LICA LAB MANUAL by kd1QMii

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									DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




             LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS
                 LAB MANUAL

III BTECH, ECE                                  1     st   SEMESTER




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                  LIST OF EXPERMENTS
1.Study of op amp IC-741,IC555,IC565,IC566,IC1496-functioning,parameters and
specifications.
2.Op amp applications-adder,subtractor,comparator circuits.
3.Integrater,differentiator circuits using op amp 741.
4. Active Filter Applications – LPF, HPF (first order)
5. Active Filter Applications – BPF & Band Reject (Wideband and Notch Filters)
6.IC741      oscillator     circuits-phase    shift       and   wien   bridge   oscillators
7. Function Generator using OPAMPs
8. IC 555 Timer-Monostable Operation Circuit
9. IC 555 Timer - Astable Operation Circuit
10. Schmitt Trigger Circuits- using IC 741 & IC 555
11.IC565-PLL applications.
12. IC 566 – VCO Applications
13. Voltage Regulator using IC723
14. Three Terminal Voltage Regulators- 7805, 7809, 7912
15. 4 bit DAC using OP AMP
16. Voltage- to- Current Converter
17. Precision Rectifier
18. Clipper Circuits using IC 741




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1. Study of OP AMPs - IC 741, IC 555, IC 565, IC 566,
    IC 1496-functioning, parameters and specifications



IC 741
General Description:
        The IC 741 is a high performance monolithic operational amplifier constructed
using the planer epitaxial process. High common mode voltage range and absence
of latch-up tendencies make the IC 741 ideal for use as voltage follower. The high
gain and wide range of operating voltage provide superior performance in integrator,
summing amplifier and general feed back applications.


Block Diagram of Op-Amp:




Pin Configuration:




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Features:
1. No frequency compensation required.
2. Short circuit protection
3. Offset voltage null capability
4. Large common mode and differential voltage ranges
5. Low power consumption
6. No latch-up


Specifications:
1. Voltage gain A = α typically 2,00,000
2. I/P resistance RL = α Ω, practically 2MΩ
3. O/P resistance R =0, practically 75Ω
4. Bandwidth = α Hz. It can be operated at any frequency
5. Common mode rejection ratio = α
    (Ability of op amp to reject noise voltage)
6. Slew rate + α V/μsec
    (Rate of change of O/P voltage)
7. When V1 = V2, VD=0
8. Input offset voltage (Rs ≤ 10KΩ) max 6 mv
9. Input offset current = max 200nA
10. Input bias current : 500nA
11. Input capacitance : typical value 1.4pF
12. Offset voltage adjustment range : ± 15mV
13. Input voltage range : ± 13V
14. Supply voltage rejection ratio : 150 μV/V
15. Output voltage swing: + 13V and – 13V for RL > 2KΩ
16. Output short-circuit current: 25mA
17. supply current: 28mA
18. Power consumption: 85mW
19. Transient response: rise time= 0.3 μs
                             Overshoot= 5%




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Applications:
1. AC and DC amplifiers
2. Active filters
3. Oscillators
4. Comparators
5. Regulators


IC 555:
Description:
        The operation of SE/NE 555 timer directly depends on its internal function.
The three equal resistors R1, R2, R3 serve as internal voltage divider for the source
voltage. Thus one-third of the source voltage VCC appears across each resistor.
        Comparator is basically an Op amp which changes state when one of its
inputs exceeds the reference voltage.             The reference voltage for the lower
comparator is +1/3 VCC.         If a trigger pulse applied at the negative input of this
comparator drops below +1/3 VCC, it causes a change in state. The upper comparator
is referenced at voltage +2/3 VCC. The output of each comparator is fed to the input
terminals of a flip flop.
        The flip-flop used in the SE/NE 555 timer IC is a bistable multivibrator. This
flip flop changes states according to the voltage value of its input. Thus if the voltage
at the threshold terminal rises above +2/3 VCC, it causes upper comparator to cause
flip-flop to change its states. On the other hand, if the trigger voltage falls below +1/3
VCC, it causes lower comparator to change its states. Thus the output of the flip flop
is controlled by the voltages of the two comparators. A change in state occurs when
the threshold voltage rises above +2/3 VCC or when the trigger voltage drops below
+1/3 Vcc.
        The output of the flip-flop is used to drive the discharge transistor and the
output stage. A high or positive flip-flop output turns on both the discharge transistor
and the output stage. The discharge transistor becomes conductive and behaves as
a low resistance short circuit to ground. The output stage behaves similarly. When
the flip-flop output assumes the low or zero states reverse action takes place i.e., the
discharge transistor behaves as an open circuit or positive VCC state.          Thus the
operational state of the discharge transistor and the output stage depends on the
voltage applied to the threshold and the trigger input terminals.




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Block Diagram of IC 555:




Pin Configuration:




Function of Various Pins of 555 IC:
Pin (1) of 555 is the ground terminal; all the voltages are measured with respect to
this pin.
Pin (2) of 555 is the trigger terminal, If the voltage at this terminal is held greater than
one-third of VCC, the output remains low. A negative going pulse from Vcc to less than
Vec/3 triggers the output to go High. The amplitude of the pulse should be able to
make the comparator (inside the IC) change its state. However the width of the
negative going pulse must not be greater than the width of the expected output pulse.

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Pin (3) is the output terminal of IC 555. There are 2 possible output states. In the
low output state, the output resistance appearing at pin (3) is very low (approximately
10 Ω). As a result the output current will goes to zero , if the load is connected from
Pin (3) to ground , sink a current I Sink (depending upon load) if the load is connected
from Pin (3) to ground, and sinks zero current if the load is connected between +VCC
and Pin (3).
Pin (4) is the Reset terminal. When unused it is connected to +Vcc. Whenever the
potential of Pin (4) is drives below 0.4V, the output is immediately forced to low state.
The reset terminal enables the timer over-ride command signals at Pin (2) of the IC.
Pin (5) is the Control Voltage terminal.This can be used to alter the reference levels
at which the time comparators change state. A resistor connected from Pin (5) to
ground can do the job. Normally 0.01μF capacitor is connected from Pin (5) to
ground.    This capacitor bypasses       supply noise and does not allow it affect the
threshold voltages.
Pin (6) is the threshold terminal. In both astable as well as monostable modes, a
capacitor is connected from Pin (6) to ground. Pin (6) monitors the voltage across
the capacitor when it charges from the supply and forces the already high O/p to Low
when the capacitor reaches +2/3 VCC.
Pin (7) is the discharge terminal. It presents an almost open circuit when the output
is high and allows the capacitor charge from the supply through an external resistor
and presents an almost short circuit when the output is low.
Pin (8) is the +Vcc terminal. 555 can operate at any supply voltage from           +3 to
+18V.



Features of 555 IC
1. The load can be connected to o/p in two ways i.e. between pin 3 & ground 1 or
    between pin 3 & VCC (supply)
2. 555 can be reset by applying negative pulse, otherwise reset can be connected
    to +Vcc to avoid false triggering.
3. An external voltage effects threshold and trigger voltages.
4. Timing from micro seconds through hours.
5. Monostable and bistable operation
6. Adjustable duty cycle
7. Output compatible with CMOS, DTL, TTL
8. High current output sink or source 200mA


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9. High temperature stability
10. Trigger and reset inputs are logic compatible.


Specifications:
1. Operating temperature            :    SE 555--     -55oC to 125oC
                                         NE 555--         0o to 70oC
2. Supply voltage                   :    +5V to +18V
3. Timing                           :    μSec to Hours
4. Sink current                     :    200mA
5. Temperature stability            :    50 PPM/oC change in temp or 0-005% /oC.


Applications:
1. Monostable and Astable Multivibrators
2. dc-ac converters
3. Digital logic probes
4. Waveform generators
5. Analog frequency meters
6. Tachometers
7. Temperature measurement and control
8. Infrared transmitters
9. Regulator & Taxi gas alarms etc.


IC 565:
Description:
The Signetics SE/NE 560 series is monolithic phase locked loops. The SE/NE 560,
561, 562, 564, 565, & 567 differ mainly in operating frequency range, power supply
requirements and frequency and bandwidth adjustment ranges.               The device is
available as 14 Pin DIP package and as 10-pin metal can package.                  Phase
comparator or phase detector compare the frequency of input signal fs with frequency
of VCO output fo and it generates a signal which is function of difference between the
phase of input signal and phase of feedback signal which is basically a d.c voltage
mixed with high frequency noise. LPF remove high frequency noise voltage. Output
is error voltage. If control voltage of VCO is 0, then frequency is center frequency (fo)
and mode is free running mode.           Application of control voltage shifts the output
frequency of VCO from fo to f. On application of error voltage, difference between f s


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& f tends to decrease and VCO is said to be locked. While in locked condition, the
PLL tracks the changes of frequency of input signal.
Block Diagram of IC 565




Pin Configuration:




Specifications:
1. Operating frequency range                     :        0.001 Hz to 500 KHz
2. Operating voltage range                       :        ±6 to ±12V
3. Inputs level required for tracking            :        10mV rms minimum to 3v (p-p)
    max.


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4. Input impedance                                     :   10 KΩ typically
5. Output sink current                                 :   1mA typically
6. Drift in VCO center frequency                       :   300 PPM/oC typically
    (fout) with temperature
7. Drif in VCO centre frequency with                   :   1.5%/V maximum
    supply voltage
8. Triangle wave amplitude                             :   typically 2.4 VPP at ± 6V
9. Square wave amplitude                               :   typically 5.4 VPP at ± 6V
10. Output source current                              :   10mA typically
11. Bandwidth adjustment range                         :   <±1 to >± 60%


Center frequency fout = 1.2/4R1C1 Hz
                            = free running frequency
                 FL = ± 8 fout/V Hz
                 V = (+V) – (-V)

                        
                 fc = ± 
                                  fL
                                              1 / 2
                         2 (3.6) x10 xC 2
                                      3



Applications:
1. Frequency multiplier
2. Frequency shift keying (FSK) demodulator
3. FM detector



IC 566:
Description:
        The NE/SE 566 Function Generator is a voltage controlled oscillator of
exceptional linearity with buffered square wave and triangle wave outputs.             The
frequency of oscillation is determined by an external resistor and capacitor and the
voltage applied to the control terminal. The oscillator can be programmed over a ten
to one frequency range by proper selection of an external resistance and modulated
over a ten to one range by the control voltage with exceptional linearity.




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Block Diagram of IC566




Pin diagram:




Specifications:
        Maximum operating Voltage ---            26V
        Input voltage                    ---     3V (P-P)
        Storage Temperature              ---     -65oC to + 150oC
        Operating temperature            ---     0oC to +70oC for NE 566
                                                 -55oC to +125oC for SE 566
        Power dissipation                ---     300mv




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Applications:
    1. Tone generators.
    2. Frequency shift keying
    3. FM Modulators
    4. clock generators
    5. signal generators
    6.   Function generator



IC 1496
Description:
         IC balanced mixers are widely used in receiver IC’s. The IC versions are
usually described as balanced modulators. Typical example of balanced IC
modulator is MC1496. The circuit consists of a standard differential amplifier (formed
by Q5 _ Q6 combination) driving a quad differential amplifier composed of transistor
Q1 – Q4.      The modulating signal is applied to the standard differential amplifier
(between terminals 1 and 4). The standard differential amplifier acts as a voltage to
current converter. It produces a current proportional to the modulating signal. Q 7 and
Q8 are constant current sources for the differential amplifier Q5 – Q6. The lower
differential amplifier has its emitters connected to the package pins ( 2 & 3) so that an
external emitter resistance may be used. Also external load resistors are employed
at the device output (6 and 12 pins).The output collectors are cross-coupled so that
full wave balanced multiplication takes place. As a result, the output voltage is a
constant times the product of the two input signals.




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        Schematic of IC1496:




Pin Configuration:




Applications of MC 1496:
        a) Balanced modulator
        b) AM Modulator
        c) Product Modulator
        d) AM Detector
        e) Mixer
        f)   Frequency Doublers.




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         2. OP AMP Applications – Adder, Subtractor,
                               Comparator Circuits

Aim:    To design adder, subtractor and comparator for the given signals by using
operational amplifier.


Apparatus required:
S.No      Equipment/Component name            Specifications/Value          Quantity
1         IC 741                              Refer page no 2               1
2         Resistor                            1kΩ                           4
3         Diode                               0A79                          2
4         Regulated Power supply              (0 – 30V),1A                  2
5         Function Generator                  (.1 – 1MHz), 20V p-p          1
6         Cathode Ray Oscilloscope            (0 – 20MHz)                   1
                                                  ½
7         Multimeter                          3       digit display         1


Theory:
Adder:       A two input summing amplifier may be constructed using the inverting
mode. The adder can be obtained by using either non-inverting mode or differential
amplifier.    Here the inverting mode is used.            So the inputs are applied through
resistors to the inverting terminal and non-inverting terminal is grounded. This is
called “virtual ground”, i.e. the voltage at that terminal is zero. The gain of this
summing amplifier is 1, any scale factor can be used for the inputs by selecting
proper external resistors.
Subtractor: A basic differential amplifier can be used as a subtractor as shown in
the circuit diagram. In this circuit, input signals can be scaled to the desired values
by selecting appropriate values for the resistors. When this is done, the circuit is
referred to as scaling amplifier. However in this circuit all external resistors are equal
in value. So the gain of amplifier is equal to one. The output voltage Vo is equal to
the voltage applied to the non-inverting terminal minus the voltage applied to the
inverting terminal; hence the circuit is called a subtractor.




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Comparator: The circuit diagram shows an op-amp used as a comparator.               A
fixed reference voltage Vref is applied to the (-) input, and the other time – varying
signal voltage Vin is applied to the (+) input; Because of this arrangement, the circuit
is called the non-inverting comparator. Depending upon the levels of Vin and Vref, the
circuit produces output. In short, the comparator is a type of analog-to-digital
converter. At any given time the output waveform shows whether Vin is greater or
less than Vref. The comparator is sometimes also called a voltage-level detector
because, for a desired value of Vref, the voltage level of the input Vin can be detected


Circuit Diagrams:




                                        Fig 1: Adder




                                     Fig 2: Subtractor




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                                    Fig 3: Comparator


.
Procedures:
        A) Adder:
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in Fig 1.
2. Apply the supply voltages of +15V to pin7 and pin4 of IC741 respectively.
3. Apply the inputs V1 and V2 as shown in Fig 1.
4. Apply two different signals (DC/AC ) to the inputs
5. Vary the input voltages and note down the corresponding output at pin 6 of the IC
    741 adder circuit.
6. Notice that the output is equal to the sum of the two inputs.


        B) Subtractor:
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in Fig 2.
2. Apply the supply voltages of +15V to pin7 and pin4 of IC741 respectively.
3    Apply the inputs V1 and V2 as shown in Fig 2.
4. Apply two different signals (DC/AC ) to the inputs
5. Vary the input voltages and note down the corresponding output at pin 6 of the IC
     741 subtractor circuit.
6. Notice that the output is equal to the difference of the two inputs.




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    C) Comparator:
1. A fixed reference voltage Vref is applied to the (-) input, and to the other input a
    varying voltage Vin is applied as shown in Fig 3.
2. Vary the input voltage above and below the Vref and note down the output at pin
    6 of 741 IC.
3. Observe that,
    when Vin is less than Vref, the output voltage is -Vsat (  - VEE)
    when Vin is greater than Vref, the output voltage is +Vsat (+VCC)


Observations:
Adder:

                 V1(V)                   V2(V)                  Vo(V)
                   2.5                    2.5                   -5.06
                   3.8                    4.0                   -8.04




Subtractor:

                 V1(V)                   V2(V)                  Vo(V)
                   2.5                    3.3                    0.8
                   4.1                    5.7                   1.67


Comparator:

                 Vin(V)                  Vref(V)                Vo(V)
                    2                     0.5                   +14
                    5                     7.2                    -14




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Model Calculations:
a) Adder
        Vo = - (V1 + V2)
If V1 = 2.5V and V2 = 2.5V, then
        Vo = - (2.5+2.5) = -5V.
b) Subtractor
        Vo = V2 – V1
        If V1=2.5 and V2 = 3.3, then
        Vo = 3.3 – 2.5 = 0.8V
c) Comparator
        If Vin < Vref, Vo = -Vsat  - VEE
           Vin > Vref, Vo = +Vsat = +VCC
Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.


Result:
        For adder, subtractor and comparator circuits, the practical values are
compared with the theoretical values and they are nearly equal.


Inference:
        Different applications of opamp are observed.
Questions & Answers:
1. What is the saturation voltage of 741 in terms of VCC?
     Ans: 90% of VCC
2. What is the maximum voltage that can be given at the inputs?
    Ans: The inputs must be given in such a way that the output should be less
    than Vsat.




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    3. Integrator and Differentiator Circuits using IC 741

Aim:    To design and verify the operation of an integrator and differentiator for a
given input.
Apparatus required:
S.No      Equipment/Component               Specifications/Value        Quantity
          name
1         741 IC                            Refer page no 2             1
2         Capacitors                        0.1μf, 0.01μf               Each one
3         Resistors                         159Ω, 1.5kΩ                 Each one
4         Regulated Power supply            (0 – 30)V,1A                1
5         Function generator                (1Hz – 1MHz)                1
6         Cathode Ray Oscilloscope          (0 – 20MHz)                 1


Theory
Integrator: In an integrator circuit, the output voltage is integral of the input signal.
                                                               t
The output voltage of an integrator is given by Vo = -1/R1Cf    Vidt
                                                               o

At low frequencies the gain becomes infinite, so the capacitor is fully charged and
behaves like an open circuit. The gain of an integrator at low frequency can be
limited by connecting a resistor in shunt with capacitor.



Differentiator: In the differentiator circuit the output voltage is the differentiation
of the input voltage.           The output voltage of a differentiator is given by
               dVi
Vo = -RfC1         .The input impedance of this circuit decreases with increase in
                dt
frequency, thereby making the circuit sensitive to high frequency noise.         At high
frequencies circuit may become unstable.




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Circuit Diagrams:




                                      Fig 1: Integrator




                                         Fig 2: Differentiator




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Design equations:
Integrator:
        Choose T = 2πRfCf
        Where T= Time period of the input signal
        Assume Cf and find Rf
        Select Rf = 10R1

                      1
                             T /2
        Vo (p-p) =
                     R1C f    V
                              o
                                    i ( p p)   dt



Differentiator
        Select given frequency fa = 1/(2πRfC1), Assume C1 and find Rf
        Select fb = 10 fa = 1/2πR1C1 and             find R1
        From R1C1 = RfCf, find Cf


Procedures:
Integrator
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in Fig 1
2. Apply a square wave/sine input of 4V(p-p) at 1KHz
3. Observe the output at pin 6.
4. Draw input and output waveforms as shown in Fig 3.


Differentiator
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in Fig 2
2. Apply a square wave/sine input of 4V(p-p) at 1KHz
3. Observe the output at pin 6
4. Draw the input and output waveforms as shown in Fig 4




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Wave Forms:
Integrator




                   Fig 3: Input and output waves forms of integrator




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Differentiator




                  Fig 4 :Input and output waveforms of Differentiator



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Sample readings:
Integrator
       Input –Square wave                     Output - Triangular
Amplitude(VP-P)       Time period     Amplitude (VP-P)     Time period
       (V)                (ms)                (V)                (ms)
        8                   1                  10                  1



       Input –sine wave                        Output - cosine
Amplitude(VP-P)      Time period     Amplitude (VP-P)     Time period
       (V)               (ms)              (V)                (ms)
        8                  1              6                        1



Differentiator


       Input –square wave                      Output - Spikes
Amplitude (VP-P)       Time period    Amplitude (VP-P)     Time period
        (V)                 (ms)              (V)                (ms)
         8                     1               28                  1



         Input –sine wave                        Output - cosine
Amplitude (VP-P)       Time period    Amplitude (VP-P)     Time period
        (V)                 (ms)              (V)                (ms)
         8                     1              1.8                  1



Model Calculations:
Integrator:
        For T= 1 msec
              fa= 1/T = 1 KHz
         fa = 1 KHz = 1/(2πRfCf)
        Assuming Cf= 0.1μf, Rf is found from Rf=1/(2πfaCf)
                   Rf=1.59 KΩ
        Rf = 10 R1
                 R1= 159Ω


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Differentiator
        For T = 1 msec
             f= 1/T = 1 KHz
         fa = 1 KHz = 1/(2πRfC1)
        Assuming C1= 0.1μf, Rf is found from Rf=1/(2πfaC1)
                   Rf=1.59 KΩ
        fb = 10 fa = 1/2πR1C1
     for C1= 0.1μf;
                 R1 =159Ω
Precautions:          Check the connections before giving the power supply.
                      Readings should be taken carefully.


Result: For a given square wave and sine wave, output waveforms for integrator
and differentiator are observed.
Inferences:        Spikes and triangular waveforms can be obtained from a given
square waveform by using differentiator and integrator respectively.


Questions & Answers:

1. What are the problems of ideal differentiator?
        Ans: At high frequencies the differentiator becomes unstable and breaks into
        oscillation. The differentiator is sensitive to high frequency noise.
2. What are the problems of ideal integrator?
       Ans: The gain of the integrator is infinite at low frequencies.
3. What are the applications of differentiator and integrator?
        Ans: The differentiator used in waveshaping circuits to detect high frequency
        components in an input signal and also as a rate-of –change detector in FM
        demodulators.
       The integrator is used in analog computers and analog to digital converters
       and signal-wave shaping circuits.
4. What is the need for Rf in the circuit of integrator?
        Ans: The gain of an integrator at low frequencies can be limited to avoid the
        saturation problem if the feedback capacitor is shunted by a resistance Rf
5. What is the effect of C1 on the output of a differentiator?
        Ans: It is used to eliminate the high frequency noise problem.

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    4. Active Filter Applications – LPF, HPF (first order)
Aim:    To design and obtain the frequency response of
        i)       First order Low Pass Filter (LPF)
        ii)      First order High Pass Filter (HPF)


Apparatus required:
S.No      Equipment/Component name            Specifications/Value    Quantity
1         IC 741                              Refer page no 2         1
2         Resistors                           10k ohm                 3
          Variable Resistor                   20kΩ pot                1
3         capacitors                          0.01μf                  1
4         Cathode Ray Oscilloscope            (0 – 20MHz)             1
5         Regulated Power supply              (0 – 30V),1A            1
6         Function Generator                  (1Hz – 1MHz)            1


Theory:
a) LPF:
        A LPF allows frequencies from 0 to higher cut of frequency, fH. At fH the gain
is 0.707 Amax, and after fH gain decreases at a constant rate with an increase in
frequency. The gain decreases 20dB each time the frequency is increased by 10.
Hence the rate at which the gain rolls off after fH is 20dB/decade or 6 dB/ octave,
where octave signifies a two fold increase in frequency. The frequency f=fH is called
the cut off frequency because the gain of the filter at this frequency is down by 3 dB
from 0 Hz. Other equivalent terms for cut-off frequency are -3dB frequency, break
frequency, or corner frequency.
b) HPF:
     The frequency at which the magnitude of the gain is 0.707 times the maximum
value of gain is called low cut off frequency. Obviously, all frequencies higher than fL
are pass band frequencies with the highest frequency determined by the closed –
loop band width all of the op-amp.




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Circuit diagrams:




                                    Fig 1: Low pass filter




                                    Fig 2: High pass filter



Design:
First Order LPF: To design a Low Pass Filter for higher cut off frequency fH = 4 KHz
and pass band gain of 2


        fH = 1/( 2πRC )
        Assuming C=0.01 µF, the value of R is found from
                         R= 1/(2πfHC) Ω =3.97KΩ
        The pass band gain of LPF is given by        AF = 1+ (RF/R1)= 2
        Assuming R1=10 KΩ, the value of RF is found from
                         RF=( AF-1) R1=10KΩ

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First Order HPF: To design a High Pass Filter for lower cut off frequency
fL = 4 KHz and pass band gain of 2
         fL = 1/( 2πRC )
        Assuming C=0.01 µF,the value of R is found from
                           R= 1/(2πfLC) Ω =3.97KΩ
        The pass band gain of HPF is given by         AF = 1+ (RF/R1)= 2
         Assuming R1=10 KΩ, the value of RF is found from
              RF=( AF-1) R1=10KΩ



Procedure:
First Order LPF
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 1.
2. Apply sinusoidal wave of constant amplitude as the input such that op-amp does
     not go into saturation.
3. Vary the input frequency and note down the output amplitude at each step as
     shown in Table (a).
4. Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 3 .


 First Order HPF
1.   Connections are made as per the circuit diagrams shown in Fig 2.
2.   Apply sinusoidal wave of constant amplitude as the input such that op-amp does
     not go into saturation.
3.   Vary the input frequency and note down the output amplitude at each step as
     shown in Table (b).
4.   Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 4.




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Tabular Form and Sampled Values:
        a)LPF                                                                   b) HPF
                                    Input voltage Vin = 0.5V

                O/P             Voltage Gain              Frequency O/P           Voltage Gain
Frequency Voltage(V) Gain                  indB                     Voltage(V) Gain            indB
                                Vo/Vi                                             Vo/Vi
  100Hz               0.9            1.8    5.105          500Hz      0.12         0.24        -12.39
  200Hz               0.9            1.8    5.105          700Hz      0.16         0.32        -9.89
  300Hz               0.9            1.8    5.105          800Hz          0.2       0.4        -7.95
  500Hz               0.9            1.8    5.105           1KHz      0.24         0.48        -6.38
  750Hz               0.9            1.8    5.105           2KHz          0.4       0.8        -1.938
  900Hz               0.9            1.8    5.105           3KHz      0.55          1.1         0.83
   1KHz               0.9            1.8    5.105           4KHz          0.7       1.4         2.92
   2KHz               0.8            1.6     4.08           5KHz      0.75          1.5         3.52
   3KHz             0.75             1.5     3.52           6KHz          0.8       1.6         4.08
   4KHz               0.7            1.4     2.92           7KHz      0.85          1.7         4.60
   5KHz             0.65             1.3     2.27           8KHz      0.85          1.7         4.60
   6KHz             0.55             1.1     0.82           9KHz      0.85          1.7         4.60
   7KHz               0.5            1.0      0            10KHz      0.85          1.7         4.60
   8KHz             0.45             0.9    -0.91
   9KHz               0.4            0.8    -1.94
  10KHz             0.35             0.7    -3.09




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Model graphs :




                 Fig (3)                                        Fig(4)
Frequency response characteristics                 Frequency response characteristics
                 of LPF                                              of HPF
Precautions:
                     Check the connections before giving the power supply.
                     Readings should be taken carefully.
Result:       First order low-pass filter and high-pass filter are designed and frequency
response characteristics are obtained.
Inferences: By interchanging R and C in a low-pass filter, a high-pass filter can
be obtained.
Questions & Answers:
1. What is meant by frequency scaling?
    Ans: Change of cut off frequency from one value to the other.
2. How do you convert an original frequency (cut off) fH to a new cut off frequency
    f H?
    Ans: By varying either resistor R or capacitor C values
3. What is the effect of order of the filter on frequency response characteristics?
    Ans: Each increase in order will produce -20 dB/decade additional increases in
    roll off rate.
4. What modifications in circuit diagrams require to change the order of the filter?
           Ans: Order of the filter is changed by RC network.




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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




     5. Active Filter Applications – BPF & Band Reject
                       (Wideband ) and Notch Filters


Aim: To design and obtain the frequency response of
             i)       Wide Band pass filter
             ii)      Wide Band reject filter
            iii)      Notch filter



Apparatus required:


S.No      Equipment/Component name                Specifications/Value   Quantity
1         741 IC                                  Refer page no 2        3
2         Resistors                               5.6kΩ                  9
          Resistors                               39kΩ                   2

3         Resistors                               (20kΩ pot)             2
4         Capacitors                              0.01μf                 2
          Capacitors                               0.1μf                 2
          Capacitors                               0.2μf
                                                                         1
5         Regulated Power supply                  (0 – 30)V,1A           1
6         Function Generator                      (1Hz – 1MHZ)           1
7         Cathode Ray Oscilloscope                (0 – 20MHz)            1


Theory:
Band pass filter:            A band pass filter has a pass band between two cutoff
frequencies fH and fL such that fH > fL. Any input frequency outside this pass band is
attenuated. There are two types of band-pass filters. Wide band pass and Narrow
band pass filters. We can define a filter as wide band pass if its quality factor Q <10.
If Q>10, then we call the filter a narrow band pass filter. A wide band pass filter can
be formed by simply cascading high-pass and low-pass sections. The order of band
pass filter depends on the order of high pass and low pass sections.




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Band Rejection Filter: The band-reject filter is also called a band-stop or
band-elimination filter. In this filter, frequencies are attenuated in the stop band while
they are passed outside this band. Band reject filters are classified as wide band-
reject narrow band-reject. Wide band-reject filter is formed using a low pass filter, a
high-pass filter and summing amplifier. To realize a band-reject response, the low
cut off frequency fL of high pass filter must be larger than high cut off frequency fH of
low pass filter. The pass band gain of both the high pass and low pass sections must
be equal.


Notch Filter:
The narrow band reject filter, often called the notch fitter is commonly used for the
rejection of a single frequency. The most commonly used notch filter is the twin-T
network .This is a passive filter composed of two T-shaped networks. One T network
is made up of two resistors and a capacitor, while the other uses two capacitors and
a resistor. There are several ways to make the notch filter. One way is to subtract
the band pass filter output from its input .The notch-out frequency is the frequency at
which maximum attenuation occurs and is given by


                   fN = 1/( 2πRC )


Circuit diagrams:




                                    Fig 1: Wideband pass filter




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                                    Fig 2: Wideband reject filter




                                    Fig 3: Notch filter




Design:
Band pass filter: To design a band pass filter having           fH = 4KHz and
fL = 400Hz and pass band gain of 2.
As shown in Fig 1,the first section consisting of Op Amp,RF,R1,R and C is the high
pass filter and second consisting of low pass filter. The design of low pass and high
pass filters.


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Low Pass Filter Design:
     Assuming C’=0.01μf, the value of R’ is found from
                         R’ = 1/(2πfH C’) Ω =3.97KΩ
    The pass band gain of LPF is given by ALPF = 1+ (R’ F / R’1 )=2
   Assuming R’1=5.6 KΩ, the value of R’F is found from R’F =( AF-1) R’1=5.6KΩ
High Pass Filter Design:
     Assuming C=0.01μf, the value of R is found from
                         R = 1/(2πfLC) Ω =39.7KΩ
     The pass band gain of HPF is given by AHPF = 1+ (RF / R1 )=2
     Assuming R1=5.6 KΩ, the value of RF is found from
                          RF = ( AF-1) R1=5.6KΩ



Band reject filter:           To design a band reject filter with fH = 4 KHz, fL = 400Hz
                          and pass band gain of 2
Low Pass Filter Design:
Assuming C’=0.01μf, the value of R’ is found from
                      R’ = 1/(2πfH C’) Ω =3.97KΩ
The pass band gain of LPF is given by ALPF = 1+ (R’ F / R’1 )=2
Assuming R’1=5.6 KΩ, the value of R’F is found from
                      R’F =( AF-1) R’1=5.6KΩ
High Pass Filter Design:
 Assuming C=0.01μf, the value of R is found from
                         R = 1/ (2πfLC) Ω =39.7KΩ
 The pass band gain of HPF is given by AHPF = 1+ (RF / R1) =2
Assuming R1=5.6 KΩ, the value of RF is found from
                      RF = (AF-1) R1=5.6KΩ


Adder circuit design: Select all resistors equal value such that gain is unity.
 Assume R2=R3=R4=5.6 KΩ
Notch Filter Design:                fN = 400Hz
  Assuming C=0.1μf,the value of R is found from
R = 1/ (2πfNC)=39 KΩ




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Procedure:
Wide Band Pass Filter:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig1
2. Apply sinusoidal wave of 0.5V amplitude as input such that opamp does not go
    into saturation (depending on gain).
3. Vary the input frequency from 100 Hz to 100 KHz and note down the output
    amplitude at each step as shown in Table (a).
4. Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 4.



Wide Band Reject Filter:


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 2
2. Apply sinusoidal wave of 0.5V amplitude as input such that opamp
    does not go into saturation (depending on gain).
3. Vary the input frequency from 100 Hz to 100 KHz and note down the output
    amplitude at each step as shown in Table( b).
4. Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 5.


Notch Filter:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 3
2. Apply sinusoidal wave of 2Vp-p amplitude as input such that opamp
    does not go into saturation (depending on gain).
3. Vary the input frequency from 100 Hz to 4 KHz and note down the output
    amplitude at each step as shown in Table( c).
4. Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 6.




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Observations:
a) Band pass filter:                                      b)    Band Reject Filter
                                    Input voltage (Vi) = 0.5V




                                                     Frequency O/P           Gain    Gain indB
Frequeny      O/P          Gain        Gain
                                                                Voltage(V)   Vo/Vi
              Voltage      Vo/Vi       indB
                                                     50Hz       1            2       6.02
              Vo(V)
                                                     70Hz       1            2       6.02
100Hz         0.5          1           0
                                                     100Hz      1            2       6.02
200Hz         0.9          1.8         5.105
                                                     200Hz      0.9          1.8     5.10
300Hz         1.15         2.3         7.23
                                                     300Hz      0.8          1.6     4.08
400Hz         1.4          2.8         8.94
                                                     400Hz      0.7          1.4     2.92
500Hz         1.5          3           9.54
                                                     500Hz      0.6          1.2     1.58
750Hz         1.6          3.2         10.10
                                                     700Hz      0.5          1       0
900Hz         1.7          3.4         10.63
                                                     900Hz      0.28         0.56    -5.03
1KHz          1.7          3.4         10.63
                                                     1KHz       0.22         0.44    -7.13
1.5KHz        1.7          3.4         10.63
                                                     2KHz       0.28         0.56    -5.056
2KHz          1.6          3.2         10.10
                                                     3KHz       0.44         0.88    -1.11
2.5KHz        1.55         3.1         9.83
                                                     4KHz       0.56         1.12    0.98
3KHz          1.5          3.0         9.54
                                                     5KHz       0.70         1.4     2.92
4KHz          1.4          2.8         8.94
                                                     6KHz       0.80         1.6     4.08
5KHz          1.2          2.4         7.6
                                                     7KHz       0.85         1.7     4.61
6KHz          1.1          2.2         6.84
                                                     8KHz       0.90         1.8     5.10
7KHz          1.0          2.0         6.02
                                                     9KHz       0.90         1.8     5.10
8KHz          0.9          1.8         5.11
                                                     10KHz      0.90         1.8     5.10
9KHz          0.34         1.7         4.60
10KHz         0.28         1.4         2.92




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c) Notch filter
                                      Input voltage=2Vp-p

                       Frequency      O/P           Vo/Vi     Gain in
                                      Voltage(V)              dB
                       100Hz          0.8           0.4       -7.95
                       200Hz          0.7           0.35      -9.11
                       300Hz          0.3           0.15      -16.47
                       400Hz          0.08          0.04      -27.95
                       500Hz          0.28          0.014     -17.05
                       600Hz          0.48          0.024     -12.39
                       700Hz          0.7           0.35      -9.11
                       800Hz          0.8           0.4       -7.95
                       900Hz          0.8           0.4       -7.95
                       1 KHz          0.8           0.4       -7.95
                       2 KHz          0.8           0.4       -7.95
                       3 KHz          0.8           0.4       -7.95
                       4 KHz          0.8           0.4       -7.95



Model graphs:




  Fig 4 : Frequency response of                             Fig 5 : Frequency response
  wide bandpass filter                                        of wide band reject filter




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                 Fig 6: Frequency response of notch filter


Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.



Result:
i) The frequency response of wide band pass filter is plotted as shown in Fig 4.
ii) The frequency response of wide band reject filter is plotted as shown in Fig 5.
iii) The frequency response of notch filter is plotted as shown in Fig 6


Inferences:        Cascade connection of HPF and LPF produces wideband pass filter
and parallel connection of the above filters gives wideband reject filter. The notch
filter is used to reject the single frequency.



Questions & Answers:


  1. What is the relation between fC & fH, fL?

       Ans:     fC      fH fL
  2. How do you increase the gain of the wideband pass filter?
     Ans: By increasing the gain of either LPF or HPF
 3. What is the application of Notch filter?
     Ans: The rejection of single frequency such as the 50-Hz power line frequency
           hum

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4. What is the order of the filter (each type) ?.What modifications you suggest for the
     Ans: circuit diagram to increase the order of the filter?
     Order of the BPF & BRF’S are the order of the HPF & LPF..Order of the
     BPF& BRF’s are increased by increasing order of HPF&LPF.


5. What is the gain roll off outside the pass band?
   Ans: Gain roll off outside the pass band is (20n) db/dec where ’n’ indicates the
          order of the filter.


6. What is the difference between active and passive filters?
  Ans: Active filters use Op Amp as active element, and resistors and capacitors as
        the passive elements.


7. What are the advantages of active filters over passive filters?
    Ans: Gain and frequency adjustment.
           No loading problem.
           Low cost




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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




               7. Function Generator using OPAMPs

Aim: To generate square wave and triangular wave form by using OPAMPs.
Apparatus required:
S.No    Equipment/Component name             Specifications/Value   Quantity
1       741 IC                               Refer page no 2        2
2       Capacitors                           0.01μf,0.001μf         Each one
3       Resistors                             86kΩ ,68kΩ ,680kΩ     Each one
        Resistors                            100kΩ                  2
4       Regulated Power supply               (0 – 30V),1A           1
5       Cathode Ray Oscilloscope             (0 -20MHz)             1


Theory: Function generator generates waveforms such as sine, triangular, square
waves and so on of different frequencies and amplitudes. The circuit shown in Fig1
is a simple circuit which generates square waves and triangular waves
simultaneously.      Here the first section is a square wave generator and second
section is an integrator. When square wave is given as input to integrator it produces
triangular wave.


Circuit Diagram:




                                    Fig1: Function generator




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Design:
Square wave Generator:
T= 2RfC ln (2R2 +R1/ R1)
Assume R1 = 1.16 R2
Then T= 2RfC
 Assume C and find Rf
  Assume R1 and find R2
Integrator:
Take R3 Cf >> T
      R3 Cf = 10T
         Assume Cf find R3
Take R3Cf = 10T
Assume Cf = 0.01μf
R3 = 10T/C
= 20KΩ
Procedure:
  1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown above.
  2. Obtain square wave at A and Triangular wave at Vo2 as shown in Fig 1.
  3. Draw the output waveforms as shown in Fig 2(a) and (b).
Model Calculations:
For T= 2 m sec
T = 2 Rf C
Assuming C= 0.1μf
Rf = 2.10-3/ 2.01.10-6
= 10 KΩ
Assuming R1 = 100 K
R2 = 86 KΩ
Sample readings:
Square Wave:
Vp-p = 26 V(p-p)
T = 1.8 msec
Triangular Wave:
Vp-p = 1.3 V
T= 1.8 msec



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Wave Forms:




                          Fig 2 (a): Output at ‘A’
                                    (b): Output at V02
Precautions:
         Check the connections before giving the power supply.
         Readings should be taken carefully.
.
Result:      Square wave and triangular wave are generated and the output
waveforms are observed.
Inferences:         Various waveforms can be generated.

Questions & Answers:
    1. How do you change the frequency of square wave?
         Ans: By changing resistor and capacitor values
    2.   What are the applications of function generator?
         Ans: Function generators are used for Transducer linearization and sine
         shaping.




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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




        8. IC 555 Timer-Monostable Operation Circuit
Aim: To generate a pulse using Monostable Multivibrator by using IC555


Apparatus required:


S.No          Equipment/Component           Specifications/Value Quantity
              name
1             555 IC                        Refer page no 6      1
2             Capacitors                    0.1μf,0.01μf         Each one
3             Resistor                      10kΩ                 1
4             Regulated Power supply        (0 – 30V),1A         1
5             Function Generator            (1HZ – 1MHz)         1
6             Cathode ray oscilloscope      (0 – 20MHz)          1


Theory: A Monostable Multivibrator, often called a one-shot Multivibrator, is a
pulse-generating circuit in which the duration of the pulse is determined by the RC
network connected externally to the 555 timer. In a stable or stand by mode the
output of the circuit is approximately Zero or at logic-low level. When an external
trigger pulse is obtained, the output is forced to go high (  VCC). The time for which
the output remains high is determined by the external RC network connected to the
timer. At the end of the timing interval, the output automatically reverts back to its
logic-low stable state. The output stays low until the trigger pulse is again applied.
Then the cycle repeats. The Monostable circuit has only one stable state (output
low), hence the name monostable. Normally the output of the Monostable
Multivibrator is low.




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                                    Circuit Diagram:




                           Fig1: Monostable Circuit using IC555
Design:
        Consider VCC = 5V, for given tp
        Output pulse width tp = 1.1 RA C
        Assume C in the order of microfarads & Find RA


Typical values:
If C=0.1 µF , RA = 10k then tp = 1.1 mSec
         Trigger Voltage =4 V
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Apply Negative triggering pulses at pin 2 of frequency 1 KHz.
3. Observe the output waveform and measure the pulse duration.
4. Theoretically calculate the pulse duration as Thigh=1.1. RAC
5. Compare it with experimental values.




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Waveforms:




                                    Fig 2 (a): Trigger signal
                                          (b): Output Voltage
                                          (c): Capacitor Voltage



Sample Readings:

     Trigger                 Output wave                  Capacitor output
     0 to 5V range           0 to 5V range                0 to 3.33 V range
     1)1V,0.09msec           4.6V, 0.5msec                3V, 0.88 msec


Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.


Result: The input and output waveforms of 555 timer monostable Multivibrator are
observed as shown in Fig 2(a), (b), (c).




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Inferences:         Output pulse width depends only on external components RA and C
connected to IC555.
Questions & Answers:
1. Is the triggering given is edge type or level type? If it is edge type, trailing or
    raising edge?
    Ans: Edge type and it is trailing edge
2. What is the effect of amplitude and frequency of trigger on the output?
    Ans: Output varies proportionally.
3. How to achieve variation of output pulse width over fine and course ranges?
    Ans: One can achieve variation of output pulse width over fine and course ranges
        by varying capacitor and resistor values respectively
4. What is the effect of Vcc on output?
    Ans: The amplitude of the output signal is directly proportional to Vcc
5. What are the ideal charging and discharging time constants (in terms of R and C)
    of capacitor voltage?
    Ans: Charging time constant T=1.1RC Sec
    Discharging time constant=0 Sec
6. What is the other name of monostable Multivibrator? Why?
    Ans: i) Gating circuit .It generates rectangular waveform at a definite time and
    thus could be used in gate parts of the system.
    ii) One shot circuit. The circuit will remain in the stable state until a trigger pulse is
    received. The circuit then changes states for a specified period, but then it returns
    to the original state.
7. What are the applications of monostable Multivibrator?
    Ans: Missing Pulse Detector, Frequency Divider, PWM, Linear Ramp Generator




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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




           9. IC 555 Timer - Astable Operation Circuit

Aim:    To generate unsymmetrical square and symmetrical square waveforms using
        IC555.



Apparatus required:
S.No          Equipment/Component name            Specifications/Value    Quantity
1             IC 555                              Refer page no 6         1
2             Resistors                           3.6kΩ,7.2kΩ             Each one
3             Capacitors                          0.1μf,0.01μf            Each one
4             Diode                               OA79                    1
5             Regulated Power supply              (0 – 30V),1A            1
6             Cathode Ray Oscilloscope            (0 – 20MHz)             1


Theory:
         When the power supply VCC is connected, the external timing capacitor ‘C”
charges towards VCC with a time constant (RA+RB) C. During this time, pin 3 is high

(≈VCC) as Reset R=0, Set S=1 and this combination makes Q =0 which has
unclamped the timing capacitor ‘C’.
        When the capacitor voltage equals 2/3 VCC, the upper comparator triggers the
control flip flop on that Q =1. It makes Q1 ON and capacitor ‘C’ starts discharging
towards ground through RB and transistor Q1 with a time constant RBC. Current also
flows into Q1 through RA. Resistors RA and RB must be large enough to limit this
current and prevent damage to the discharge transistor Q1. The minimum value of
RA is approximately equal to VCC/0.2 where 0.2A is the maximum current through the
ON transistor Q1.
        During the discharge of the timing capacitor C, as it reaches VCC/3, the lower
comparator is triggered and at this stage S=1, R=0 which turns Q =0. Now Q =0
unclamps the external timing capacitor C.           The capacitor C is thus periodically
charged and discharged between 2/3 VCC and 1/3 VCC respectively. The length of
time that the output remains HIGH is the time for the capacitor to charge from 1/3 VCC
to 2/3 VCC.
        The capacitor voltage for a low pass RC circuit subjected to a step input of
VCC volts is given by VC = VCC [1- exp (-t/RC)]

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Total time period T = 0.69 (RA + 2 RB) C


                 f= 1/T = 1.44/ (RA + 2RB) C




Circuit Diagram:




                                    Fig.1 555 Astable Circuit



Design:

Formulae: f= 1/T = 1.44/ (RA+2RB) C


                 Duty cycle (D) = tc/T = RA + RB/(RA+2RB)




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Procedure:


I) Unsymmetrical Square wave


    1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown without connecting the
         diode OA 79.
    2. Observe and note down the waveform at pin 6 and across timing capacitor.
    3.   Measure the frequency of oscillations and duty cycle and then compare with
         the given values.
    4. Sketch both the waveforms to the same time scale.



II) Symmetrical square waveform generator:


1. Connect the diode OA79 as shown in Figure to get D=0.5 or 50%.
2. Choose Ra=Rb = 10KΩ and C=0.1μF
3. Observe the output waveform, measure frequency of oscillations and the duty
    cycle and then sketch the o/p waveform.



Model calculations:
Given f=1 KHz. Assuming c=0.1μF and D=0.25
         1 KHz = 1.44/ (RA+2RB) x 0.1x10-6 and 0.25 =( RA+RB)/ (RA+2RB)
Solving both the above equations, we obtain RA & RB as
                 RA = 7.2K Ω
                 RB = 3.6K Ω




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Waveforms:




                 Fig 2(a): Unsymmetrical square wave output
                        (b): Capacitor voltage of Unsymmetrical square wave output
                       (c): Symmetrical square wave output



Sample Readings:

  Parameter             Unsymmetrical         Symmetrical
 Voltage VPP                    5V                 5V
                            Tc=0.8ms          Tc = 0.5ms
                            td=0.2ms          td = 0.5ms
 Time period T                 1 ms           1 ms
 Duty cycle                    80%                        50%


Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.


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Result: Both unsymmetrical and symmetrical square waveforms are obtained and
time period at the output is calculated.



Inferences:         Unsymmetrical square wave of required duty cycle and symmetrical
square waveform can be generated.



Questions & Answers:
    1. What is the effect of C on the output?
        Ans: Time period of the output depends on C
    2. How do you vary the duty cycle?
        Ans: By varying R A or RB.
    3. What are the applications of 555 in astable mode?
        Ans: FSK Generator, Pulse Position Modulator, Square wave generator
    4. What is the function of diode in the circuit?
        Ans: To get symmetrical square wave.
    5. On what parameters Tc and Td designed?
        Ans: R A , RB and C
    6. What are charging and discharging times
        Ans: The time during which the capacitor charges from (1/3) Vcc to (2/3) Vcc
         is equal to the time the output is high is known as charging time and is
         given by Tc=0.69(RA+RB)C
        The time during which the capacitor discharges from (2/3) Vcc to (1/3) Vcc is
        equal to the time the output is low is known as discharging time and is given
        by     Td=0.69(RB) C.




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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




    10. Schmitt Trigger Circuits- using IC 741 & IC 555

Aim: To design the Schmitt trigger circuit using IC 741 and IC 555


Apparatus required:
S.No           Equipment/Component              Specifications/Value Quantity
               name
1              IC 741                           Refer page no 2      1
2              555IC                            Refer page no 6      1
3              Cathode Ray Oscilloscope         (0 – 20MHz)          1
4              Multimeter                                            1
5              Resistors                        100 Ω                2
                                                56 KΩ                1
6              Capacitors                       0.1 μf, 0.01 μf      Each one
7              Regulated power supply           (0 -30V),1A          1


Theory:
        The circuit shows an inverting comparator with positive feed back. This circuit
converts orbitrary wave forms to a square wave or pulse. The circuit is known as the
Schmitt trigger (or) squaring circuit. The input voltage Vin changes the state of the
output Vo every time it exceeds certain voltage levels called the upper threshold
voltage Vut and lower threshold voltage Vlt.
        When Vo= - Vsat, the voltage across R1 is referred to as lower threshold
voltage, Vlt. When Vo=+Vsat, the voltage across R1 is referred to as upper threshold
voltage Vut.
        The comparator with positive feed back is said to exhibit hysterisis, a dead
band condition.




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Circuit Diagrams:




                        Fig 1: Schmitt trigger circuit using IC 741




                        Fig 2: Schmitt trigger circuit using IC 555




Design:
        Vutp = [R1/(R1+R2 )](+Vsat)
        Vltp = [R1/(R1+R2 )](-Vsat)
        Vhy = Vutp – Vltp
              =[R1/(R1+R2)] [+Vsat – (-Vsat)]



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Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1 and Fig2.
2. Apply an orbitrary waveform (sine/triangular) of peak voltage greater than UTP to
    the input of a Schmitt trigger.
3. Observe the output at pin6 of the IC 741 and at pin3 of IC 555 Schmitt trigger
    circuit by varying the input and note down the readings as shown in Table 1 and
    Table 2
4. Find the upper and lower threshold voltages (Vutp, VLtp) from the output wave
    form.



Wave forms:




                            Fig 3: (a) Schmitt trigger input wave form
                                    (b) Schmitt trigger output wave form
Sample readings:
Table 1:
         Parameter                          Input                      Output
                                      741           555         741             555
       Voltage( Vp-p)                 3.6             4         24.8            4.4
     Time period(ms)                 0.72             1         0.72            1




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Table 2:
         Parameter                   741             555
             Vutp                   0.2V             0.4V
              Vltp                  -0.05           -0.4V



Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.
Results:
UTP and LTP of the Schmitt trigger are obtained by using IC 741 and IC 555 as
shown in Table 2.
Inferences:          Schmitt trigger produces square waveform from a given signal.

Questions & Answers:
1. What is the other name for Schmitt trigger circuit?
    Ans: Regenerative comparator
2. In Schmitt trigger which type of feed back is used?
   Ans: Positive feedback.
3. What is meant by hysteresis?
    Ans: The comparator with positive feedback is said to be exhibit hysteresis, a
        deadband condition. When the input of the comparator is exceeds Vutp, its
        output switches from + Vsat to - Vsat and reverts back to its original state,+
        Vsat ,when the input goes below Vltp
4. What are effects of input signal amplitude and frequency on output?
    Ans: The input voltage triggers the output every time it exceeds certain voltage
    levels (UTP and LTP). Output signal frequency is same as input signal frequency.




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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




                       12. IC 566 – VCO Applications

Aim: i) To observe the applications of VCO-IC 566
        ii) To generate the frequency modulated wave by using IC 566
Apparatus required:
S.No      Equipment/Component Name            Specifications/Value Quantity
1         IC 566                              Refer page no 10     1
2         Resistors                           10KΩ                 2
                                              1.5KΩ                1
3         Capacitors                          0.1 μF               1
                                              100 pF               1
4         Regulated power supply              0-30 V, 1 A          1
5         Cathode Ray Oscilloscope            0-20 MHz             1
6         Function Generator                  0.1-1 MHz            1


Theory: The VCO is a free running Multivibrator and operates at a set frequency f o
called free running frequency. This frequency is determined by an external timing
capacitor and an external resistor. It can also be shifted to either side by applying a
d.c control voltage vc to an appropriate terminal of the IC. The frequency deviation is
directly proportional to the dc control voltage and hence it is called a “voltage
controlled oscillator” or, in short, VCO.


        The output frequency of the VCO can be changed either by R1, C1 or the
voltage VC at the modulating input terminal (pin 5). The voltage VC can be varied by
connecting a R1R2 circuit. The components R1 and C1 are first selected so that VCO
output frequency lies in the centre of the operating frequency range.         Now the
modulating input voltage is usually varied from 0.75 VCC which can produce a
frequency variation of about 10 to 1.




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Circuit Diagram:




                            Fig1: Voltage Controlled Oscillator
Design:
    1. Maximum deviation time period =T.
    2. fmin = 1/T.
         where fmin can be obtained from the FM wave
    3. Maximum deviation, ∆f= fo - fmin
    4. Modulation index β = ∆f/fm
    5. Band width BW = 2(β+1) fm = 2 (∆f+fm)
    6.   Free running frequency,fo = 2(VCC -Vc) / R1C1VCC
Procedure:
    1. The circuit is connected as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig1.
    2. Observe the modulating signal on CRO and measure the amplitude and
         frequency of the signal.
    3. Without giving modulating signal, take output at pin 4, we get the carrier
         wave.
    4. Measure the maximum frequency deviation of each step and evaluate the
         modulating Index.
                 mf = β = ∆f/fm


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Waveforms:




                                Fig 2 (a): Input wave of VCO
                                     (b): Output of VCO at pin3
                                     (c): Output of VCO at pin4


Sample readings:
         VCC=+12V; R1=R3=10KΩ; R2=1.5KΩ; fm=1KHz
         Free running frequency, fo = 26.1KHz
         fmin = 8.33KHz
        ∆f= 17.77 KHz
         β = ∆f/fm = 17.77
        Band width BW ≈ 36 KHz



Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.

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Result:
        Frequency modulated waveforms are observed and modulation Index, B.W
required for FM is calculated for different amplitudes of the message signal.



Inferences:
        During positive half-cycle of the sine wave input, the control voltage will
increase, the frequency of the output waveform will decrease and time period will
increase. Exactly opposite action will take place during the negative half-cycle of the
input as shown in Fig (b).


Questions & Answers:
    1. What are the applications of VCO?
      Ans: VCO is used in FM, FSK, and tone generators, where the frequency
        needs to be controlled by means of an input voltage called control voltage.
    2. What is the effect of C1 on the output?
       Ans: The frequency of the output decreases for an increase in C1.




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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




                   13. Voltage Regulator using IC723
Aim: To design a low voltage variable regulator of 2 to 7V using IC 723.


Apparatus required:


S.No         Equipment/Component name            Specifications/Value Quantity
1            IC 723                              Refer appendix A        1


2            Resistors                           3.3KΩ,4.7KΩ,            Each one
                                                 100 Ω
3            Variable Resistors                  1KΩ, 5.6KΩ              Each one
4            Regulated Power supply              0 -30 V,1A              1
                                                     ½
5            Multimeter                          3       digit display   1




Theory:

        A voltage regulator is a circuit that supplies a constant voltage regardless of
changes in load current and input voltage variations. Using IC 723, we can design
both low voltage and high voltage regulators with adjustable voltages.
        For a low voltage regulator, the output VO can be varied in the range of
voltages Vo < Vref, where as for high voltage regulator, it is VO > Vref. The voltage Vref
is generally about 7.5V. Although voltage regulators can be designed using Op-
amps, it is quicker and easier to use IC voltage Regulators.
        IC 723 is a general purpose regulator and is a 14-pin IC with internal short
circuit current limiting, thermal shutdown, current/voltage boosting etc. Furthermore
it is an adjustable voltage regulator which can be varied over both positive and
negative voltage ranges. By simply varying the connections made externally, we can
operate the IC in the required mode of operation. Typical performance parameters
are line and load regulations which determine the precise characteristics of a
regulator. The pin configuration and specifications are shown in the Appendix-A.




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Circuit Diagram:




                                    Fig1: Voltage Regulator


Design of Low voltage Regulator :-
Assume Io= 1mA,VR=7.5V
RB = 3.3 KΩ
For given Vo
R1 = ( VR – VO ) / Io
R2 = VO / Io
Procedure:
a) Line Regulation:
    1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1.
    2. Obtain R1 and R2 for Vo=5V
    3. By varying Vn from 2 to 10V, measure the output voltage Vo.
    4. Draw the graph between Vn and Vo as shown in model graph (a)
    5. Repeat the above steps for Vo=3V




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b) Load Regulation: For Vo=5V
     1. Set Vi such that VO= 5 V
     2. By varying RL, measure IL and Vo
     3. Plot the graph between IL and Vo as shown in model graph (b)
     4. Repeat above steps 1 to 3 for VO=3V.
Sample Readings:
     a) Line Regulation:
     Vo set to 5V                                         Vo set to 3V

Vi(V)      Vo(V)                                          Vi(V)   Vo(V)
0          0                                              0       0
1          0.65                                           1       0.65
2          0.66                                           2       0.69
3          1.23                                           3       1.05
4          2.68                                           4       1.42
5          3.40                                           5       1.80
6          4.13                                           6       2.19
7          4.90                                           7       2.57
8          5.33                                           8       2.81
9          5.33                                           9       2.81
10         5.33                                           10      2.81




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    b) Load Regulation:
         Vo set to 5V                                           Vo set to 3V



              IL (mA)      Vo(V)
                                                          IL (mA)    Vo(V)
              46           5.33
                                                          24         2.81
              44           5.33
                                                          22         2.81
              40           5.33
                                                          20         2.81
              35           5.33
                                                          18         2.81
              28           5.33
                                                          16         2.81
              20           5.33
                                                          14         2.81
              18           5.33
                                                          12         2.81
              16           5.33
                                                          10         2.81
              12           5.33
                                                          8          2.81
              8            5.33
                                                          6          2.81
              6            5.33
                                                          4          2.81
              4            5.33
                                                          2          2.81
              2            5.33



Model graphs:


        a) Line Regulation:                                b)       Load Regulation:




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Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.


Results:
Low voltage variable Regulator of 2V to 7V using IC 723 is designed. Load and Line
Regulation characteristics are plotted.
Inferences:
        Variable voltage regulators can be designed by using IC 723.
Questions & Answers:
    1. What is the effect of R1 on the output voltage?
        Ans: R1 decreases for an increase in the output voltage.
    2. What are the applications of voltage regulators?
        Ans: Voltage regulators are used as control circuits in PWM, series type
              switch mode supplies, regulated power supplies, voltage stabilizers.
    3. What is the effect of Vi on output?
        Ans: Output varies linearly with input voltage up to some value (o/p voltage+
               dropout voltage) and remains constant.




    .




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 14. Three Terminal Voltage Regulators- 7805, 7809, 7912

Aim:    To obtain the regulation characteristics of three terminal voltage regulators.


Apparatus required:

            S.No     Equipment/Component           Specifications/Values Quantity
                     Name
            1        Bread board                                           1
            2        IC7805                        Refer appendix A        1
            3        IC7809                        Refer appendix A        1
            4        IC7912                        Refer appendix A        1
                                                       ½
            5        Multimeter                    3       digit display   1
            6        Milli ammeter                 0-150 mA                1
            7        Regulated power supply        0-30 V                  1
            8        Connecting wires
            9        Resistors pot                 100Ω ,1k Ω              Each one




Theory:
        A voltage regulator is a circuit that supplies a constant voltage regardless of
changes in load current and input voltage. IC voltage regulators are versatile,
relatively inexpensive and are available with features such as programmable output,
current/voltage boosting, internal short circuit current limiting, thermal shunt down
and floating operation for high voltage applications.
        The 78XX series consists of three-terminal positive voltage regulators with
seven voltage options. These IC’s are designed as fixed voltage regulators and with
adequate heat sinking can deliver output currents in excess of 1A.
        The 79XX series of fixed output voltage regulators are complements to the
78XX series devices. These negative regulators are available in same seven voltage
options.
        Typical performance parameters for voltage regulators are line regulation,
load regulation, temperature stability and ripple rejection. The pin configurations and
typical parameters at 250C are shown in the Appendix-B.



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Circuit Diagrams:




                             Fig 1: Positive Voltage Regulator




                  Fig 2: Negative Voltage Regulator




Procedure:
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a) Line Regulation:
        1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1 by keeping S open for 7805.
        2. Vary the dc input voltage from 0 to 10V in suitable stages and note down the
           output voltage in each case as shown in Table1 and plot the graph between
           input voltage and output voltage.
        3. Repeat the above steps for negative voltage regulator as shown in Fig.2 for
           7912 for an input of 0 to -15V.
        4. Note down the dropout voltage whose typical value = 2V and line regulation
           typical value = 4mv for Vin =7V to 25V.
b) Load regulation:
        1. Connect the circuit as shown in the Fig 1 by keeping S closed for load
           regulation.
        2. Now vary R1 and measure current IL and note down the output voltage Vo in
           each case as shown in Table 2 and plot the graph between current IL and Vo.
        3. Repeat the above steps as shown in Fig 2 by keeping switch S closed for
           negative voltage regulator 7912.


c) Output Resistance:
           Ro= (VNL – VFL) Ω
                    IFL


VNL -      load voltage with no load current
VFL -      load voltage with full load current
IFL -      full load current.




Sample readings:

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a) Line regulation                                         b) Load Regulation
          1) IC 7805                                               1) IC 7805

Input Voltage     Output Voltage                          Load Current          Output Voltage
Vi,(V)            Vo(V)                                      IL(mA)                 Vo(V)
         0                 0                                   44                     5
         5                4.05                                40                      5
         6                4.86                                30                      5
         7                 5                                  20                    4.98
         10                5                                  16                    4.97
                                                               8                    4.96



2) IC 7809                                                 2) IC 7809


                                                          Load Current          Output Voltage
Input Voltage          Output
                                                             IL(mA)                 Vo(V)
     Vi,(V)        Voltage Vo(V)
                                                               56                     9
         0                0
                                                              48                      9
         5                7.4
                                                              33                      9
         10               8.7
                                                              25                    8.96
         12               9
                                                               21                   8.82
         14               9
                                                              15                    8.60




3)7912                                                               3) IC 7912


                                                          Load Current          Output Voltage
Input Voltage          Output                                IL(mA)                 Vo(V)
     Vi,(V)        Voltage Vo(V)                              56                    -12.09
         0                0                                   46                    -12.09
      -10               -9.59                                 38                    -12.07
      -12              -11.59                                 28                    -12.06
      -14                 -12                                 24                    -11.98
      -15                 -12                                 20                    -11.80


Graphs:
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                                           IC 7805




                                           IC 7809




                                           IC7912




 % load regulation = VNL - VFL x 100
                             VFL


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Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.
Result:
        Line and load regulation characteristics of 7805, 7809 and 7912 are plotted
Inferences:
        Line and load regulation characteristics of fixed positive and negative three
terminal voltages are obtained. These voltage regulators are used in regulated power
supplies.
Questions & Answers:
    1. Mention the IC number for a negative fixed three terminal voltage regulator of
        12V.
        Ans: IC 7912
    2. Explain the significance of IC regulators in power supply
        Ans: To get constant dc voltages.
    3. What is drop-out voltage?
         Ans: The difference between input and output voltages is called dropout
        voltage
     4. What is the role of C1 and C2?
        Ans: C1 is used to cancel the inductive effects.
        C2 is used to improve the transient response of regulator.
    4. What are C1 and C2 called?
        Ans: Bypass capacitors




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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




                        15. 4 bit DAC using OP AMP

Aim:    To design 1) weighted resistor DAC
                      2) R-2R ladder Network DAC


Apparatus required:
S.No      Equipment/Component             Specifications/Value     Quantity
          name
1         741 IC                          Refer page no 2          1
2         Resistors                       1KΩ,2KΩ,4KΩ, 8KΩ         Each one
3         Regulated Power supply          0-30 V , 1A              1
                                              ½
4         Multimeter(DMM)                 3       digit display    1
5         connecting wires
6         Digital trainer Board                                    1




Theory:       Digital systems are used in ever more applications, because of their
increasingly efficient, reliable, and economical operation with the development of the
microprocessor, data processing has become an integral part of various systems
Data processing involves transfer of data to and from the micro computer via
input/output devices. Since digital systems such as micro computers use a binary
system of ones and zeros, the data to be put into the micro computer must be
converted from analog to digital form.             On the other hand, a digital-to-analog
converter is used when a binary output from a digital system must be converted to
some equivalent analog voltage or current. The function of DAC is exactly opposite
to that of an ADC.


        A DAC in its simplest form uses an op-amp and either binary weighted
resistors or R-2R ladder resistors. In binary-weighted resistor op-amp is connected
in the inverting mode, it can also be connected in the non inverting mode. Since the
number of inputs used is four, the converter is called a 4-bit binary digital converter.




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Circuit Diagrams:




                   Fig 1: Binary weighted resistor DAC




                     Fig 2: R – 2R Ladder DAC




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Design:
1. Weighted Resistor DAC

                   b      b
        Vo = -Rf  A  B  c  D
                                    b   b
                                            
                  8R 4 R 2 R R
        For input 1111, Rf = R = 4.7KΩ

                  1 1 1     Rf
        Vo = -        1 
                  8 4 2        x5
                            R
        Vo = - 9.375 V


2.R-2R Ladder Network:

                   b       b
        Vo = -Rf  A  B  c  D
                                    b   b
                                                X5
                 16R 8R 4 R 2 R
          For input 1111, Rf = R= 1KΩ




Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1.
2. Vary the inputs A, B, C, D from the digital trainer board and note down the output
    at pin 6. For logic ‘1’, 5 V is applied and for logic ‘0’, 0 V is applied.
3. Repeat the above two steps for R – 2R ladder DAC shown in Fig 2.




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Observations:
Weighted resistor DAC
  S.No        D      C     B        A   Theoretical Voltage(V)   Practical Voltage(V)
    1          0     0     0        0             0                       0
    2          0     0     0        1           -0.62                   -0.66
    3          0     0     1        0           -1.25                   -1.02
    4          0     0     1        1           -1.87                   -1.74
    5          0     1     0        0            -2.5                   -2.36
    6          0     1     0        1           -3.12                   -3.08
    7          0     1     1        0           -3.75                   -3.44
    8          0     1     1        1           -4.37                   -4.16
    9          1     0     0        0             -5                    -4.95
    10         1     0     0        1           -5.62                   -5.66
    11         1     0     1        0           -6.25                   -6.02
    12         1     0     1        1           -6.87                   -6.73
    13         1     1     0        0            -7.5                   -7.35
    14         1     1     0        1           -8.12                   -8.07
    15         1     1     1        0           -8.75                   -8.43
    16         1     1     1        1           -9.37                   -9.15




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R-2R Ladder Network:
  S.No        D      C     B        A   Theoretical Voltage(V)   Practical Voltage(V)
    1          0     0     0        0           -0.31                   -0.05
    2          0     0     0        1           -0.62                    -0.6
    3          0     0     1        0           -0.93                    -0.7
    4          0     0     1        1           -1.25                   -1.22
    5          0     1     0        0           -1.56                   -1.27
    6          0     1     0        1           -1.87                   -1.91
    7          0     1     1        0           -2.18                   -1.96
    8          0     1     1        1            -2.5                   -2.41
    9          1     0     0        0           -2.81                   -2.52
    10         1     0     0        1           -3.12                   -3.06
    11         1     0     1        0           -3.41                   -3.11
    12         1     0     1        1           -3.75                   -3.63
    13         1     1     0        0           -4.06                   -3.69
    14         1     1     0        1            -4.2                    -3.7
    15         1     1     1        0           -4.37                   -4.32
    16         1     1     1        1           -4.68                   -4.38




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Model Graph:
                                        Decimal Equivalent of Binary inputs




Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.
Results:
        Outputs of binary weighted resistor DAC and R-2R ladder DAC are observed.
Inferences:
        Different types of digital-to-analog converters are designed.
Questions & Answers:


    1. How do you obtain a positive staircase waveform?
        Ans: By giving negative reference voltage.
    2. What are the drawbacks of binary weighted resistor DAC?
        Ans: Wide range of resistors is required in binary weighted resistor DAC.
    3. What is the effect of number of bits on output ?
        Ans: Accuracy degenerates as the number of binary inputs is increased
        beyond four.




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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




                                    Other Experiments

                    1. Voltage- to- Current Converter
Aim:-
            To design voltage to current converter with floating load and grounded
load using op amp


Apparatus required:-


    S.No      Equipment/Component               Specifications/Value Quantity
              name
    1         741 IC                            Refer page no 2         1
    2         Resistors                         10 KΩ                   5
                                                1KΩ                     1
    3         Regulated Power supply            (0-30V),1A              1
                                                    ½
    4         Multimeter                        3       digit display   1
    5         Ammeter                           (0 – 30) μA             1
    6         Digital trainer Board                                     1




Theory:-
         In many applications we must convert the given voltage into current. The two
types of voltage to current converters are
    1. V to I converters with floating load
    2. V to I converters with grounded load.
Floating load V – I converters are used as low voltage ac and dc voltmeters, diode
match finders, light emitting diodes and zener diode testers. V to I converters
Grounded load are used in testing such devices as zeners and LEDs forming a
ground load.




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                                  77
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Circuit Diagrams:-




                          Fig 1: V – I converter with floating load




                        Fig 2: V – I converter with grounded load




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                     78
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Design:

V – I converter with floating load
Vin = Vid + Vf where Vid is input difference voltage and Vf is the feedback voltage
But Vid = 0
Vin = Vf = R1RL
IL = Vin/RL


V – I converter with grounded load
I1+I2=IL
(Vin-V1)/R+(Vo-V1)/R=IL
Vin+Vo-2Vi=ILR
Since op-amp is non inverting
Gain=1+(R/R)=2
Vo=2Vi
Vin=Vo-Vo+ILR
IL=Vin/R




Procedure:-
V – I converter with floating load
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram in Fig 1.
2. Apply input voltage to the non-inverting terminal of 741.
3. Observe the output from CRO and note down the ammeter reading for various
values of input voltage.


V – I converter with grounded load
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 2.
2. Set ac input to any desired value.
3. Switch on the dual trace supply and note down the readings of ammeter
4. Repeat the above procedure for varies values input voltages.




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                                     79
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Sample readings:

V – I converter with floating load


                   Vin(V)                        Current (mA)
                                    RL=1KΩ                 RL=10KΩ
                     0                       0                  0
                     1                       1                  0.9
                     2                       2                  1
                     3                   2.8                    1
                     4                   3.9                    1
                     5                   4.7                    1
                     6                   5.3                    1
                     7                   5.3                    1




V – I converter with grounded load


                         Vin                     Current(mA)
                         1                           0.1
                         2                           0.2
                         3                           0.3
                         4                           0.4
                         5                           0.49
                         6                           0.58




Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.


Results:
       Voltage to current converters with floating load and grounded load are
designed and outputs are observed.

LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                          80
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Inferences:
        Different types of V-I converters are designed.
Questions & Answers:
    1. What is the effect of RL on the output current in V-to-I converter with
        floating load?
         Ans: Output current decreases for an increase in RL.
    2. What is the effect of R on the output current in V-to-I converter with
        grounded load?
        Ans: Output current decreases for an increase in R
    3. For what ranges of currents the circuits are useful?
        Ans: Range of current is (0 to 30mA).




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                                81
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




                               2. Precision Rectifier

Aim: To obtain a precision rectifier (half wave rectifier using IC 741).


Apparatus required:
S.No      Equipment/Component             Specifications/Value     Quantity
          name
1         741 IC                          Refer page no 2          1
2         Resistors                       10 KΩ                    5
                                          1KΩ                      1
3         Regulated Power supply          (0-30V),1A               1
5         Cathode Ray Oscilloscope        (0-20MHz)                1
6         Digital trainer Board                                    1


Theory:
         There are two types of half wave rectifiers. One is inverting half wave rectifier
and second one is non-inverting half wave rectifier. The below circuit show the non-
inverting half wave rectifier with diode (0A79) in the feed back loop of an op-amp.


Circuit diagram:




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                                       82
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Procedure:
    1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
    2. Give the sinusoidal input of 100mVp-p, 1 KHz from function generator.
    3. Switch on the dual power supply of + 15V.
    4. Note down the output from CRO.
Model Graphs:




                 Fig.a) Input waveform to the half wave rectifier
                     b ) Output to (a)
Sample readings:
                          Parameter             Input     Output
                     Amplitude (V),Vp-p           2          1
                     Time period (ms)             1          1




Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.


LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                              83
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Results:
        Half-wave rectifier output is observed.
Inferences:
        Precision half-wave rectifier is obtained by using IC 741.
Questions & Answers:
       1. What is the output if the diode is reversed?
           Ans: The circuit acts as a negative small signal half wave rectifier.


      2. What is a super diode?
         Ans: The combination of the diode-op amp is referred as super diode. This
         combination works as basic half wave rectifier. Placing the diode with in the
         feedback loop in effect eliminates any errors due to its forward voltage.


    3. What is precision rectifier?
        Ans: Precision rectifier is a rectifier which is capable of rectifying milli volt
        signals.
    4. What modifications you suggest to get negative half cycles at output?
        Ans: By reversing the diode in the given circuit.




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                                           84
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




                     3. Clipper Circuits using IC 741


Aim:      To obtain the clipped waveforms of the input using IC741.



Apparatus required:
      S.No      Equipment/Component             Specifications/Value Quantity
                name
      1         741 IC                          Refer page no 2      1
      2         Resistors                       10 KΩ                1
      3         Regulated Power supply          (0-30V),1A           1
      4         Function generator              (0-1MHz)             1
      5         Diode                           0A79                 1
      6         Cathode Ray Oscilloscope        (0-20MHz)            1


Theory:
                A positive clipper is a circuit that removes positive parts of the input
signal. In this circuit the op-amp is basically used as a voltage follower with a diode in
the feed back path. The clipping level is determined by the reference voltage Vref
which should be less than input voltage range of op-amp. Additionally since Vref is
derived from the positive supply voltage, dc supply voltage is well regulated.


                 During the positive half cycle of the input, the diode(IN4007) conducts
only until Vin =Vref. This happens because Vin < V ref the voltage Vref at ‘-‘ve input
is higher than that at the ‘+’ve input. Hence the output voltage Vo’ the op-amp
become sufficiently negative to drive D1 into conducting. When D1 conducts it closes
the feed back loop and op-amp operates as a voltage follower i.e. output Vo follows
input Vin until Vin =Vref.




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                                       85
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Circuit diagrams:




                                    Fig 1: Positive Clipper




                                    Fig 2: Negative Clipper




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                             86
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Procedure:
Positive clipper
        1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 1.
        2. Apply the reference voltage of 1V.
        3. Apply a 6Vp-p of sine wave as input.
        4. Note down the output waveform as shown in Fig 3(a) and 3(b).
Negative clipper
        1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 2.
        2. Apply the reference voltage of 1V.
        3. Apply a 6Vp-p of sine wave as input.
        4. Note down the output waveform as shown in Fig 3(c) and 3(d).
Waveforms:

Positive clipper




                          Fig 3 (a) : Input wave form
                                    (b) : output wave form




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                           87
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Negative clipper




                                        Fig 3 (c): Input
                                             (d): output



Sample readings:
a) Positive clipper
    Parameter              Input Voltage        Output Voltage
Amplitude (V),Vp-p                  6                     4.6
Time period (ms)                    1                      1


b) Negative clipper
    Parameter              Input Voltage        Output Voltage
Amplitude (V), Vp-p                 6                     4..6
Time period (ms)                    1                      1



Precautions:
        Check the connections before giving the power supply.
        Readings should be taken carefully.

LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                88
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




Result:
        The positive and negative clippers are obtained.
Inferences:
         The application of IC 741 as a clipper is observed.
Questions & Answers:
     1. What is the effect of Vref on the output?
          Ans: Clipping level is determined by the Vref, which should be less than
            the input voltage range of the op-amp
     2. How do you change a positive clipper into negative clipper?
        Ans: A positive clipper is converted into a negative clipper by reversing diode
              D1 and changing the polarity of reference voltage Vref .




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                                         89
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




                                      APPENDIX-A
                                               IC723


Pin Configuration




Specifications of 723:

Power dissipation         :         1W
Input Voltage             :         9.5 to 40V
Output Voltage            :         2 to 37V
Output Current            :         150mA for Vin-Vo = 3V
                                    10mA for Vin-Vo = 38V
Load regulation           :         0.6% Vo
Line regulation           :         0.5% Vo




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                           90
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




                                          APPENDIX-B


Pin Configurations:


78XX                                                        79XX




                                          Plastic package



Typical parameters at 25oC:

     Parameter                LM 7805            LM 7809    LM 7912
        Vout,V                      5               9         -12
       Imax,A                       1.5             1.5       1.5
   Load Reg,mV                      10              12        12
    Line Reg,mV                     3               6          4
   Ripple Rej,dB                    80              72        72
       Dropout                      2               2          2
      Rout,mΩ                       8               16        18
         ISL,A                      2.1            0.45       1.5




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                     91
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING




                                    REFERENCES



    1. D.Roy Choudhury and Shail B.Jain, Linear Integrated Circuits, 2nd edition,
        New Age International.
    2. James M. Fiore, Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory
        and Application, WEST.
    3. Malvino, Electronic Principles, 6th edition, TMH
    4. Ramakant A. Gayakwad, Operational and Linear Integrated Circuits,4th
        edition, PHI.
    5. Roy Mancini, OPAMPs for Everyone, 2nd edition, Newnes.
    6. S. Franco, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits,
        3rd edition, TMH.
    7. William D. Stanley, Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits, 4th
        edition, Pearson.
    8. www.analog.com




LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS LABORATORY                                                        92

								
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