Name: __________________________ Date: _____________
1. In the poorest countries today, life expectancy:
A) is similar to life expectancy in 18th century France.
B) is close to that of the developed world.
C) fluctuates widely by the season in which one is born.
D) is quite high, because only the strongest people survive to raise families.
2. For Erikson, each life stage is characterized by a particular:
A) sociocentric challenge.
B) cultural role.
C) psychosocial task.
D) prosocial quest.
3. Dr. Olson is studying the importance of privacy to people of different ages. In a
cross-sectional study, she finds that people in their 60s are more reluctant to reveal
personal information than are college students. What logical conclusion might Dr. Olson
A) As we age, we accumulate more things that we want to keep to ourselves. Today's
college students will eventually guard their privacy as vigilantly as their
B) Older people have always been less trusting of outsiders, so it is natural that they
would value their privacy more than emerging adults do.
C) Because they have grown up in the digital age, today's college students are
accustomed to revealing very personal information to relative strangers. They will
probably be just as willing to self-disclose when they reach retirement.
D) Although the difference between the groups is apparent, we can't know whether
today's college students will value privacy more as they age.
4. Of the following, which is a characteristic of collectivist cultures?
A) Individuals value their own needs over the good of the community.
B) People expect to live with several generations of their extended family.
C) Personal success is emphasized.
D) People strive to achieve financial success and material gain.
5. Which of the following statements is TRUE about individualistic and collectivist world
A) In Eastern nations, there is bidirectional culture change: immigrants change the
wider culture, and are also changed by it.
B) Increasing affluence in a country generally produces less individualism.
C) In collectivist nations, societies have been slower to change than have
D) Because we know so much about collectivist and individualistic societies, we can
predict with confidence the pace and direction of societal change over the next fifty
6. Of the following infertile couples, which is MOST likely to pursue assisted reproductive
A) Horton and Maisie live and work on a cattle ranch in Montana.
B) Tony and Angela both have minimum-wage jobs and no health insurance.
C) Marcellus and Chandra live in Chicago, where he is a lawyer and she is a sculptor.
D) Kent and Linda, who live in Atlanta, are both working long hours as they try to
build their real estate business.
7. Quickening is:
A) the first fetal heartbeat.
B) the first fetal movement that is perceptible to the mother.
C) a heightened level of energy experienced by women during the second trimester of
D) a type of anxiety attack experienced by pregnant women.
8. A teratogen:
A) is a gene that causes a birth defect.
B) develops during the third trimester of pregnancy.
C) enters the ovum with the sperm.
D) is a substance that crosses the placenta, harming the fetus.
9. Which of the following is MOST likely to have fertility problems?
A) Mark and Daphne, both in their mid-twenties, want to start a family now that
they've spent three years backpacking around the world.
B) Catherine, age 30, is a successful architect who has no interest in marriage. She is
considering artificial insemination as a way to have a child.
C) Brad, age 62, has just married his third wife, Leanne, who is 31 and wants a baby of
D) Paul and Jennifer married three years ago right after graduating from high school.
10. Dr. Carstarphen is an evolutionary psychologist who studies the behavior of pregnant
women. Which of these statements would she be most likely to make?
A) “Morning sickness may be an adaptation that evolved to protect the embryo from
toxic foods that might otherwise be eaten by a pregnant woman.”
B) “For most pregnant women, morning sickness is related to their expectations. Those
who think nausea is inevitable will feel sick.”
C) “A woman who experiences morning sickness is unconsciously rejecting her
pregnancy, and may have unresolved gender identification issues.”
D) “Because of the physical strain of frequent vomiting, women who experience
morning sickness are at high risk for miscarriage.”
11. By four months of age, little Nate's sucking is controlled by:
A) operant conditioning.
B) the rooting reflex.
C) a feeding schedule determined by his mother.
D) his sleep cycle.
12. Professor Plott, a developmental psychologist, is giving a guest lecture to a parenting
class. Which statement would she be MOST LIKELY to make?
A) “Through circular reactions, babies discover the basics of how the world works.”
B) “During the period of primary circular reactions, babies should be given lots of
opportunities to put things together and take them apart.”
C) “A baby who continues to engage in circular reactions after reaching age one should
be evaluated for a possible developmental disorder.”
D) “Babies in the little-scientist phase need to experiment with anything they can
reach, so be sure to give them the run of the house during this time.”
13. Which of these is a feature of infant-directed speech?
A) elongated vowels
B) long words
C) sharpened consonants
D) low pitch
14. Amanda is having trouble feeding her newborn son, Marvin. She says, “I try to gently
guide his mouth toward my breast by touching his cheek, but he always turns away from
me. Then he cries. Doesn't he love me?” What advice would you give Amanda?
A) “You should be a little more assertive in trying to turn his face toward the breast.
Don't be afraid to apply a bit of pressure to his cheek.”
B) “Marvin's sucking reflex hasn't matured yet. Be patient, and he'll eat when he's
C) “Cuddle Marvin to your breast and his rooting reflex will help him find the nipple
on his own. Don't touch the cheek on his other side.”
D) “You should give up and bottle-feed Marvin. Obviously, there's something in your
milk that disagrees with him.”
15. Of the following motor milestones, which list is in the correct sequence?
A) lift head, pivot upper body, sit
B) lift head, sit, pivot upper body
C) grasp with fingers, rotate shoulder, extend arm
D) extend arm, grasp with fingers, rotate shoulder
16. Which of these highly anger prone infants will likely be the most compliant in
A) Linda's parents keep her on a strict schedule and under close supervision, so that
she doesn't have much time to get into trouble.
B) Maury's parents believe that sparing the rod will spoil the child; they shout at him
often, and punish him for misbehavior.
C) Nadine's parents are convinced that her frequent temper tantrums are just a bid for
attention; they ignore her as much as possible.
D) Elmo's parents want him to know how much he is loved; they try their best to
promote a strong attachment bond.
17. Which of the following behaviors is typical of securely attached infants in the Strange
A) not seeming to notice when mother leaves the room
B) showing joy upon reunion with mother
C) staying far away from mother while exploring the room
D) preferring to be held by the stranger rather than by mother
18. Approximately ________ of mothers in the U.S. return to work before their child's first
19. Which of the following parents would be MOST likely to have a securely attached
A) Donna's baby, Sam, takes a while to adjust to new people and routines. On a
weekend visit to Grandma's house, Donna gives Sam time to get used to the
unfamiliar surroundings before giving the OK to Grandma to invite the neighbors
over to meet him.
B) Elroy just loves being Kari's dad, and is closely involved with her care. If he can't
get home from work before Kari's bedtime, he will wake her up so that the two of
them can have their evening play session.
C) Francine can't seem to shake her post-partum blues. Most days, it's all she can do to
feed, change, and bathe little Henry; she never has the energy to play with him or
share a picture book.
D) Gaston means well, but he's never sure what his baby daughter, Louise, wants.
When Louise cries, Gaston's only response is to give her a pacifier.
20. Generalizing from research cited in the text, which of the following is a TRUE
statement about infant attachment?
A) Securely attached infants have a stronger bond with their caregivers than do
insecurely attached infants.
B) Babies who have been abused are unlikely to form any attachment.
C) Toddlers showing insecure attachment styles were probably deprived of important
bonding time during their first weeks of life.
D) The intense separation distress shown by anxious-ambivalently attached babies does
not signal a stronger than normal bond with the mother.
21. Which of these children is using rehearsal?
A) Abbey writes her spelling words on a card and puts it under her pillow the night
before the test.
B) Byron closes his eyes and pictures the bicycle he wants for his birthday.
C) Clemmie prepares a “cheat sheet” that she can hide up her sleeve during the test on
D) Donald repeats the names of the planets, in order, until he knows them well.
22. In contrast to Piaget, Vygotsky regarded ________ as critical to cognitive development
in young children.
A) social interaction
B) hands-on experience
C) genetic programming
23. Which one of these teachers definitely is using Piaget's theory as a basis for decision
A) Ms. DeGroot, who teaches first grade, follows the state-mandated math curriculum
exactly, but gives extra drill and practice to pupils who have trouble keeping up.
B) Mr. Smart makes sure that all of his second graders have a basic understanding of
reversibility before introducing subtraction.
C) Ms. Ruston is teaching her kindergarten class to play chess.
D) Mr. Cantrell's school is on a tight budget, so his third grade students must watch
him conduct science experiments instead of doing their own lab work.
24. When asked to describe their last birthday party, children from individualistic cultures,
compared to children from collectivist cultures, generally:
A) give shorter descriptions.
B) give more boring descriptions.
C) give richer descriptions.
D) do not differ.
25. At the playground, why are young children able to run and jump before they are able to
wait their turn on the swings?
A) The slow neural pruning of the motor cortex enhances their physical abilities.
B) The early neural pruning of the cerebral cortex enables their spatial sense.
C) Muscle growth is inhibited by the frontal cortex.
D) Impulse control develops gradually with the maturation of the frontal lobes.
26. At what age do children begin to prefer playing with other children of their own sex?
A) 3 years
B) 18 months
C) 6 years
D) 10 years
27. According to Vygotsky, girls like to play house and boys like to play soldier because:
A) gender stereotypes are pervasive.
B) their parents punish them for taking the role of the other gender.
C) it allows them to practice adult roles.
D) girls' and boys' toys are very different from each other.
28. Which of these children will MOST likely be a target of bullying in elementary school?
A) Tina and her best friend, Sharon, who rank low on their class's social hierarchy.
B) Cassius, who tends to act out aggressively when provoked.
C) Darryl, who spends his free time volunteering at a local animal shelter.
D) Erica, who is often late to school and seldom has her homework done on time.
29. Linda has internalizing tendencies. She likely to:
A) speak out of turn in class.
B) hide her emotions.
C) seem very self-conscious.
D) talk about her active fantasy life.
30. Generalizing from research cited in the text, which of the following children is likely to
be labeled “controversial”?
A) Edgar, who frequently disrupts class with his hilarious imitations of the principal.
B) Frannie, who dresses all in black and brings her own vegan lunch to school every
C) Gerard, who is the best soccer player in class.
D) Helene, who usually comes to school dirty and disheveled.
31. Which of the following statements about a judge's options for dealing with child abuse
A) She can place abused children in foster care.
B) He can put the abuser in jail.
C) He cannot terminate an abuser's parental rights.
D) She can levy a fine equal to the cost of the child's medical treatment for the abuse.
32. John and Martha have clear rules and expectations for their three children. When a rule
is broken, John and Martha listen to the child's side of the story before deciding on a
consequence. According to Baumrind's model of parenting styles, John and Martha are:
33. Which of the following statements is TRUE about the early use of intelligence tests in
A) They were used to identify gifted children for school enrichment programs.
B) Their use was spurred by a desire to classify immigrant groups according to their
C) The Army used them to place recruits into appropriate military units.
D) Social reformers used them to demonstrate that immigrants were no different
intellectually from native-born Americans.
34. Dr. Golden is a developmentalist who is speaking to a group of judges about the
decision to remove abused children from their homes. Which of the following
statements is he likely to make?
A) “For most abusers, the threat of losing their children is enough to cause behavior
change. They are unlikely to harm their children again after being warned by a
B) “Removing abused children from their homes will facilitate the process of
emotional and physical recovery from maltreatment. Once they are out of danger,
children bounce back quickly.”
C) “The best outcomes usually result from leaving abused children with their families,
while providing intensive support and counseling to improve parenting skills.”
D) “Only a few abusive parents are able or willing to change. The best option is to
terminate their rights as quickly as possible.”
35. The term for any act that endangers children's emotional or physical well being is:
A) child maltreatment.
C) corporal punishment.
D) parental mistreatment.
36. Which of the following statements about adolescent sexuality is TRUE?
A) Girls place a higher priority on having sex than boys do.
B) Boys place a higher priority on intimacy than girls do.
C) Neither boys nor girls have the cognitive maturity to form intimate relationships.
D) Both boys and girls place a higher priority on intimacy than on having sex in a
37. The term for all the internal and external changes related to becoming physically an
A) is puberty.
B) depends on a person's sex.
C) is adolescence.
D) is maturation.
38. Generalizing from the text, which of the following statements about eating disorders is
A) Anorexia and bulimia are very similar in their effects.
B) Anorexia has become more common since the 1980s.
C) Bulimia occurs most often in the developed world.
D) People with bulimia appear very thin.
39. Which of the following statements about girls' puberty is TRUE?
A) Breast development is usually complete before menarche occurs.
B) The sequence of pubertal changes is invariant.
C) Early menstrual cycles may occur without ovulation.
D) Most girls continue to grow taller after their breast development is complete.
40. Among the process that comprise puberty in girls, menarche occurs:
B) relatively late.
D) before the growth spurt.
41. Developmentalists have documented a phenomenon they call deviancy training, which
refers to the tendency of:
A) antisocial parents to teach their children to be delinquents.
B) aggressive “high risk” children to forge friendships in their teens through deviant
talk thus reinforcing each others' antisocial behaviors.
C) teachers and parents to encourage rebellious, deviant behavior by being too strict.
D) deviant groups to recruit teens from good backgrounds and teach them to be
42. In Kohlberg's ________ level of moral reasoning, a person is focused on avoiding
punishment or gaining rewards.
D) formal operational
43. Which of the following is true regarding family relationships and being at risk for
serious problems in adolescence?
A) Feeling disconnected from parents is a common feeling amongst teens and does not
particularly indicate that the teen will have problems.
B) Often problems with family start after the child has become involved with an
undesirable peer group.
C) Middle school students who reported conflicted family relationships often became
involved in undesirable peer groups and got into serious trouble in high school.
D) Strict authoritarian parents are less likely to have teens who get into trouble in high
44. G. Stanley Hall first used the term “adolescence” which he said was a period of:
A) latent maturity.
B) storm and stress.
C) postconventional morality.
D) upheaval and rebellion.
45. A large part of the appeal of drugs for teenagers is:
A) that taking drugs is an exciting and risky adult activity they can do with their friends
and the drugs also lower their social anxiety.
B) the need for the stimulation since most teens are depressed.
C) the escape provided since most teens are very unhappy with their lives.
D) the need for something to calm themselves down because most teens are manic.
46. Based on Csikszentmihalyi and Schneider's research, being a “player” rather than a
“worker” means one is:
A) at higher risk of ending up in identity diffusion regarding one's career.
B) more likely to have an exciting career because players enjoy variety.
C) more likely to be valued as a creative employee by employers.
D) more productive when given interesting and challenging tasks to do.
47. Which of the following is the BEST definition of bicultural identity?
A) Identifying with the traditional culture of one's nation of origin while balancing the
norms of that culture with the norms and demands of the 21st century's global
B) Rejecting the traditional culture of one's country of origin so that one can embrace
and identify with the norms of today's global society.
C) Ignoring the demands of today's global society so that one can develop a strong
sense of identity with one's traditional culture.
D) Going along with the traditional norms of one's parents' culture until one can afford
to leave home and then one can embrace the norms of the global society of today.
48. Which of the following BEST describes how an emerging adult would probably feel if
s/he were “off time” with regards to the social clock?
A) Pleased that s/he is rebelling against the rules of established society.
B) Anxious and pressured to get her/his life in order.
C) Ready to give up because it is too late to accomplish their goals.
D) None of the above; the social clock is irrelevant in U.S. society today.
49. Which of Marcia's identity statuses most closely corresponds to Erikson's concept of
A) identity foreclosure
B) identity achievement
C) identity moratorium
D) identity diffusion
50. Which of the following best describes what research has found on attachment styles?
A) Attachment styles, once established in childhood, cannot be changed.
B) Adults' attachment styles can change from insecure to secure, and sometimes from
secure to insecure.
C) People with an avoidant/dismissing attachment style are most likely to be satisfied
with their love lives.
D) People with a preoccupied/ambivalent attachment style are likely to have the most
51. A marriage based on love that is expected to last a lifetime:
A) has always been considered the ideal marriage in the U.S.
B) was considered the ideal marriage until 1900.
C) has never really been accepted as a realistic model for marriage.
D) became the ideal for marriage during the early decades of the 20th century.
52. Margie describes her 5-year marriage to Jim: ”For the first few months, it was
wonderful. We were so in love. Then we started arguing about everything, it seemed.
For a few years, it was a bit rocky, but now things have smoothed out. We've learned
how to communicate better, without fighting so much. We're doing fine.” Margie and
Jim's marriage is:
A) fairly typical.
B) in serious trouble.
C) okay now but will probably go downhill fast.
D) in good shape now but their fighting in the early years is very unusual.
53. Today, single mothers spend:
A) more time with their children than married mothers do.
B) less time with their children than their married counterparts.
C) more money on their children to compensate for less time and attention.
D) less time with and less money on their children.
54. Joan asks her husband, Tony, to scrub the kitchen floor. After he is done, she fusses
with him for not getting it clean enough. Tony is likely to:
A) try harder next time to get the chore right.
B) be less motivated to do household chores.
C) redo the floor until she is satisfied.
D) feel guilty for letting her down.
55. Which of the following will help a couple to stay happily married?
A) Understand the natural time course of loving relationships.
B) Work to maintain passion and intimacy.
C) Monitor the tendency to bring outside problems and stressors home with you.
D) All of the answers are correct.
56. Your mother should be better than you in ________ intelligence while you should be
better than your mother in ________ intelligence.
A) general; specific
B) specific; general
C) crystallized; fluid
D) fluid; crystallized
57. John is a 45-year-old assembly-line manager who enjoys playing basketball in his spare
time with his teenage sons and their friends. At work he finds that he is better able to
solve problems that come up because of his many years of experience, but while playing
ball, he finds he is not as good as he once was. He has trouble controlling the ball while
also keeping track of where other players are on the court. John is:
A) experiencing typical problems with declines in both crystallized and fluid
B) very atypical for a middle-aged person because his experience should be helping
him to improve in all areas of his life.
C) a typical middle-aged adult who is functioning better at work because of improved
crystallized intelligence but is having problems with tasks that require faster and
more fluid responses.
D) focusing too much attention on his work and not keeping his physical abilities
58. A woman is considered to have reached menopause when:
A) she begins having hot flashes and irregular menstrual cycles.
B) she does not ovulate anymore even though she is still menstruating some months.
C) she has not menstruated for a year.
D) her ovaries stop producing estrogen.
59. Which of the following is a characteristic of postformal thinking?
A) Postformal thinkers realize that the truth is often relative.
B) Postformal thinkers are better able to combine feelings with logic.
C) Postformal thinkers are more question-driven than solution-driven.
D) All of the answers are correct.
60. What can we predict for any given individual with regard to the Big Five traits?
A) S/he will definitely exhibit the same traits at every stage of adulthood.
B) The traits that are exhibited when a person is in her/his 20s, allow us to predict
fairly well the path her/his life will take.
C) S/he is likely to change fairly dramatically on at least two of these trait continuums.
D) These traits tend to remain fairly stable but a major life event may very well change
even these basic traits.
61. Low-income workers in the U.S., when they retire, are:
A) often better off because Social Security pays them so well.
B) usually okay because they have saved a lot of money due to tax incentives favoring
C) often dependent on Social Security alone which only replaces about ½ of their
D) most likely to have good pensions because they usually stay in the same full-time
job for years.
62. According to Laura Carstensen's socioemotional selectivity theory, our social priorities
shift in late adulthood. Older people are more likely to:
A) want to spend time with close family and friends.
B) seek out interesting strangers to make new friends.
C) let insulting or unpleasant remarks slide by so as to get along better with others.
D) engage in new social activities that may make them anxious at first but are
stimulating and exciting.
63. After people have been retired for awhile, they usually:
A) become happier as the initial shock of the drastic lifestyle changes wears off.
B) become a bit disillusioned by some of the unforeseen realities and have to adjust
their expectations and activities to find their retirement identity.
C) become depressed as the reality that their lives lack meaning and structure begins to
D) refuse to see the financial limitations of retirement and continue in denial until they
run out of money and have to go back to work.
64. Which of the following is one of the issues facing our society today regarding
A) Even middle-class retirees are at risk of becoming poor as they move into the
B) Implicit age discrimination puts older workers at risk of being forced into early
retirement and/or not being able to find work after being laid off.
C) As more baby boomers retire, there will be fewer younger workers per retiree to
fund Social Security.
D) All of the answers are correct.
65. When researchers asked people of different ages who they would rather spend time
with–a close family member, a recent acquaintance, or the author of a recent book, they
A) Younger adults usually preferred the author.
B) Older people and younger people with terminal illnesses overwhelmingly voted to
spend time with the family member.
C) Younger people with terminal illnesses voted to spend time with the recent
acquaintance to make a new friend.
D) Younger adults usually preferred the author or the recent acquaintance over the
66. To date, the medications that have been developed to treat Alzheimer's disease can:
A) prevent Alzheimer's if they are taken before one develops the disease.
B) slow the progress of the disease, especially in the early stages, but cannot stop it.
C) halt the progress of the disease if they are started early enough.
D) drastically slow the progress of the disease, especially in the advanced stages.
67. Jose is a poor Hispanic migrant worker in the Southwest. If he becomes sick, he is likely
A) seek medical care quickly because he knows how important his health is.
B) find it difficult to get to a medical facility and feel that the white middle-class
doctor won't be able to relate to him anyway.
C) have good health insurance through his employer.
D) All of the answers are correct.
68. As joint cartilage wears away with age, the elderly often develop ________ which
A) osteoporosis; slower movement
B) osteoarthritis; pain during movement
C) cardiovascular problems; slower information processing
D) asthma; slower movement
69. Sally is 65 years old. She now needs reading glasses, even to read the price tags in the
grocery store, and she finds it more and more difficult to drive at night. Sally is:
A) having unusually severe vision problems for her age.
B) going blind.
C) experiencing common vision problems of aging.
D) seeing a lot better than most people her age.
70. Which of the following tends to discourage older people from taking measures to
correct or compensate for their hearing loss?
A) It is embarrassing to continually ask others to speak up or repeat themselves so they
try to guess at what is being said.
B) They don't know that hearing aids are available.
C) The hearing loss progresses so rapidly that they don't realize they have a problem.
D) They feel that it is too late, that they are too old to do anything about it.
71. One of the arguments against allowing physicians to assist in the suicide of terminally ill
patients who want to die is that:
A) keeping people alive via artificial means goes against nature.
B) the person may request physician-assisted suicide when s/he is depressed and may
feel differently if the depression is successfully treated.
C) family members may ask that life-saving interventions be withheld because they are
anxious to receive their inheritance.
D) All of the answers are correct.
72. Which of the following are services provided by hospice care programs?
A) Training for family members in how to physically care for the patient.
B) Emotional support for the patient and for family members even after the patient's
C) Someone to care for the patient part-time so the care-giving relative(s) can take a
D) All of the answers are correct.
73. Health care workers can help ease the pain of the parents of a dying child by:
A) asking them to leave the patient's room while the worker is caring for the patient.
B) avoiding talk of death, even if the parent brings it up.
C) insisting that the child is improving, to maintain hope.
D) listening to the parents' feelings and allowing them to help with the hands-on care
of the dying child.
74. To enroll in a hospice care program, the patient's doctor must certify that the person is
within ________ of death.
A) 10 days
B) 2 weeks
C) 1 month
D) 6 months
75. Which of the following is TRUE regarding living wills?
A) They are most often used by poor people because they are most at risk of receiving
too much care.
B) They work best when the person has been fairly vague about which treatments they
want or don't want to be used on them.
C) They are a bad idea because they give family members too much control over how
one will be treated when these decisions should be left up to the doctor.
D) They often don't work very well because family members may override them or not
be sure how to interpret exactly what “no aggressive measures” really means.