal or dishonest conduct            Dismissal                       Human Resource Department.
 Failure to work full schedule            Warning
 Providing a false reason for a leave     Dismissal
                                                                          Termination: If all counseling efforts fail, and discharge becomes
 of absence                                                               necessary, the discharge decision should be communicated to the
 Repeated tardiness or absence or         Warning                         employee. Each discharge should be fully documented with the
 failure to report to work                                                exact reasons for the separation noted in writing, and the docu-
 Insubordination or failure to follow     Warning                         ment must be signed by the employee and the supervisor, as well
 orders                                                                   as the Human Resource Director. The Separation of Employment
 Reporting to work under the influence     Dismissal                       form should be used to document all terminations and should be
 of alcohol or unauthorized substances                                    placed in the personnel file and filed with the Human Resource
 Canvassing or soliciting orders or       Warning                         Department. When a discharge is found to be justified, proper
 sales on association premises                                            documentation of the specific reasons for separation of employ-
 Operating association computers,         Dismissal                       ment are very important. To avoid charges for discrimination
 equipment, or property without                                           following a discharge, the file must provide adequate proof for
 authorization
                                                                          the reasons behind the discharge.
 Failure to comply with safety or         Warning
 health regulations
                                                                          Grievances: Any condition of employment that the employment
 Interfering with or hindering another    Warning                         thinks or feels is unjust or unequitable may constitute a griev-
 employee’s work
                                                                          ance. Hourly employees and nonexempt salaried employees may
 Yelling or speaking impolitely to a      Warning
                                                                          submit grievances according to the following schedule:
 member, client, or customer
 Spreading rumors or false statements     Warning
 about employees or the association
                                                                                   Grievances should be submitted within five days of the
                                                                                   event prompting the grievance, to ensure that it receives
 Assisting any individual to gain unau-   Dismissal
 thorized entrance to the premises                                                 immediate attention. Grievances should be presented
                                                                                   verbally or in writing to the employee’s immediate
Disciplinary procedures: The manager or supervisor’s role in                       supervisor. The supervisor should make every effort
disciplinary action should emphasize correction of the problem                     to resolve the grievance at this point. The grievance
rather than punishing the offender, and maintain the employee’s                    should be put into writing, if it is not written down
dignity and self-respect. Successful handling should result in the                 already, placed in the permanent record and signed by
desired change in the employee’s behavior and performance.                         the employee and supervisor.

A Verbal Warning: the first stage in a progressive disciplinary                     If the grievance cannot be settled by the employee’s
procedure requires that the supervisor meet with the employee                      immediate supervisor, the supervisor should indicate,
to discuss the behavioral or performance issue. The supervisor                     within two business days, the steps that have been taken
must explain to the employee the reason for the rule that was                      to resolve the problem. The written grievance is then
violated, the change that is required, offer assistance and confirm                 submitted to the department head, supervisor, employee,
with the employee that he/she will correct the problem, requir-                    and Human Resources Department.
ing no further disciplinary action. The supervisor must fill out
                                                                     28
Part II: Natural Disaster Preparedness                                      the quantity of water that enters around windows and doors,
Preventing Leaks (Wind Driven Rain and Water Intrusion)                     through cracks and through siding, you will improve the chances
During Hurricanes                                                           that your home can be dried out without having mold develop to
The following information, from FloridaDisaster.org, can guide              dangerous levels. Most houses have several vulnerabilities that
you and your community association members in regard to                     allow water to enter that can be easily fixed, some in just an hour
natural disaster preparedness. Recent experience with hurricanes            or so.
has made it clear that just improving the structural integrity of a
home is not enough. Wind-driven water intrusion can cause cata-             Water is likely to find its way into your house through any holes,
strophic damage to the walls, ceilings, and interiors of homes that         cracks, gaps or wherever a pipe or cable pierces the wall. Answer
leads to major disruption of households. When wind speeds get               the following questions assuming that a hose with a nozzle is ap-
above 60 mph, rain water is driven against the exterior of a house          plying water and that the water can enter the house from the top,
with great force. Whenever water builds up on the exterior wall             sides, bottom, and underneath. When you are looking for `gaps,’
surface and there is lower pressure on the inside of your house,            be sure to include cracks of any size no matter how small. The
the water can penetrate in large quantities (quarts and gallons)            question is whether the opening for these devices is really water
through cracks, holes and gaps in the siding and around windows             tight.
and doors. When this happens for hours at a time, and there is no
electricity available to dry out homes using air conditioning or            [ ]      Water faucets: Are there gaps between the water faucets
dehumidifiers, the resulting damage and mold can be as devas-                         and the house?
tating as direct wind damage. As far back as Hurricane Hugo,
researchers observed that a number of homes looked completely               [ ]      Gas lines: Are there gaps around gas pipes where they
intact from the outside but a closer look revealed that the interior                 enter the house?
wall surfaces were literally melting away, ceilings were collaps-
ing and wallboard was coming off the walls.                                 [ ]      AC: Are there gaps around air conditioning pipes (white
                                                                                     and foam covered) where they enter the house?
How Far Can Wind Drive Water?
It is important to appreciate what a hurricane can do to drive              [ ]      Electrical outlet boxes, junction boxes, circuit breaker
water into a house. Armed with that, you can get a good feel for                     boxes, disconnect switches, electric meters, etc. are
what needs to be done to minimize the risk of water intrusion.                       there gaps of any sort between these devices and the
First, all houses leak air around windows and doors, through                         house?
vents, cracks, holes, gaps and in a variety of other places. When
winds blow on a house and flow around it, they create positive               [ ]       Light fixtures: Are there gaps between light fixtures and
pressures on the windward wall and windward soffit (the hori-                         the face of the house?
zontal structure) and negative pressures on most other surfaces
including the side walls, downwind wall, soffits above those                 [ ]      Dryer vents, gas water heater vents, range hood vents:
walls and the roof. Consequently, the pressures inside the house                     Are there gaps between these devices and the house?
and inside the attic are usually slightly negative (that is lower
than the general atmospheric pressure). When wind driven rain               [ ]      Are there cracks or voids in mortar under windowsills?
hits the windward wall it collects on the surface and this differ-
ence between the positive pressure on the windward wall and the             [ ]      Is the finished floor of the house high (at least 6 inches)
negative pressure inside the house or the attic, acts as a driving                   above soil and mulch?
force that pushes and pulls water through any cracks, holes, gaps
etc. If a window or door fails, the situation gets even worse since         [ ]      Are there parts of sides of the house where water has
water that has gained momentum from the wind gets carried into                       gotten into the house after heavy rains or where there
the house.                                                                           has been standing water next to the house?
           The pressures created by a 100 mph wind will drive
           water about 3-1/2 inches up through any crack or                 [ ]      Are there penetrations of the house within 6” of the
           opening anywhere on the wall or through the soffit.                        ground?

         The pressures created by a 130 mph wind will drive                 Caulks and Sealants
         water about 6 inches up through any crack or opening               If you find any of the above conditions you should seal these
         anywhere on the wall or through the soffit.                         joints using caulks or sealants. You can use caulks for small
                                                                            cracks up to about ¼” wide for single applications of caulk and
         The pressures created by a 150 mph wind will drive                 up to about ½” with multiple applications. Foam available in
         water about 8 inches up through any crack or opening               spray cans at hardware stores and home supply stores can be
         anywhere on the wall or through the soffit.                         effective at filling larger holes. However, these foams deteriorate
                                                                            within a year when exposed to sunlight (even indirect sunlight.)
In an ideal world, your house would keep water out even in ex-              Consequently, if you use a foam you will need to coat it with a
treme circumstances. However, because houses cannot affordably              urethane caulk to protect it from sunlight. Holes in stucco can be
be built to submarine standards they can’t keep all water out. But          repaired using a plastic like material (StuccoFlex) that is avail-
you don’t have to sit back and take what comes. If you minimize             able at some paint stores. It comes in caulk tubes and bucket
                                                                       29
sized containers. It has the advantage that it can be tooled to look          at the little places you missed.
something like stucco.
                                                                              Because sealants don’t last forever and because it is hard to have
Caulks and sealants can be thought of as nearly the same thing.               a perfect installation, one should check all seams before hurri-
They both fill gaps and some offer better adhesive properties as               cane season. Temperature changes between winter and summer
well. Caulks have to perform rather difficult tasks. Those used                and between dry and humid conditions can cause dimensional
outside have to work within wide changes in temperature, survive              changes that cause cracks in sealants.
both extreme heat and intense sun, and remain flexible year after
year. Not many materials can simultaneously meet all these crite-             [ ]      When you examine where sealants have been used, are
ria. This is why caulks are formulated for particular applications                     there little voids or hollows? Are there places with little
depending on their primary purpose and the environment where                           or no sealant?
they will be used.
                                                                              [ ]      Is the sealant so thin that there is not really a bead at all,
For exterior applications where sealing and caulking are required,                     but just a smearing of sealant?
probably the best caulks are those formulated with urethane as
the primary base chemical. Most urethane caulks are not rated                 [ ]      Is the sealant brittle, easily chipped out?
highly for exposure to sunlight; however they perform well
enough, and can be reapplied as necessary. Urethane caulks have               [ ]      Can the caulk be peeled out? This is a common problem
the following good qualities for many outside applications:                            with silicone caulks.
         • They are paintable.
         • They are flexible enough to operate over a wide                     [ ]      Is sealant really every place it needs to be? See the
           temperature range.                                                          checklist for cracks, gaps and holes.
         • They stick (adhere) well to most cleaned surfaces.
         • They are easy to use.                                              Important properties to consider in selecting a sealant:
         • They are reasonably priced.                                                • ultra violet degradation
                                                                                      • color retention/fading
White urethanes, unless specially formulated, do yellow when                          • expansion
exposed to sunlight. This can result in the caulk creating an offen-                  • adhesion/wetting
sive color mismatch.                                                                  • temperature range
                                                                                      • water proofness
An obvious key in how well sealants perform has to do with
proper installation. The surface must be clean enough so that                 If the finished floor of the house is less than you feel comfortable
sealant actually can stick to the building-- not just a layer of dirt,        with based on the wind speeds and ability of water to climb as
dust, or oil. For urethane sealants, the surfaces need to be dry.             shown above, then you need to consider ways of draining water
Enough sealant needs to be applied to address possible changes                away from your house. This may be as simple as pulling away
in its dimensions in the future. Sealant of a given thickness or              dirt and mulch that has accumulated in flower beds around the
width can only expand and contract so much without cracking or                house. It may require the more extensive task of making a drain-
detaching itself. For most house applications, the bead of sealant            age path between the house and a swale at the side front or back
needs to be about 3/16” in diameter in order to perform well.                 of the house. The swale can be a shallow ditch that is really quite
                                                                              inoffensive if is gradual and wide enough. However, it must have
If you are applying sealant to a smooth surface like aluminum,                the capacity to carry water away from the house faster than the
glass, or vinyl, use a rag to clean a dirty service. Oil must be              hurricane can dump it.
removed. Make sure the surface is dry. If you are filling a hole or
crack then you might apply a small bead of sealant that is pushed             You can add extenders to your gutter and downspout system
into the crack with a finger. This usually does little more than fill           so that water gets discharged harmlessly away from the house.
the hole without really adhering to the sides of the hole or crack.           These downspout extensions have to be secured so wind does not
Then, assuming aesthetics allow, apply a 3/16” diameter bead                  pick them up.
of sealant on top. If one is filling a right angle joint or crack of
materials that expand and contract in response to temperature                 If you have a planting area near the house that acts like a pond
differently (e.g., aluminum or vinyl to wood or masonry) apply                while surrounding grass or walkways act as dams, then you
a little bead of sealant to the joint and work it into both surfaces          should consider adding a 4” or 6” diameter pipe under the dam.
to assure that it adheres to both surfaces while wet. Then apply              These materials are readily available at home supply stores. On
another larger bead that is at least 3/16-inch in diameter. For               the house side of the pipe a catch basin needs to be provide with
maximum effectiveness, the bead should NOT be pushed to be                    enough surface area that mulch and other debris does not clog it
concave because that thins it out so much that there might not be             up.
enough caulk to absorb dimensional changes caused by tempera-
ture.                                                                         Something not appreciated by many is that hurricane winds will
                                                                              push water from the yards (in the grass) up walls. That is not
Whenever you use caulks or sealants, go back the next day to                  good if the floor level isn’t well above the ground or sidewalk. If
check the thoroughness of your work. You will likely be surprised             the house is a frame one on a concrete floor, then there is a pretty
                                                                         30
easy path for rising (or wind-driven rain) water that gets above            Also, if your home is an older home or was built in an area where
the concrete floor and into the space between the concrete and the           they have not been following a modern high-wind building code,
wood walls. Concrete block houses may have similar issues.                  you may not have hurricane clips or straps holding your roof
                                                                            structure to your walls. If that is the case, window and door pro-
Wall Cladding:                                                              tection may make the critical difference between losing your roof
In an ideal world, your wall cladding would keep all water out,             and keeping it on. If a large window or door is broken open on
but would let water vapor escape should water get into walls.               the wall facing into the wind, the overall uplift forces that are try-
Although some older houses have very porous skins and therefore             ing to lift the roof off your house may be doubled. Research has
are not very energy-efficient, it is the very quality of their being         shown that protecting the windows and doors can raise the wind
porous that allows walls that get wet to dry out. Newer houses,             speed required to lift your roof off your house by one to two hur-
on the other hand, are being built to be more energy efficient by            ricane intensity categories. In other words, if it is likely that the
(among other things) being tighter, i.e., not let air flow through           roof of your home would lift off during a Category 2 hurricane if
walls. This very good energy quality makes it difficult for walls            a large window broke open on the windward side of your house,
to dry out if water does get into the wall. Unfortunately, even             it might take a Category 3 or possibly even a Category 4 storm to
energy efficient “ tight” walls have lots of ways that water can get         lift the roof off if all of the windows and doors are protected.
past the cladding. These include actual holes as discussed above,
a porous skin surface, and cracks or holes in the skin.                     Installing shutters over windows and doors can protect them from
                                                                            the impacts of windborne debris and can keep wind pressures
The significance of cracks:                                                  from building up in your house to the point where it significantly
        • A hairline crack in stucco only 6” long and assumed to            increases the uplift forces on the roof. However, it probably
          be 1/64th wide has the same area to let water in as a             won’t keep the doors and windows from bursting open from wind
          square hole over 1/4” on a side.                                  pressure if they are weak or poorly anchored to the walls of the
        • A stair step crack only 1/32” wide on a block house               house.
          that includes two vertical steps and one horizontal run
          has the same area to let water in as a hole 1” on each            Joe Lstiburek, of Building Science Corporation, likes to point
          side.                                                             out that there are only two types of windows and doors, “Those
        • A 1/16” wide crack between 6” wide siding boards has              that leak and those that are going to leak.” This comment actually
          the same area to let water in as a hole nearly 5/8” on a          contains a tremendous amount of truth since the test standards
          side.                                                             for water intrusion are set at a very small fraction of the design
        • A crack between a window frame and the house that is              pressure for the window or door. A realistic example is that if the
          only 1/64th inch wide has the same area to let water in           window or door you have in your home is rated for 50 pounds per
          as a hole 1/2” on a side.                                         square foot of wind pressure (a pressure you might expect from a
                                                                            storm with wind gusts approaching 140 mph) it only has to resist
These numbers suggest that sealing cracks on the house is criti-            a pressure of 7.5 pounds per square foot without leaking (a pres-
cal. If you have many cracks, they can let in so much water that it         sure that might occur when wind gusts reach about 55 mph) to
overwhelms the wall system and makes the interior wet; too wet              pass the water intrusion test standard. Since windows and doors
to dry out before mold and other damage occurs. Remember that               are going to leak, he makes the point that the key is to minimize
in a hurricane, rain water is continuously being blown against the          or manage the water intrusion. Keeping water from being driven
house (a constant supply of water) and that there is a pressure dif-        against and building up on windows and doors is one way to try
ference across the windward wall that is pushing water inwards.             and minimize the water intrusion during a hurricane. Fixed glass
Short of re-siding your home or a major renovation, paint and               window systems (windows that are not operable) with impact
sealants are your best bet for trying to at least reduce the amount         resistant glass that is mounted into the frames with structural
of water entering through your walls.                                       adhesives is another approach.

Openings (Windows and Doors)                                                Before we move on to methods for protecting windows and
Protecting windows and doors (including sliding glass doors                 doors, it is important to address a couple of common MISCON-
and garage doors) from windborne debris is an important part of             CEPTIONS about ways to protect windows.
protecting your home, your belongings, and your roof in a hurri-
cane. Your home is particularly vulnerable to having unprotected            Tape: We often see windows with masking tape, duct tape, or any
windows being broken by windborne debris if:                                other type of tape placed across the glass and are asked whether
         • The design wind speed for your area is 130 mph or                this will provide protection against storm debris - the unequivo-
           greater regardless of tree cover or your surroundings            cal answer is NO. Hurricanes are devastating forces of nature
         • The design wind speed for your area is 120 mph or                and more substantial protection than tape is required to withstand
           greater and you live in an area with moderate tree cover         their wrath.
         • You live in a neighborhood with few trees and the
           design wind speed for your area is 110 mph or greater            Window Film: Some homeowners have considered window film
         • Vulnerability goes up significantly if you have a tile            as an alternative to other window protection systems. The most
           roof or if one or more of your neighbors has a tile roof,        common method of installing window film is known as “daylight
           a flat roof with gravel ballast or, old shingles that are         installation.” The process involves pre-cutting the adhesive-
           starting to curl                                                 backed film to a size slightly larger than the windowpane to
                                                                       31
which it will be applied. Then, at the time of installation, the film        damage in hurricanes is to install tested and approved impact-
is trimmed back to the size of the windowpane. This type of in-             resistant shutters over all windows and glass doors. Not only do
stallation does nothing to keep the window attached to the frame,           they protect doors and windows from most common wind-borne
so it provides very little or no additional protection from winds           objects, but they can reduce the chances of damage caused by
and rain entering your house.                                               pressurization of your home if a window or door is broken.

One of the most common types of window film is known as                      The easiest retrofits are typically those that simply cover the
“safety film.” This type of film should never be less than 4 mils in          opening with an approved structural panel. In addition to Com-
thickness. Typically, safety film products meet the same break-              mercial Products, at: http://www.floridadisaster.org/brm/rcmp/
safe requirements as tempered safety glass. This means that the             hrg/content/openings/commercial_shutters.asp, which must be
safety film should hold the glass shards together, thus preventing           professionally installed, there are a wide variety of Do-it-Yourself
a potential hazard from sharp, broken glass. Safety film may also            Options at: http://www.floridadisaster.org/brm/rcmp/hrg/con-
offer a degree of protection in the case of high winds, particu-            tent/openings/diy_shutters.asp, some of which will qualify for
larly if it is well anchored to the window frame using a method             Windstorm Insurance Discounts and some that may not qualify.
that has been shown to keep the film in place after the window               Note that insurance companies will not give a Windstorm Insur-
is broken. Window film installations with proper anchorage tend              ance Discount unless all openings are protected by an approved
to be quite expensive compared to the “daylight installation”               product.
and usually have only been proven for commercial applications
where the frames are more substantial than those typically found            You can find out more about windborne debris protection options
in residences. Some products have passed the small missile test             by referring to the link below. A matrix that summarizes protec-
standard when applied to Commercial Windows glazed with 3/16                tion options can be viewed at HRG_Shutter_Matix.pdf, at: http://
tempered glass and the film is adhered or mechanically fastened              www.floridadisaster.org/brm/rcmp/hrg/downloads/HRG_Shut-
to the window frame, but we are not aware of any systems that               ter_Matix.pdf
have passed the large (9 lb lumber) missile impact at 34 mph.
Experts and the building codes do not consider window film to be             Window and Door Protection
an adequate protection for windows of homes in hurricane-prone              The following section provides more information on what you
areas.                                                                      can do to reduce water intrusion around windows and doors.

What You Should Do: As a homeowner in a hurricane-prone area,               Windows
you should always purchase a product or system that has been                There are three things you need to consider when you think about
tested and certified as passing one of the large missile (i.e. 9-lb          increasing the hurricane protection of your home by protecting
2x4 wood member striking end on at a specified impact speed)                 windows. They are:
impact-resistant standards. See Local and National Standards, at:                    • Preventing broken glass
http://www.floridadisaster.org/brm/rcmp/hrg/content/openings/                         • Improving the window frame anchorage
debris_impact_standards.asp, to get more information on the vari-                    • Reducing the potential for water intrusion
ous test standards and performance requirements.
                                                                            Glass Breakage
In Florida you can determine if the product has been tested and             Windows that get broken by debris will let a huge amount of
certified by looking at the label on the product or by looking it            water and strong winds into your house. A house exposed to
up on the Florida Department of Community Affairs product ap-               hurricane Charley had a bedroom window that measured 3’ by
proval website, at http://www.floridabuilding.org/pr/pr_app_srch.            3’ broken by a shingle from a nearby house. The wall opposite
aspx. For Miami/Dade and Broward County approvals you can                   the window was completely wet from floor to ceiling and there
look it up on their product approval web site, at: http://www.              was grass debris plastered on that same area. You can imagine
miamidade.gov/buildingcode/online_product_search.asp                        how much water entered that room and flowed into other rooms
                                                                            ruining carpets, bedding, furniture, clothing, and drywall. If that
Manufacturer Members of the International Hurricane Protection              house had not gotten dried out within the next day or so, the re-
Association, a Not-for-Profit trade association, have all submitted          pairs would have been extensive and the house would likely have
for independent testing and engineering. Member Manufacturers               been uninhabitable for some time because of mold and odors and
produce products that have the necessary Texas Department of                then the subsequent repairs. This is not an isolated incident. It
Insurance, Miami-Dade and/or Florida Building Code approvals                makes it quite clear that protecting windows from getting broken
for use in Florida and Texas. This is important because buying an           is extremely important.
unapproved system means you will not be eligible for Windstorm
Insurance Discounts, and the strength or reliability of the system          The two solutions for window protection are debris resistant win-
will likely be unknown. It is possible to waste your investment in          dows or storm panels. Debris resistant windows are made of spe-
a protection system or on a product that is substandard or virtu-           cial glass that though it may get broken (cracked) the glass will
ally worthless. Look for the IHPA logo at dealers and manufac-              not fall out of the frame and let water pour into the house. The
turer’s websites this will help identify systems that are Florida           comforting thing about such windows is that they are always in
Building Code and International Building Code compliant.                    place to protect your home. Unfortunately they are not inexpen-
                                                                            sive, but when replacing windows for other reasons the extra cost
The best way to protect your existing windows and doors from                may not be that great, particularly if you are planning on install-
                                                                       32
ing a mid- to upper-range window product anyway. While impact                of the building after they have penetrated the spacing gap that
rated windows can cost 3 times the least expensive window that               has traditionally been left between the window and the wall so
has the pressure rating needed for your location, it may only cost           that the window could be shimmed to make it vertical even if the
30% more than the premium window from the same manufactur-                   framing is not quite perfect. A gap of 1/2” to 1” on each side is
er. The alternative is to install storm panels on the outside of your        pretty typical. When you tighten the screw, be sure you do not
home, in front of windows, that will absorb the shock of debris              distort the window frame (jamb) so that the window does not
without breaking and without allowing the window glass behind                operate properly or smoothly.
it to break.
                                                                             Strengthening the installation of windows in block walls - Tap-
The least expensive way to protect your existing windows and,                cons can be installed through the jamb of the window. They have
more importantly, your home from damage in hurricanes is to                  to be long enough to penetrate the jamb of the window, the shim
install tested and approved impact-resistant shutters over all               space, and perhaps a 3/4” think wood buck strip, plus get a 1 1/2”
windows. Not only do they protect windows from most common                   bite into the masonry wall. Be sure the head of the Tapcon does
wind-borne objects, but they can reduce the chances of damage                not interfere with the operation of the window. A bevel head may
caused by pressurization of your home if a window or door is                 be best. Note that you will have to pre-drill a hole for each screw.
broken. The easiest retrofits are those that simply cover the open-           You can drill through the window jamb and the wood using a
ing with an approved structural panel. In past hurricanes, many              normal high-speed drill bit but you will need to drill into the
homeowners, upon returning, have noticed that their temporary                masonry with a masonry drill bit of the correct diameter for the
shutters blew off. The reason is that they were not adequately               particular Tapcon screw you intend to use. When you tighten the
fastened. Consequently, it is important to select an adequate                screw, be sure you do not distort the window frame (jamb) so that
protective system as well as providing strong permanent anchors              the window does not operate properly or smoothly.
for the system.
                                                                             Screw, nails and Tapcons -The length of the fastener will be
Keeping a window in place                                                    determined by the considerations already discussed. Wood screws
A common problem in older homes is that the window frames                    should be #10. Nails should be 8 or 10 penny. Tapcons can be
are frequently not well enough attached to the house to withstand            3/16” diameter. Finish nails will be the least visually apparent.
very strong winds. A 50 mph wind only pushes on a window or                  Counter sinking nails just a little below the surface and then fill-
door with about 5 to 7 pounds of force per square foot of area,              ing the shallow hole with caulk will make them nearly invisible.
whereas a 100 mph wind applies 20 to 28 pounds per square                    If you are sure you are getting a good bite into the structure of
foot, and a 130 mph wind applies 34 to 47 pounds per square                  the house, then space the first fastener within 6” of the end of the
foot. These forces are applied on every square foot of a window.             jamb (one fastener at the top and one at the bottom of each side)
This means that a bedroom window that is say 3’ wide by 5’                   and then no farther apart than 12”. When you install fasteners you
long, when subjected to a 100 mph wind, has between 300 to                   can probably feel how well they are biting into the building. If
420 pounds of force applied to the window and the frame. Think               they are absolutely loose, you may have to use a longer fastener.
about having 2 men or 3 women sitting on the window. Most                    If they are just somewhat infirm the wood of the house may be
windows simply are not designed for those kinds of weights and               rotted because of water damage or termites. Or the fastener may
traditionally have not been installed to withstand them either. The          be missing the structure. This is sometimes the case when the
good news is that most window frames lend themselves to being                window on a frame house is located near the outside face of the
more securely attached to a house.                                           wall.

Unless a shutter is pretty well sealed to the house, it will not             You should discount the value of any existing nails or screws
significantly reduce the wind pressures on the window. Research               holding the window in place because in the past not much at-
has shown that is doesn’t take much of an air gap around the                 tention was paid to how many or more importantly how far they
edges of the shutters for pressures on the outside of the shutter or         penetrated into the structure.
wall next to the shutter to be applied to the window. At even the
highest wind speeds in a hurricane, air is basically incompressible          Caulk – As noted earlier, you can use a good quality caulk such
(you have to get close to the speed of sound before you compress             as a urethane caulk to help secure a window. A good bead of
air vary much) so unless the windows are very leaky, it will not             caulk around a window that is wetted to the surface of the house
take much air flow into the space behind the shutter before the               and the window can provide a lot of strength and secondarily
pressure builds up on the window. Consequently, you should stay              provide a barrier to water entry. Regular silicone caulks are not
away from windows even if they are shuttered and if you notice               recommended. If you use white caulk, select one formulated to
that windows are starting to bow inward because of wind pres-                be UV resistant so it does not turn yellow. The bead of caulk
sure, get out of the room - do not try to help by pushing back on            should not be left so the shape is concave because this does not
the windows!                                                                 leave the caulk thick enough to be very effective. Further, it is
                                                                             likely to crack because of temperature changes. Most of us find
Strengthening the installation of a window in a frame wall-                  it difficult not to make the caulk look neat by running our finger
Screws or nails can be installed through the jamb of the window              along the joint, but it does substantially reduce the effective-
and if the screws are long enough they can penetrate house                   ness of the caulk. With this said, it can be beneficial to assure
framing well enough to provide good anchorage. Bear in mind                  adhesion of caulk by pressing it into the two surfaces to form a
that screws have to be long enough to get a bite into the framing            concave shape. If you do this, you will need to go back and add a
                                                                        33
continuous bead of caulk to this first layer so that there is enough         The tape must be sticky enough to stay on and must be water
thickness for the caulk to react to temperature changes without             resistant enough to maintain it effectiveness. Two types of tape
cracking.                                                                   might offer such features. One would be a good quality cloth duct
                                                                            tape. Unfortunately there are a lot of inferior quality duct tapes.
Leaks at windows - You may well have noticed that water has                 Aluminum foil type taped used by AC duct installers is more
accumulated on windowsills in thunderstorms. The water is prob-             reliable. The aluminum tape about 2½” wide has paper applied to
ably rain that got blown by the thunderstorm between parts of the           the sticky side that one removes when applying the tape. Some
window frame (sash) that holds the glass and the overall frame of           brands of this tape have printed instruction for installation. The
the window assembly. Because this is such an occasional event, it           most important installation hint is to use a semi-rigid squeegee
usually does not do any or much damage to the house other than              to rub over the tape to press the adhesive to the substrate. When
cause paint to peel. If the paint around a window is blistered, es-         using any tape, the surface must be dust and grease free. Unfortu-
pecially on the lower end of the window, then the window may be             nately nearly all tapes have to be applied to dry surfaces. So plan
quite prone to let a lot of water in the house if a hurricane blows         ahead.
through.
                                                                            Taking Action
Tape between a window sash and the frame applied from the                   Providing window protection is regarded by experts who have
inside will be almost completely ineffective at keeping water               studied the effects of hurricanes to be the second most impor-
out. The wind will just loosen the tape to let water pass. Tape on          tant issue to address (roofs are the first) to protect a building.
the outside would be more effective if the tape is water resistant          Debris resistant windows solve the issue of window breakage
enough to stay adhered.                                                     quite handily. Storm panels are a good option as well. However,
                                                                            you should also take action to strengthen the anchorage of your
Leaks around windows -The gap between the frame of the                      window frames and seek to reduce the chances that water will be
window and the sash (movable part of a window assembly) can                 blown into your home when a hurricane strikes.
be made to be pretty air tight under normal conditions. Hurri-
canes are not normal conditions. In order for a sash to move in             Entry Door Protection
the frame over a range of temperatures the manufacture has to               There are four things you need to consider when you think about
provide a gap. Even if the gap is only as large as the thickness of         exterior entry doors and how to make them less likely to be dam-
a couple of sheets of paper it can cumulatively result in a much            aged or to leak during a hurricane. They are:
larger area than you might think. For example if a we consider a                      • The strength of the door including its ability to resist
bedroom egress window sash it is likely on the order of 36” wide                        windborne debris impacts
by about 36” high so it has a perimeter of 36” times its 4 sides.                     • The anchorage of the door to the door frame in its
So the total crack is 72” long. The area of the crack accumulates                       closed and locked position including its ability to
to be equivalent in area to a square hole with 1 inch sides. In                         remain closed
a hurricane this could be like someone standing outside with a                        • The anchorage of the door frame to the wall structure
garden hose squirting it through your window. You can imag-                           • Reducing the potential for water intrusion
ine how much water can come through. So you should not be
surprised that in a hurricane a window will allow a lot of water to         Hinged doors are usually large compared to a piece of glass in a
enter; more water than you can mop up with bath towels. Besides             window. So if a door gets broken open by wind, unless it is shut-
if you are prudent you will not be in that upwind room during a             tered with a non-porous system, it will almost always result in
hurricane.                                                                  pressurization of the interior of the home.

Window manufacturers are working on designs that are less likely            Strength of the Door
to leak, but most of the high performance windows currently                 If the door and framing are metal and there is no glass in the
available are for commercial buildings and cost considerably                door, the door will likely resist wind pressures and hurricane
more, are rarely operable, and look a lot different than windows            debris. Some kinds of solid wood doors will also provide good
for homes.                                                                  protection from wind pressure and debris impacts. In some cases,
                                                                            we have found stickers on the edge of the door where the hinges
Although there are no hard numbers to back up the extra protec-             are mounted that indicate the design pressure and impact rating
tion against water intrusion afforded by shutters, there is evidence        for the door. Beware of doors that have raised flat wood panels
that they can help. This is particularly true if the shutters help          installed in a framework of solid wood around the edges. These
keep down the amount of water that builds up on the window and              panels and support members are typically not well attached to
thus is available to be driven through cracks. One row in the shut-         each other and the doors frequently burst apart when impacted by
ter matrix gives some preliminary thoughts about how various                debris.
systems may perform in reducing water intrusion.
                                                                            Doors may not be as strong as they seem. Even doors with metal
Water Intrusion Preventative Measures At Doors And Windows                  surfaces frequently have a wood framework around the edges and
Although it is unproven, it seems that suitable tape applied to             possibly a foam core. While the metal may help keep windborne
the outside of your windows to cover the cracks between the                 debris from penetrating the face of the door, it is not uncommon
frame and the sash or parts of the sash where windows overlap               to have the edge of the door split at the latch and the metal buckle
might reduce the amount of water getting driven into your house.            around the latch, under either wind pressure or the impact of
                                                                       34
debris. While a shutter system will typically protect the door from           a door experiences in everyday use. One can purchase deadbolts
the impact of windborne debris, most allow enough air leakage                 that are heftier than others. However if the door or door jamb is
around the edges of the shutter or through corrugations, even if              split or weakened, a stronger lock may not offer much additional
they are capped, so that the door becomes fully loaded with the               protection.
wind pressure from the storm. In Hurricane Charley, a number
of homeowners had their exterior entry doors burst open even                  All doors should have at least three hinges and a security lock
though they were shuttered.                                                   with a dead bolt that is 3/4” to 1” long. The screws in the hinges
                                                                              need to be long enough to go through the door frame and into
Your best bet for keeping your exterior entry door closed during a            the wall structure. Installing heavy duty sliding latches at the top
storm is to have a pressure rated door that is well anchored to the           and bottom corners of the door, above and below the latch and
frame with adequate locks to handle the wind pressure. Having a               deadbolt, can provide excellent extra protection when a hurricane
door that is also impact rated will mean that you do not need to              strikes. Also, beware of doors that are mounted in a wood frame,
shutter the door to protect it from windborne debris.                         and particularly if they open inward. Windborne debris can easily
                                                                              burst these doors open unless the anchorage of the door has been
In a 130 mph wind, category 3 hurricane, a typical 3’ wide door               reinforced.
has about 580 pounds of pressure applied to it. That is more than
two heavy men standing, if not jumping, on your door. In a 150                Double entry or “French doors” have been particularly suscep-
mph wind the 580 pounds becomes 780. That is three 260-pound                  tible to failure from wind pressure and should have the highest
men standing on your door. Bear in mind hurricane winds are not               priority for strengthening or shuttering. If you have glass panels
nice smooth steady winds. Instead, they are pounding winds that               in the doors or wood doors with raised panels, your least expen-
shake and tear things apart. Perhaps you can visualize the effects            sive option will likely be to shutter the door. If they are solid
of wind pressures on your exterior door by considering them                   doors, at a minimum you should improve the anchorage of the
mounted flat above the floor with the frame on blocks or support-               fixed door by adding heavy-duty barrel bolt sliding latches at the
ed by chairs and men standing or jumping on it. Do you feel safe?             top and bottom, and make sure the barrels extend into the header
You can shutter doors with a code approved pressure and impact                and floor (not just the threshold, unless it is well anchored to the
rated shutter system, but you must keep at least one door operable            floor).
from inside the living space (not through the garage) to provide
egress to the outside. This can be done by using an accordion                 The door framing and installation details are key elements of a
shutter system that can be operated from both inside and outside              pressure and impact rated door system. To retain that rating, the
the house. Also consider replacing at least one door with one that            doors have to be installed according to the manufacturer’s instal-
is code approved for wind pressures appropriate for your area                 lation instructions using the tested hardware.
and debris impact tested and approved. You can check with your
building department to determine the local requirements. There                Anchorage of the Frame to the Wall
are also ways to install corrugated and other panel systems so that           Like windows, the framing around door openings is usually larger
they provide a means of escape.                                               than the door frame that is going to be installed. This allows the
                                                                              frame to be shimmed so that the door is vertical, even if the fram-
Anchorage to the Door Frame                                                   ing is not quite perfect. Consequently, fasteners used to hold the
Exterior entry doors, and particularly those that open inward, can            door frame in place have to go through the door frame, through
be forced open by wind pressure or the impact of flying debris.                the gap and into the wall framing. Fasteners can be added to
Doors are held to the frame around them by not much - just hing-              improve the anchorage of the door frame to the wall. The length
es and the door lock. Remember that doors can get pulled out as               of the fastener will need to be at least 3 inches. Wood screws
well as get pushed in. Adding slide latches can add strength to the           should be #12. Nails should be 10 or 12 penny. Tapcons can be
lock side of the door, but only if the latches are rather substantial,        3/16” diameter. Finish nails will be the least visually apparent.
are sizeable, and have long enough screws to hold the latches in              Counter sinking nails just a little below the surface and then fill-
place. If a door only has two hinges, it probably can’t withstand             ing the shallow hole with caulk will make them nearly invisible.
a hurricane wind - Period. Dead bolts must extend far enough                  If you are sure you are getting a good bite into the structure of
into the strike plate (flat metal on the door jamb that receives the           the house, then space the first fastener within 6” of the end of the
deadbolt and holds the door in the closed position). Importantly              frame member (one fastener at the top and one at the bottom of
the strike plate has to be secured into the jamb really well. Many            each side) and then no farther apart than 16”. When you install
times that is not the case. Frequently one can see that the wood of           fasteners you can probably feel how well they are biting into
the door jamb has been split by the screws holding the strike plate           the building. If they are absolutely loose, you may have to use a
or by abuse. Almost always there is not much wood on the jamb                 longer fastener. If they are just somewhat infirm the wood of the
to hold the screws for the strike plate in place. To compound the             house may be rotted because of water damage or termites. Or the
problem you may well notice that the edge of the door around the              fastener may be missing the structure. This is sometimes the case
deadbolt is split and in any case there is not a lot of wood holding          when the window on a frame house is located near the outside
the deadbolt in place. All of these observations point to the need            face of the wall. If you are using screws, make sure not to tighten
to assure oneself that the lock side of the door can withstand                them so much that you warp the door frame.
pressures created by winds that are a lot stronger than the forces
                                                                              Water Intrusion
                                                                              Out-swinging doors are likely to work better at keeping water
                                                                         35
out than in-swinging doors because they will tend to push harder                    keeping the doors closed? Do the pins insert at least ½”
against the weather stripping as the wind blows harder. However,                    into the holes?
no door can keep all water out. The sidebar makes it pretty clear          [ ]      Does the door have a sidelight?
that you can’t keep water from coming in around doors. How-
ever, you may well be able to keep some water out by replacing             [ ]      Does the wall around the door seem strong? If a door
weather stripping and by making sure the crack between the door                     has `handmade’ sidelights, then one needs to be
and the threshold is small. A 3’ wide door with a threshold crack                   especially concerned about how much strength there is
only 1/16” tall is the same as a square hole 1 and 1/8” on a side                   to hold the door and sidelight in place. The forces can
or a round hole nearly 1 and ¼” in diameter. Imagine standing                       easily be in excess of 800 pounds.
outside with a garden hose and squirting water through your door.
How much water would come into the house? In the time that                 [ ]      Does the door have raised panels such that, when you
hurricanes drive rain in, it could be gallons and gallons - much                    look at them carefully, they are less than ½” thick in
more than you can sop up with towels. And remember hurricanes                       places?
don’t squirt water gently.
                                                                           [ ]      Is the door a wind-rated door? Is it rated by its manu-
Inspecting Your Hinged Door: Is It Strong Enough?                                   facturer to be able to withstand pressures in excess of 40
Inspect your door to determine its condition including whether                      to 50 pounds per square foot? Unless it was manufac-
it has the basic necessary strength, is in need repair, needs a                     tured after 1994, it likely is not rated for pressure. If the
new lock, or needs to be replaced. If you are relying only on the                   door is wind-rated, it will have a label on a side edge or
deadbolt and door latch to keep a door closed on the door knob                      the top edge.
side, bear in mind that they have to be able to withstand half the
pressure applied to the door, that is 580/2=290 pounds for a 130           [ ]      Is the door rated to be debris resistant? Unless it was
mph wind.                                                                           manufactured after 1994, it likely is not rated for impact.

[ ]      Is the edge of the door split where the deadbolt is               How to Make Your Door Stronger
         located?                                                          If your answers to any one of the questions above is “yes,” you
                                                                           need to address the issue, assuming the door may fail. There are
[ ]      Is the door jamb split at or near the strike plate for the        three approaches to protecting the door opening. One is to repair
         deadbolt?                                                         the door; another is to install non-porous shutters in front of the
                                                                           door, so that the door itself is not such a big issue; and the best
[ ]      Is the strike plate well anchored to the jamb, or are the         solution, in many situations, is to replace the door with one de-
         screws short, loose, or wood split?                               signed to withstand wind pressures and to resist windborne debris
                                                                           impacts.
[ ]      Is the deadbolt loose, or does the deadbolt seem flimsy?
                                                                           Hinges: Replacing the screws that secure hinges to the door jamb
[ ]      Does the door have only two hinges?                               can add a lot of strength to the fastening. In newer doors typically
                                                                           two screws of each hinge are longer than the other two. In older
[ ]      When you can push on the edge lock edge of the door               doors this may well not be the case. Even when longer screws are
         and push it towards the hinges do the hinges move the             used, they may not be long enough to penetrate the wood jamb
         frame (jamb) in a way that does not instill confidence?            of the door, the shim space, and get a good bite into the structure
                                                                           of the house. Unfortunately screws typically used for hinges are
[ ]      Does the door jamb seem well secured to the framing of            a little odd in size, being either #7 or #9 depending on the size of
         the house? If it obviously is not well secured, you have          the hinge. The screws should penetrate the structure of the house
         a problem. But even it seems well secured then it may             at least 1¼” inch.
         take a professional to determine that more definitively.
                                                                           Repair: There may be ways to repair or strengthen a door instal-
[ ]      Does the threshold seem well attached to the floor?                lation. Here are some ideas.
         Many times they are not well secured or the anchors/                       • Replace the hinge screws that go into the door, or,
         screws work their way loose. It is important that thres-                     probably more important, into the door jamb with
         olds that have stops (the door bumps into a ledge) be                        longer ones. Unfortunately, in some doors, these screws
         well secured because they will help hold a door in place                     are an odd size so finding a longer screw with the
         in one wind direction.                                                       diameter you need may be a problem.
                                                                                    • Replacing a flimsy deadbolt might solve part of the
[ ]      If you have double doors with pins at the bottom or top,                     problem on the latch side of the door connection.
         examine them carefully to determine how effective they                     • If the door or jamb is split, it may be possible to repair
         are. Are the plates that hold the frames of the pins well                    the splits using security hardware available at hardware
         secured to the edge of the door? Is the wood around                          stores (designed for making door more secure against
         them split? Are the screws secure, long enough, and                          burglars). A skilled carpenter may be able to salvage a
         effective? Do the holes into which the pins are inserted                     door by the use of suitable glue and some screws. In
         in the threshold and above the door look effective at                        some situations a metal security plate might solve your
                                                                      36
           door’s problems.                                                  Inspecting Your Hinged Door: Will it Keep Water Out?
         • Adding security slide latches can help, but do not be             When inspecting, don’t hesitate to get on your hands and knees
           deceived by the effectiveness of ones that use little             to look carefully under the door to look for cracks and to see how
           screws less than ¾” long. When using latches be sure              easily you think water can slip through.
           the wood they are being fastened to has the capacity to
           resist vigorous and repeated tugging.                             [ ]      Is the edge of the door split where the deadbolt is
                                                                                      located?
If your door has one or more sidelights you need to evaluate
whether the wall is strong enough to hold the door in place when             [ ]      Is the weather stripping on the sides and top of the door
the door and the sidelight is subjected to wind forces. It may take                   in good shape? Can you see air? Is it a snug fit? Does it
a professional to make this evaluation.                                               extend all the way at the top from side to side or at the
                                                                                      sides from top to bottom? Has it shrunk or cracked?
Shutters: Shutters are designed to provide protection against
debris, a very important value. However, they may not provide                [ ]      Has the weather stripping lost it pliability?
protection against the door being blown open by wind pressure.
Also, they may not provide much protection against water intru-              [ ]      Is the gap between the bottom of the door and the
sion if the panels are not fastened to the house in a water tight                     threshold more than 1/16”?
manner. If shutters are installed a few feet in front of a door, then
they will offer water intrusion protection as well. If they are close        [ ]      Is the threshold well secured to the floor?
to the door, a sizeable impact may damage the door.
                                                                             [ ]      Is the threshold water tight under it? Can water flow
Replacement: Your best bet may well be to replace the door with                       under the threshold?
one specifically designed and rated for high wind and debris
applications. Such a properly installed door should give you con-            [ ]      Is the rubber on top of the threshold ripped, no longer in
fidence. Getting a new door and getting it installed is not inex-                      a bubble shape, or missing?
pensive, but may be the most cost effective solution. Some doors
are simply too hard to effectively repair. Another advantage of a            If your steel or fiberglass door came as a factory made assembly
new door is that the weather stripping will likely be better than            with jamb and threshold it will likely have a sweep of some sort
in an older door. For convenience it is hard to beat a new door              under the bottom edge of the door. The sweep may be several
because it will always be in place ready to do its storm protection          flaps of rubber that act as sweeps. They are easily torn if the
job. With a new door, you get both better wind storm protection              space between the bottom of the door and the threshold is too
and better energy efficiency. When selecting a door there the two             small.
important criteria are the wind pressure rating of the door and              [ ]       Is the sweep torn or raggedy? Even if the flaps are in
whether the door is debris resistant. The design pressure is given                     good shape you can imagine how easy it would be for a
as a DP rating for the door. For impact standards, see Local and                       strong wind to push them aside to let water flow into the
National Debris Impact Standards, at: http://www.floridadisaster.                       house.
org/brm/rcmp/hrg/content/openings/debris_impact_standards.asp
Minimum design pressures in the building code are based on the               [ ]      Is the door warped so that in places weather stripping
design wind speed for your location. You can get an estimate of                       can perform as it should, but at other places there is an
the design wind speed by checking the map in Assessing your                           air gap? This is a common problem with wood doors. A
Risks at: http://www.floridadisaster.org/brm/rcmp/hrg/content/                         crack 1/16” wide by 2’ long is equal to a square hole
risks/understanding_risks.asp                                                         greater than 1” on a side. That will let a tremendous
                                                                                      amount of wind driven rain into your house.
The following table provides values from the building code
for doors located near corners of the house. The values will be              [ ]      Can you see big gaps or sunlight at the top corners or
slightly lower for doors located away from corners (more than                         bottom corners of the door? You may have to look from
about 4-feet away).                                                                   different angles or from both the inside and outside to
                                                                                      answer this for sure.
 DP Ratings for Doors - Code Minimum Values Based on De-
                     sign Wind Speed                                         [ ]      Do some of the door’s raised panels have cracks in them
 Design Wind Speed Door Near Corner            Door Away From                         or do some panels fit loosely?
 (mph)             (pounds per square          Corner (pounds per
                   feet)                       square feet)                  Leaks Around Doors
                                                                             The gap between the frame of a door and the door can be made
 110               30                          25
                                                                             to be pretty air tight under normal conditions. Hurricanes are not
 120                    35                     30                            normal conditions. If you have a pair of doors 8’ tall, the leak size
 130                    40                     35                            becomes the same as a hole 4” in diameter.
 140                    45                     40
                                                                             How to Reduce Leaks
 150                    50                     45
                                                                             Weather strips at the tops and sides of doors: The first thing is to
                                                                        37
determine whether the door is salvageable and the condition of              with season and in the case where a door is exposed to direct
the weather stripping. If the door is salvageable but the weather           sunlight the door may even change shape between morning and
stripping is damaged or has lost its flexibility, then consider              night.
replacing weather stripping. Usually that is pretty easy to do. In
some situations, especially for doorjambs not made in a factory,            Storm panels: Storm panels may only offer marginal protection
you can easily replace the weather stripping that is built into a           against water intrusion. If your entrance way for a door has in
wood strip on the doorjamb that is called a doorstop. A doorstop            effect an exterior hallway, consider locating storm panels at the
is usually about 3/8” thick by about 1 3/4” wide that has a hollow          entrance of the “hallway” so that water that gets blown behind
vinyl strip, a flapper shaped piece of rubber, or a plastic coated           storm panels will have to travel some distance to the door. If you
spongy weather strip attached to the 3/8” edge facing the door.             can reduce the buildup of water on the door, less will be driven
Sometimes you can replace the weather strip without having                  through cracks by the wind pressure difference across the door.
to replace the entire doorstop. If you choose not to replace the
doorstop, you may have to shop around to find the right size and             Replacement with a pressure and impact rated door: This is the
shape of weather stripping. Some weather stripping can simply               ideal solution but may not solve all of the water intrusion issues.
be pulled out of a grove in the doorjamb. In other situations,
you will find staples or little nails that were also used to hold the        Building a dam: While water beating against the door can be
weather stripping in place. Simply tear the stripping out of the            driven through any cracks and crevices whether they are at the
slots and then remove the nails or staples before attempting to in-         bottom or top of the door, most of the water will tend to be blown
stall new stripping. Small wire cutters are handy tools for cutting         in under the door. The best technique that door manufacturers
the nails or staples in the groove. Before you do any of this, it           have found for keeping water from flowing into the house under
might be prudent to cut off a little piece of weather stripping near        the door is to build a deep reservoir that the water has to fill be-
the floor so you can take it as a sample when you go shopping.               fore it overflows into the room. The height of the reservoir is the
An alternative is to simply replace the doorstop. They are readily          most critical element. From the table of design pressures present-
available at home supply stores. The disadvantage of replacing              ed above, a 130 mph wind can create a pressure of 35 pounds per
the doorstop is that it will need to be painted.                            square foot (psf) on a door in the middle of a wall. Each inch of
                                                                            water height exerts a pressure of 5.2 pounds per square foot at its
Air gaps at thresholds: Your door threshold is likely to be an              base. Consequently, the 35 psf wind pressure equals the pressure
adjustable one if it has two holes in the top of it, and below which        applied by water 6.7 inches deep. Consequently, building a dam
are bolts that are used to move the threshold up or down. If the            about 7 to 8 inches deep that can be sealed to the door frame on
rubber on a nonadjustable threshold is deteriorated, you can buy            the inside of the door, in such a way that water doesn’t leak under
a new threshold from which you can salvage the rubber. This                 it, would greatly reduce the chances that much water would be
way you won’t have to go to the effort of changing the threshold            blown in when winds approach 130 mph.
itself. Another way to deal with gaps under doors is to replace
the threshold with a higher one. They are readily available in              Sliding Glass Door Protection
a variety of heights. Another approach is to add a spacer to the            Sliding glass doors (patio doors) expose houses to risk. The prob-
bottom of the door. Unfortunately this means removing the door.             lem is that, unless sliding glass doors are specifically designed for
If the gap under a door varies a great deal, it may be that the door        high wind, they typically are not very resistant to being pushed
has pulled away from the jamb at the top hinge. This is fixable              into a house by wind. When that happens wind driven rain will
by installing larger or longer screws or by replacing the hinge             flood in, and it is possible that doors and windows on the other
and installing larger or longer screws. Weather stripping applied           side of the house will get blown out. When this happens, wind
to the face of a door may not be effective at keeping water out.            and water blow through the house, furniture gets drenched, and
If you have a steel or fiberglass door with deteriorated weather             damage can be extensive.
stripping under the door, it can usually be replaced fairly eas-
ily by removing the door. When you shop for the replacement it              Newer sliding glass doors use tempered glass, which is about
would be helpful to know the brand of the door. Unfortunately,              twice as strong as regular window glass. (If it is tempered glass, a
that may be difficult to determine. The replacement stripping can            label indicating this will be etched in one of the corners.) Howev-
usually be purchased from a lumber/contractor supply store.                 er, even if a door has tempered glass, it is still very vulnerable to
                                                                            getting pushed out of its tracks and headpiece, or being shattered
Air gaps at corners: The weather stripping of doors is often such           by large debris. The tracks and headpieces on non-wind rated
that a little adhesively applied pad is required to be placed at the        doors have simply not been designed to hold the doors in place in
lower corners of the jambs. These pads tend to come off with                strong winds. When you look at what holds your door in place, do
use, and sometime never even get installed. The pads are wedge-             not be deceived by noticing that there is an inch or two of overlap
shaped plastic-coated foam that are about 2” by 2” and about                of the top headpiece over the door. Many older doors have very
1/8” thick to ¼” thick, in a wedge shape. They are not readily              little ability to resist bowing and they can bow so much that the
purchased except from door manufacturing facilities, or a lumber            door can pop out of the headpiece. This has been witnessed time
company where builders buy their supplies.                                  after time. The loss of one of these doors creates a large opening
                                                                            for wind and water to enter, which was often seen in areas af-
Warped door: If an entry door is warped, you probably should                fected by the highest winds from the 2004 hurricanes.
consider replacing the door, as it will probably leak badly during
a hurricane. You might notice that a warped door changes shape              Shuttering the doors is one of the most effective ways to protect
                                                                       38
them from flying debris, and should help reduce water intru-                from new wind pressure and impact rated doors. If you install
sion. Using a non-porous shutter system will also help prevent             doors that are rated for pressure but not for impact, then you will
the house from getting pressurized if a sliding glass door fails           still need to shutter them if you are going to provide protection
during a hurricane. However, because most shutter systems, even            from windborne debris. New doors will have better weather seals
those that are considered non-porous in terms of pressurizing              than regular doors, so you will benefit every day from an energy
your house, allow pressure to build up behind the shutter on the           perspective, and it should reduce leaks if you are hit by the edge
sliding glass door. That pressure can cause the door to pop out            of a hurricane. It probably will not help much if you are hit by the
or the glass to break. In some cases, the tracks for the doors may         strongest part of the hurricane. When you change doors, you will
not be all that well attached to the walls of the house. You should        want to consider using more energy efficient glass to save even
check inside the framing to check the condition of the screws, the         more energy money in the long term. An advantage and comfort
number of screws, and the distance between the screws.                     of replacing doors with pressure and impact rated units is that
                                                                           they will always be in place when needed. Pressure ratings for
Inspecting Your Sliding Glass Door: Is it Strong Enough?                   doors are based on the design wind speed for your location.
        1. Before you check your sliding glass doors, it is a
        good idea to make a trip to your local home improve-               It is not easy to make regular sliding glass doors strong enough to
        ment store or building supplier and take a good look at            deal with wind because there are two problems, neither of which
        sliding glass doors that have a Design Pressure (DP) rat-          is easy to overcome. One issue is that non-pressure rated doors
        ing of 30 or 40. (This means they are rated to resist a            will frequently bow quite a bit. Doors can deflect (bow) so much
        pressure of 30 or 40 pounds per square foot.) Pay                  that they pull out of the aluminum at the top that holds them in.
        particular attention to the frames around the glass and to         This is true even if the headpiece extends down the door an inch
        depth and stiffness of the tracks.                                 or so. At the bottom track, doors would also come out more eas-
        2. Now, check your sliding glass doors and look at the             ily, if it were not for the weight of the doors. Sometimes metal
        relative size of the frame around your glass and at the            reinforcing can be added to the sides of doors. Some homeowners
        tracks. Are they as hefty as those you saw in the store for        have also installed braces across the doors at mid-height that run
        the same size sliding glass doors?                                 from side to side. This bracing can be effective near the walls but
        3. Check the corners of the glass to see if the glass is           it would take a pretty hefty beam to provide much support in the
        tempered. If it is tempered, it will be labeled as                 middle of the door. If you find that there are fewer than 4 screws
        tempered.                                                          along each of the vertical edges of the door frame or fewer than 2
        4. Look at the bottom track for the door. If you don’t trip        screws along the bottom or top frame of each door segment, you
        over the track, it will not keep water out in a hurricane.         should consider adding screws to improve the anchorage of the
        5. Check the number of screws and maximum spacing                  frame to the wall.
        between screws holding the track in place - both on the
        sides and along the top and bottom.                                Wind driven rain in hurricanes travels nearly horizontally and the
        6. Do the doors fit snuggly into the jamb? Is there air             water will build up on the sliding glass doors and work its way
        space between the door and the jamb? Is it easy to get             through cracks on all sides of the doors. The best way to reduce
        the door into the right position to lock it?                       the water penetration is to keep the water from building up on
        7. Can you see an air gap between doors when they meet             the doors. You can do this to some extent with non-porous shut-
        in the center? Is there a gap between the overlapping              ters, and this technique will be most effective if the shutters are
        posts if you have more than two doors in the track?                located some distance away from the doors. As described earlier,
        8. Does the track of the door have a piece of metal that           the best technique that door manufacturers have found for keep-
        comes up on the inside (water dam) at least 3 to 4                 ing water from flowing into the house under the door is to build
        inches?                                                            a deep reservoir that the water has to fill before it overflows into
        9. Are the track and the jamb of the doorway caulked               the room. See directions above.
        together effectively or at all? You may have to clear out
        debris, dust, cobwebs, or mud, to determine if the caulk           You may be able to use plastic sheeting taped to the edges of the
        is effective.                                                      wall opening for the door and sealed to the bottom track (you
                                                                           will need to remove dirt, dust and oil from the track) inside your
Protecting the Door and Keeping Water Out                                  house to keep water from spraying into the room through cracks
Because sliding glass doors typically open into living space and           or flowing in over the bottom track.
sometimes are as large and vulnerable as garage doors, protect-
ing them is an important part of protecting your house. If you             Endnotes
                                                                           1. http://www.flsenate.gov/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_
have old style sliding glass doors, i.e., that are not specifically         Statute&URL=Ch0718/ch0718.htm [CHAPTER 718 CONDOMINIUMS]
designed for high wind pressures, you should seriously consider            2. http://www.flsenate.gov/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_
replacing the doors or protecting them with a shuttering system            Statute&URL=Ch0719/ch0719.htm CHAPTER 719 COOPERATIVES
of some sort. If possible, try to keep the shutters some distance          3. http://www.flsenate.gov/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_
away from the sliding glass doors. That will help keep water               Statute&URL=Ch0720/ch0720.htmHOMEOWNERS’ ASSOCIATIONS
from building up against the doors and being driven through
the gaps under the doors, between the door overlap and around
the edges of the doors. Shuttering will cost less than replacing
the doors, but won’t give you all the benefits that you would get
                                                                      39
                                                                        8)      The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
       Human Resources and Natural Disasters                                    relates to all employees, and prohibits the hiring of il-
       Part I: Human Resources Management                                       legal aliens, imposing sanctions on employers not in
                   Final Exam                                                   compliance.

                                                                                True               False
1)   The job analysis requires three main categories of
     information: the position itself, how the position fits
     into the larger organization, and the functional and               9)      Because all parts of an application, interview notes,
     technical aspects of the job.                                              evaluations, or tests may be used to defend against a
                                                                                claim of discrimination in hiring, keep records of
     True               False                                                   employees for 3-5 years after the last day of employ-
                                                                                ment.

2)   The job description is written documentation that                          True               False
     describes the responsibilities and duties of a specific job,
     its location in the organization, and how it interacts with
     the other parts of the association.                                10)     You do not have to ask for permission to check refer-
                                                                                ences along with contact information for each reference.
     True               False
                                                                                True               False

3)   Technical skills are those that relate only to the use of
     hazardous materials.                                               11)     The Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1997
                                                                                requires that employees disclose to the applicant in the
     True               False                                                   application that they will be using consumer reporting
                                                                                data in hiring decisions.

4)   Compensation never includes incentives, such as a                          True               False
     bonus or commission, in addition to a salary or hourly
     pay.
                                                                        12)     Past job performance is not a good predictor of future
     True               False                                                   performance.

                                                                                True               False
5)   The Equal Pay Act of 1963, which applies to companies
     of two or more workers, prohibits pay differentials on
     the basis of gender.                                               13)     RFP’s for large projects with many specifications should
                                                                                include a cover letter summarizing information in the
     True               False                                                   RFP and announcing the deadline for receipt of bids.

                                                                                True               False
6)   Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)
     prohibits discrimination based on Vietnam-era veteran
     status.
                                                                        Part II: Preventing Leaks During Hurricanes
     True               False
                                                                        14)     The pressures created by a 100 mph wind will drive
                                                                                water about 6 inches up through any crack or opening
7)   It is unlawful to ask an applicant with a disability about                 anywhere on the wall or through the soffit.
     the nature of degree of the disability, or use a medical
     examination to screen applicants to determine disability.                  True               False

     True               False
                                                                        15)     You can use caulks for small cracks up to about ¼” wide
                                                                                for single applications of caulk and up to about ½” with
                                                                                multiple applications.

                                                                                True               False

                                                                   40
16)   Masking tape will provide protection against storm
      debris.

      True              False


17)   The best way to protect your existing windows and
      doors from damage in hurricanes is to install tested and
      approved impact-resistant shutters over all windows and
      glass doors.

      True              False


18)   A common problem in older homes is that the window
      frames are frequently not well enough attached to the
      house to withstand very strong winds.

      True              False



19)   If a door only has two hinges, it probably can’t with-
      stand a hurricane wind.

      True              False


20)   In-swinging doors are likely to work better at keeping
      water out than out-swinging doors.

      True              False


21)   Replacing the screws that secure hinges to the door jamb
      cannot add a lot os strength to the fastening.

      True              False


22)   If an entry door is warped, you should probably consider
      replacing the door, as it will probably leak badly during
      a hurricane.

      True              False




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