Introduction by zCcBpI7


									                                                                                         Physical Geology 101

5. Minerals I                                                                                    (p. 72-78)

States of Matter

All matter exists in one of three states:

                   solid                             liquid                            gas

The controlling factors that dictate the state are: ____________ and ____________.

Example: at sea level, the following materials are in what state?

        gold - ___________________
        mercury - ________________
        oxygen - _________________

Temperature measurement:

Temperature scale used in geology: ________________________

        Freezing point of water: ____________
        Boiling point of water: ____________

                           To convert from °F to °C: Subtract 32 then divide by 1.8.
                            To convert from °C to °F: Multiply by 1.8 then add 32.

Pressure measurement:

Pressure scales used in geology include:

                    __________________(atm)          and       ________________ (Pa).
                                                                         5                   2
                   sea level pressure = 1 atm = 1.013 bars = 1.013 x 10 Pa = 14.7 lbs/in

The Stuff that Makes up all Matter

The make-up of solid matter on Earth, from smallest to largest is:

___________  ___________  ___________  ___________  ___________


Can we break down elements chemically?             YES or NO

                                                                                          Physical Geology 101


The atom is the smallest particle that uniquely defines an element, like a fingerprint.

        Typical approximate size of an atom: _____________

Particles that make up an atom:

   ______________ (charge is __________)

   ______________ (charge is __________)

   ______________ (charge is __________)

Protons and neutrons together define the ____________ of an atom.

The layers of electrons that orbit around the nucleus are called ______________ or

What is the definition of:

Atomic number: _______________________________________________________
                    (uniquely identifies an element)

Mass number: _______________________________________________________

Is mass number exactly the same as atomic weight?                  YES or NO

Can atoms of the same element have different atomic numbers?         YES or NO

        For example, each and every H atom has exactly ____ proton (atomic # = 1).

Can atoms of the same element have different mass numbers?           YES or NO

Atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers are called _________________

        Example: carbon can exist in 3 forms: _______________________________

The average weight of an atom of any element, taking into account the relative abundances of the
different isotopes of that element, is called the _________________.


Ions are what we get when the electrons partnered with one atom start fooling around with someone
else's atom.

Types of ions:

A LOSS of electrons creates a ____________ charged particle called a ___________ e.g. __________

A GAIN of electrons creates a ____________ charged particle called an ___________ e.g. __________

                                                                                Physical Geology 101


What is a chemical compound? ___________________________________________

       e.g., __________________

A common compound is table salt, or _______________________ (chemical formula: _____________).

How do we write out a chemical compound formula?     CATIONS first or ANIONS first

The smallest possible quantity of a compound is called a __________________

Do molecules have the same properties as the elements they're made from? YES or NO

What holds molecules together? __________________________


What exactly is chemical bonding? ________________________________________


In bonded atoms, electrons may be ____________, ____________ or ____________.

There are FOUR types of chemical bonding:

       ______________________                ______________________

       ______________________                ______________________

Ionic bonding

What happens to the electrons? __________________________________________

       Example: ______________

Are ionic bonds weak or strong? ______________________

Covalent bonding

What happens to the electrons? __________________________________________

       Example: ______________ (chemical formula: ___________)

Are ionic bonds weak or strong? ______________________

                                                                                       Physical Geology 101

Metallic bonding

What happens to the electrons? __________________________________________

What does metallic bonding make metals good for? ___________________________

van der Waals bonding

Definition: ____________________________________________________________

What similar type of bond relies on weak electrostatic charges? ___________________

Are van der Waals bonds weak or strong? ___________________

       Example: ____________________ (chemical formula: ___________)

                                          FINAL QUESTION:

              What are the building blocks of all geological materials like rocks and soil?



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