# Introduction by zCcBpI7

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Physical Geology 101

5. Minerals I                                                                                    (p. 72-78)

States of Matter

All matter exists in one of three states:

solid                             liquid                            gas

The controlling factors that dictate the state are: ____________ and ____________.

Example: at sea level, the following materials are in what state?

gold - ___________________
mercury - ________________
oxygen - _________________

Temperature measurement:

Temperature scale used in geology: ________________________

Freezing point of water: ____________
Boiling point of water: ____________

To convert from °F to °C: Subtract 32 then divide by 1.8.
To convert from °C to °F: Multiply by 1.8 then add 32.

Pressure measurement:

Pressure scales used in geology include:

__________________(atm)          and       ________________ (Pa).
5                   2
sea level pressure = 1 atm = 1.013 bars = 1.013 x 10 Pa = 14.7 lbs/in

The Stuff that Makes up all Matter

The make-up of solid matter on Earth, from smallest to largest is:

___________  ___________  ___________  ___________  ___________

Elements

Can we break down elements chemically?             YES or NO

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Physical Geology 101

Atoms

The atom is the smallest particle that uniquely defines an element, like a fingerprint.

Typical approximate size of an atom: _____________

Particles that make up an atom:

   ______________ (charge is __________)

   ______________ (charge is __________)

   ______________ (charge is __________)

Protons and neutrons together define the ____________ of an atom.

The layers of electrons that orbit around the nucleus are called ______________ or
___________________________.

What is the definition of:

Atomic number: _______________________________________________________
(uniquely identifies an element)

Mass number: _______________________________________________________

Is mass number exactly the same as atomic weight?                  YES or NO

Can atoms of the same element have different atomic numbers?         YES or NO

For example, each and every H atom has exactly ____ proton (atomic # = 1).

Can atoms of the same element have different mass numbers?           YES or NO

Atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers are called _________________

Example: carbon can exist in 3 forms: _______________________________

The average weight of an atom of any element, taking into account the relative abundances of the
different isotopes of that element, is called the _________________.

Ions

Ions are what we get when the electrons partnered with one atom start fooling around with someone
else's atom.

Types of ions:

A LOSS of electrons creates a ____________ charged particle called a ___________ e.g. __________

A GAIN of electrons creates a ____________ charged particle called an ___________ e.g. __________

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Physical Geology 101

Compounds

What is a chemical compound? ___________________________________________

e.g., __________________

A common compound is table salt, or _______________________ (chemical formula: _____________).

How do we write out a chemical compound formula?     CATIONS first or ANIONS first

The smallest possible quantity of a compound is called a __________________

Do molecules have the same properties as the elements they're made from? YES or NO

What holds molecules together? __________________________

Bonding

What exactly is chemical bonding? ________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

In bonded atoms, electrons may be ____________, ____________ or ____________.

There are FOUR types of chemical bonding:

______________________                ______________________

______________________                ______________________

Ionic bonding

What happens to the electrons? __________________________________________

Example: ______________

Are ionic bonds weak or strong? ______________________

Covalent bonding

What happens to the electrons? __________________________________________

Example: ______________ (chemical formula: ___________)

Are ionic bonds weak or strong? ______________________

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Physical Geology 101

Metallic bonding

What happens to the electrons? __________________________________________

What does metallic bonding make metals good for? ___________________________

van der Waals bonding

Definition: ____________________________________________________________

What similar type of bond relies on weak electrostatic charges? ___________________

Are van der Waals bonds weak or strong? ___________________

Example: ____________________ (chemical formula: ___________)

FINAL QUESTION:

What are the building blocks of all geological materials like rocks and soil?

_______________________________

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