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					                     Introduction to Cryogenics Storyboards
                            Module 1- Introduction

C101-01-01
Use a NASA video and audio footage of a shuttle launch along with flash animation as an
attention getter. Show a countdown from 10 seconds, the launch, along with an audio
narration.

Narrator (Audio): “The launch of the space shuttle is one of the most dangerous and
complex engineering feats that take place on this planet. Without the hard work, effort,
and precision of the men and women on the cryogenics team, technology such as the
Space Shuttle or an Atlas Rocket, would never make it off the ground. Their efforts not
only lower costs in dollars, but in human lives as well. Regardless of the specific
cryogenics field you are in, your understanding of the skills required to operate
cryogenics systems is critical to the success and safety of your mission. We wish you
good luck in your endeavors as a cryogenic engineer.”

Note to programmer: Give the user the option of skipping the flash introduction.

C101-01-05 – Introduction to Cryogenics

Welcome to the Florida Space Research Institute’s Introduction to Cryogenics Program.

The goal of this program is to provide:
     A fundamental and theoretical foundation of knowledge pertaining to Cryogenic
     A concrete grasp of the applications of Cryogenics Engineering as it is used in
       the aerospace industry.

Insert graphic such as a space shuttle launch or a tank containing cryogenic fluids.

C101-01-07 – Technology Requirements

<Programmer: Use a graphic of a computer to represent technology requirements>

To participate in this on-line program, a student must possess computer hardware and software
that meet the minimal technical requirements.

1. Computer Hardware Requirements

        PC Configuration Minimum                     PC Configuration Recommended

       120 Pentium Processor                           733 mhz Pentium Processor
       64 Megabytes of RAM                             128 Megabytes of RAM
       200mb free on Hard Drive                        200mb free on Hard Drive
       15” monitor                                     DSL or Cable Modem
      28.8 Kbps Modem                               Windows 98, ME, 2000 or NT 4.0
      Windows 95

  Macintosh Configuration Minimum               Macintosh Configuration Recommended

      200 megahertz 604 CPU                         450 megahertz Power Mac
      64 MB RAM (virtual enabled)                   128 MB RAM
      200mb free on Hard Drive                      200mb free on Hard Drive
      15” monitor                                   DSL or Cable Modem
      28.8 Kbps Modem                               Macintosh OS 9 or later
      Macintosh OS 8.5 or later

C101-01-10 – Technology Requirements
Due to the large amount of content, this page continues from C101-01-07

Computer Software Requirements:

      Netscape Navigator 4.7 or Explorer 5.0
      Flash Viewer
      Authorware Web Player
      Cult 3-D Viewer
      Adobe Acrobat Reader 4.0 or higher

Programmer: Link each of the software requirements above to their associated download
page. Use “All About the ALE” as a reference.

C101-01-15 – Navigation Guidance
*Note to Programmer: Use a graphic of a compass rose to represent “navigation.” You
will be creating the navigation features, so please explain here how to navigate through
the program. Explain hyperlinks, back and next buttons, what they look like, etc.

Navigation should be the same as currently in use, except we will remove the left-side
navigation bar and add a 1st-page menu to sub-topics for each module. We should also
add a “Menu” button to the top nav bar to jump the user back to the first page subtopic
menu.

C101-01-20 – What Is Cryogenics?

What is cryogenics?
Cryogenics is the science and technology of low temperatures, traditionally below 120
Kelvin (K). The study of cryogenics started back in the nineteenth century as scientists
and engineers raced each other to liquefy gases such as oxygen and hydrogen, reaching
ever-lower temperatures. Finally in 1908, a physicist by the name of Kamerlingh Onnes
(pronunciation?) figured out how to liquefy helium gas. He used that liquefied helium
gas to discover the phenomenon of “superconductivity.” Thus, Onnes is credited with
coining the term “cryogenics.”
To SME: why were the scientists trying to liquefy gases? Do you think the student might
be curious about that? Do you have any pronunciations available for the difficult names?

Graphic suggestion: Picture of Kamerlingh Onnes and his liquefaction apparatus

Programmer: Hyperlink superconductivity to an introductory website on
superconductivity. Suggestion: http://www.xrefer.com/entry/224710 (all links, including
glossary terms, should open in a new browser window)

C101-01-25 – Cryogenics Evolves
Following Kamerlingh Onne’s technological discovery in 1908, the field of cryogenics
evolved quickly and continued to grow into what it is today. The space race of the 1960s
greatly increased cryogenic research in the handling of liquid hydrogen and oxygen
rocket fuels. Another major trend in the field of cryogenics over the last 25 years has
been the development of practical superconducting materials. Today, cryogenic research
continues, especially in the areas of cryocoolers, Helium II (He II) technology, space
cryogenics, and superconductivity.

Graphic suggestion: Liquid-fueled rocket launching

C101-01-30 – Why Is Cryogenics Important?
Cryogenics is important because it plays a major role in modern industry and science. For
example, large-scale air separation plants use cryogenics to break down air into its
component elements for industrial and medical uses. For efficiency the resulting products
are frequently transported and stored as cryogenic fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) systems that use superconducting magnets cooled by liquid helium have become a
common feature in modern hospitals. In space technology, cryogenics is found in the
liquid hydrogen and oxygen fuels used in rocket engines and in applications such as the
Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, whose superfluid (He II) cooled sensors
have detected remnants of the Big Bang.

Graphic suggestion: Picture of the Cosmic Background Explorer and or MRI system

C101-01-35 – Knowledge Check
Note to Programmer: Each of the following questions in the quick quiz should be a
separate html page. Have the user click on the answers. Clicking on the answer will pop
up text below the question providing the correct and incorrect answers.

Q1: Cryogenics is the science and technology of low temperatures, traditionally below:
   a. 130 degrees Kelvin
   b. –120 degrees Kelvin
   c. 120 degrees Kelvin
   d. – 120 degrees Celsius
   e. –120 degrees Fahrenheit

Programmer: For answer choice c, write this below the question: Correct! Cryogenics is
the science and technology of low temperatures, traditionally below 120 degrees Kelvin.

Programmer: For all other answer choices, write this below the question: The answer
you chose was incorrect. The correct answer is c. 120 degrees Kelvin. Cryogenics is the
science and technology of low temperatures, traditionally below120 degrees Kelvin.

Programmer: User will use a next button or continue button to go on to the next question.

C101-01-37 – Knowledge Check
Programmer: Note that this second quiz question is on a separate html page.

Q2: The term “cryogenics” was coined after Kamerlingh Onnes liquefied which gas?
   a. Oxygen
   b. Nitrogen
   c. Hydrogen
   d. Helium

Programmer: For answer choice d, write this below the question: Correct! The term
“cryogenics” was coined after Kamerlingh Onnes successfully liquefied helium.
Note that the liquefying of Helium was a big step in liquefaction because the liquefying
of oxygen and hydrogen had been conducted decades before. In fact, Kamerlingh
Onnes’s research in cryogenics and superconductivity eventually won him the Nobel
Prize in 1913.

Programmer: For all other answer choices, write this below the question: The answer
you chose was incorrect. The term “cryogenics” was coined after Kamerlingh Onnes
successfully liquefied helium. Note that the liquefying of Helium was a big step in
liquefaction because the liquefying of oxygen and hydrogen had been conducted decades
before. In fact, Onnes Kamerlingh’s eventual research in cryogenics and
superconductivity won him the Nobel Prize in 1913.

C101-01-40 – Cryogenic Fluids in Terrestrial Gravity vs. Microgravity
In most cases, discussions in this program about cryogenic fluids will be based on an
environment with terrestrial gravity. However, it is important to remember that cryogenic
fluids react quite differently in a microgravity environment. Depending on your
background or requirements, it may be necessary for you to complete another program
specifically on cryogenics in microgravity.

Programmer: Insert a graphic or animated graphic if possible showing how cryogenic
fluids react in gravity vs. zero gravity
C101-01-45 – The Introduction to Cryogenics Program
There are six main objectives in the Introduction to Cryogenics program:
    Identify the fundamental and theoretical foundation of knowledge pertaining to
       cryogenic engineering
    Recognize the practical elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer in
       cryogenics
    Identify and safely apply the skills necessary for storage, handling, and transfer of
       cryogenics fluids
    Identify the techniques used in thermal management and production of cryogenic
       fluids
    Identify and apply command and control procedures used when working with
       cryogenic fluids and systems
    Recognize and effectively apply the proper policies and procedures that must be
       followed when working with cryogenic fluids and systems

C101-01-47 – The Introduction to Cryogenics Program
Before you begin the Introduction to Cryogenics Program, it may be useful for you to
review the layout of the program. Based on the objectives, there are 6 main sections to
the program, each divided into separate modules. The six main sections are as follows:

Please click on either link below to view a layout of the Introduction to Cryogenics
program.

Animated Outline of the Introduction to Cryogenics Program <note to programmer:
hyperlink to C101-01-11 – An Animated Program map>
Text Outline of the Introduction to Cryogenics Program <note to programmer: hyperlink
to C101-01-12 – An Outline Program Map>

C101-01-48 – Introduction to Cryogenics Program: Animated Outline
Programmer: This is a flash animation sequence. Make buttons for each of the six
sections of the Introduction to Cryogenics program so that the user can click on them.
When the buttons are clicked, the content (descriptions of each section) will move across
the screen from right to left like a slide show. The section objective and its corresponding
important subsections will be listed as well. However, because we are in the middle of the
design process, we can’t determine the exactly how all of the subsections will look yet.

Screen 1:
Section I. – Fundamentals of Cryogenics

Objective: Identify the fundamentals of cryogenics including important terms,
background and history, and applications and examples of cryogenics. Additionally,
recognize the underlying physics behind the fundamental concepts of cryogenics such as
the thermophysical properties of fluids and the low temperature properties of engineering
materials.

Section Topics:
    Cryogenics Terms and Concepts
    Background and History of Cryogenics
    Thermophysical Properties of Fluids
    Low Temperature Properties of Engineering Materials
    Examples of Cryogenic Systems
    Applications of Cryogenics

Screen 2:
Section II: Practical Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer

Objective: TBD

Section Topics:
    Basic Conservation Principles
    Laminar Flow in Pipes and Ducts
    Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Ducts
    Modes of Heat Transfer
    Laminar and Turbulent Heat Transfer
    Heat Exchangers

Screen 3:
Section III: Storage, Handling, and Transfer of Cryogenics Fluids

Objective: TBD

Section Topics:
    Storage of Cryogenic Fluids
    Handling of Cryogenic Fluids
    Transfer of Cryogenic Fluids Through Pipelines
    Safety for the Production, Handling, and Storage of Cryogenic Fluids

Screen 4:
Section IV: Thermal Management and Production of Cryogenic Fluids

Objective: TBD

Section Topics:
    Gas-Liquefaction Systems
    Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems
    Temperature Measurement Devices
    Thermal Considerations in Storage and Transfer Systems
       Two-Phase Thermal Transport

Screen 5:
Section V: Command and Control of Cryogenic Fluids and Systems

Objective: TBD

Section Topics:
    Controls and Instrumentation
    Console Logs
    Automation vs. Manual Control
    Load, Launch, and Scrub Procedures

Screen 6:
Section VI: Cryogenics Policy and Procedures

Objective: TBD

Section Topics:
    Laws
    Standards
    Guidelines

C101-01-49 – Introduction to Cryogenics Program: Text Outline
Programmer: This is just a regular text outline map of the Introduction to Cryogenics
Program. Since we are in the middle of the design process, we cannot go into much more
detail than what we already have, except for section I

   I.      Fundamentals of Cryogenics

           A. Cryogenics Terms and Concepts
                        1. Cryogenics
                        2. Joule-Thomson Effect
                        3. Isentropic Expansion
                        4. Reciprocating Engine
           B. Background and History of Cryogenics
                        1. Late 1800s
                        2. Early 1900s
                        3. Miniaturization
                        4. Magnetic Cooling
                        5. Mass and Commercial Development
           C. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids
                        1. Thermodynamic States
                        2. Phase Diagrams
                        3. Transport Properties
                        4. Using Thermodynamic Tables
       D. Low Temperature Properties of Engineering Materials
                     1. Yield Strength
                     2. Fatigue Strength
                     3. Impact Strength
                     4. Hardness
                     5. Ductility
                     6. Elastic Modulus
                     7. Specific Heat
                     8. Thermal Conductivity
                     9. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
       E. Examples of Cryogenic Systems
                     1. Production Systems
                     2. Cryogenic refrigeration Systems
                     3. Fluid Storage and Transfer Systems
                     4. Life Support Systems in Space Vehicles
       F. Applications of Cryogenics
                     1. Oxygen
                     2. Hydrogen
                     3. Helium

II.    Practical Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer

       A.   Basic Conservation Principles
       B.   Laminar Flow in Pipes and Ducts
       C.   Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Ducts
       D.   Modes of Heat Transfer
       E.   Laminar and Turbulent Heat Transfer
       F.   Heat Exchangers

III.   Storage, Handling, and Transfer of Cryogenics Fluids

       A.   Storage of Cryogenic Fluids
       B.   Handling of Cryogenic Fluids
       C.   Transfer of Cryogenic Fluids Through Pipelines
       D.   Safety for the Production, Handling, and Storage of Cryogenic Fluids

IV.    Thermal Management and Production of Cryogenic Fluids
       A. Gas-Liquefaction Systems
       B. Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems
       C. Temperature Measurement Devices
       D. Thermal Considerations in Storage and Transfer Systems
       E. Two-Phase Thermal Transport

V.     Command and Control of Cryogenic Fluids and Systems

       A. Controls and Instrumentation
           B. Console Logs
           C. Automation vs. Manual Control
           D. Load, Launch, and Scrub Procedures

   VI.     Cryogenics Policy and Procedures

           A. Laws
           B. Standards
           C. Guidelines

C101-01-50 – Ready to Begin?
Now that you have a grasp of what the Introduction to Cryogenics Program will consist
of, you are ready to begin the program. If this is your first time through the program, it is
recommended that you take the modules in sequence. However, if you are returning for
refresher information, you may proceed directly to a specific module. Recommended
prerequisites for each module will be provided.

Programmer: Insert an end of introduction graphic

				
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