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73 Pittsburgh Regional Science _ Engineering Fair Intermediate

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  73 Pittsburgh
Regional Science &
 Engineering Fair

  Intermediate
     Division
 Student Project
    Abstracts

  March 30, 2012
                                            Table of Contents

     Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS), 7th & 8th Grade ............. 3

     Intermediate – Biology (MBI), 7th & 8th Grade ................................................... 15

     Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH), 7th & 8th Grade ............................................. 25

     Intermediate – Computer Science & Math (MCM), 7th & 8th Grade .................. 39

     Intermediate – Consumer Science (MCS), 7th & 8th Grade ............................... 43

     Intermediate – Earth/Space/Environment (MES), 7th & 8th Grade .................... 51

     Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER), 7th & 8th Grade .......................... 59

     Intermediate – Medicine/Health/Microbiology (MMH), 7th & 8th Grade ............ 69

     Intermediate – Physics (MPH), 7th & 8th Grade ................................................. 77

     Intermediate – TEAM (MTM), 7th & 8th Grade ..................................................... 87




Please note: Abstracts enclosed were submitted electronically. It was recommended, but not required.
Please visit the student’s exhibit for the abstract if it was not submitted electronically. We did not edit them.
         Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBS001                                              Grade: 7
Title: Foul Shot Jam!
Abstract: In my project I wanted to find out if a basketball player's favorite music affected their concentration. My
hypothesis was that the shooter's favorite music will not affect their concentration. The steps I did were, play the
shooter's favorite music and have the shooter shoot ten shots. After that, have the shooter shoot ten shots to no
music. Write down all th information needed. I concluded that y hypothesis was right. The shooter's favorite music
did not affect his concentration. If I had to do this project again I would use a non basketball player.


Project Number: MBS002                                          Grade: 8
Title: Sports and Lung Capacity
Abstract: Lung capacity is the maximum amount of air the lungs can hold when they are fully inflated. This can be
affected by many things, including gender, amount of exercise, height and weight, and more. This project was
intended to learn how playing a team sport affects the lung capacity of middle-school girls. 40 volunteers were
gathered – 20 who played team sports and 20 who did not. Then, a Spirometer was used to measure the maximum
amount of air that each volunteer could inhale. It was determined that volunteers that played team sports did have a
higher average lung capacity than those who did not. The difference between the averages of these two groups of
people was very minimal, though. Further work is planned to determine if caffeine affects the performance of athletes,
or if playing a team sport affects reaction time.



Project Number: MBS003                                              Grade: 7
Title: Do Food Labels Affect Taste Preferences?
Abstract: Cholesterol is a major risk factor in Americans. High cholesterol can lead to atherosclerosis, high blood
pressure, heart attacks and strokes. Light ice cream has 50% less cholesterol (animal fat) than its regular
counterpart. The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether groups of men, women, boys, and girls will
detect a difference in taste between light and regular ice cream of the same brand. I also studied whether labeling an
ice cream "light" will affect taste preference. Finally, a no label condition was tested as a control measure. Over fifty
subjects were asked to participate in 3 separate trials to select the best tasting ice cream: correct labels, "switched"
labels (Regular ice cream labeled light, and light ice cream labeled regular), and a no label condition. It was found
that labeling does affect taste preference. This study showed that there is not a significant taste difference between
regular and light ice cream of the brand used.



Project Number: MBS004                                             Grade: 7
Title: Do You Like What You See?
Abstract: I am researching the affect of colors on blood pressure. I chose three primary colors and eight participants
of the same age. Each participant will sit quietly for five minutes and have their blood pressure taken. The first color
will be studied for three minutes, blood pressure will be taken and recorded. They will relax for five minutes. The
procedure will be repeated until all colors have been studied and pressures recorded. My data showed red increased
blood pressure, yellow a range of readings and blue decreased pressure. In conclusion, my hypothesis was
somewhat correct, colors affect your blood pressure.


Project Number: MBS005                                       Grade: 8
Title: Does Rewarding Students Help Test Scores?
Abstract: Students from various age groups were asked to complete word search puzzles with a "winner" earning a
prize. A second word search puzzle was then presented, however, no prize was offered for completion. The number
of correct words from the two scenarios were then compared and evaluated for all age groups and by gender.


Project Number: MBS006                                          Grade: 7
Title: Do False Memories Lead to False Beliefs
Abstract: The purpose is to see how false memories are created to avoid producing false events which lead to
untrue accusations. Give 15 subjects a list of words with a keyword that isn’t on the list,to study for 10seconds.Give a
test with randomly placed words and the keyword to see if subjects think the keyword and other words, were on the
list. Subjects thought the keyword sleep was on the list. The hypothesis does support the conclusion that the
subjects would mistakenly think that sleep was on the test because it related with the other words.When the subjects
were presented with words that never appeared on the original list, subjects recalled that some words were or weren’t
on the list.
          Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MBS007                                       Grade: 7
Title: Do the Eyes Have It?
Abstract: Do you know someone who can remember anything and everything or so it seems? How do they do it?
To answer this question, elementary students and adults were evaluated as to whether visual or auditory based
information is more easily learned.


Project Number: MBS008                                            Grade: 8
Title: You Be The Critic
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBS009                                           Grade: 7
Title: Highlight your Mind
Abstract: Does highlighting affect memory? Well that is just what I tested in my experiment. I made a list of twenty
words and highlighted ten of them. I told my subjects to study the list and than write down all that they can remember.
In the end my hypothesis was correct and incorrect. My subjects remembered the same amount of highlighted and
nonhighlighted words. In conclusion highlighting doesn't really help memery. But more testing is needed. Perhaps a
longer word list and more test subjects.


Project Number: MBS010                                           Grade: 7
Title: Game On!
Abstract: I chose this project because I enjoy playing video games and thought it would be an interesting science
fair project. I hypothesized that Setup C would be the best position with volunteers sitting 45 centimeters away from
the screen. In Setup A, volunteers were lying on their stomachs 15 centimeters away from the screen. In Setup B,
volunteers were sitting in a chair, again 15 centimeters away from the screen. My hypothesis was correct. In Setup
C, the volunteers scored the best and were most comfortable. If I were to do this experiment again, I would ask male
volunteers also.


Project Number: MBS011                                              Grade: 7
Title: Does Gender Affect Color Preference?
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to see if gender affected color preference. To find this out, I asked people
to fill out a survey with color-filled boxes on it, and had the, check off their gender and age. I observed that both male
and females like blue best, and yellow the least. So, in conclusion, gender did not have any significant affect on
anybody's color preference.


Project Number: MBS012                                           Grade: 7
Title: Are You In Focus?
Abstract: I tested to see if while people are focusing on one thing in particular, if they could also be able to notice
everything else that is going on around them. I first researched how the mind processes information, and the
difference between short-term and long-term memories. I also found tests to use for my experiment. I chose a short-
term memory test, because I believed that I could only use short-term memory to test my theory. I then chose to test
to see how memories differ, from boys to girls. I wanted that to be the only variable. So I tested students in my class,
who were all the same age, but because my class is small I could only ask 6 girls and 6 boys at the most. I thought I
would test anywhere from 8 to 10 students. Since only a few students wanted to participate, I only asked 8 of them, 4
boys and 4 four girls.


Project Number: MBS013                                       Grade: 7
Title: Does Music Impact Mental Focus?
Abstract: Middle school students were tested to determine whether or not music can impact performance levels on
standard word search puzzles. Test subjects were also evaluated on word search puzzle completion without music
as a control.
          Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBS014                                         Grade: 8
Title: Memory Games
Abstract: My project is titled “Memory Games.” In my project, I will be testing to see if there is a difference in
memory between boys and girls. I will show a third grade class a group of images and see how many of the images
they can remember after one minute. I will average the total scores of ten boys and ten girls to get my results.


Project Number: MBS015                                           Grade: 8
Title: Age vs. Memory
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBS016                                            Grade: 8
Title: Can you taste that?
Abstract: I did my project to see if girls had a better sense of taste (than boys) when blindfolded. In my hypothesis, I
took an educated guess and said that girls would have a better sense of taste. My planned procedure was to have
the boys and girls put a blindfold on. Then I was to put the food sample in their hand and they would immediately put
it in their mouth. Then they had to guess what the food was. My data showed that girls did have a better sense of
taste than boys. My hypothesis was proven correct.


Project Number: MBS017                                          Grade: 7
Title: Gender and Color Preference
Abstract: My purpose was to investigate whether gender affects color preferences. I gathered my participants and
had them complete a survey where they had to circle which color they preferred from several pairs of colors. Each
participant was taken to the same room and given the same instructions and survey. I found that girls preferred
purple, pink, gray, yellow, and blue. The boys preferred black, orange, green, and purple. I concluded that there is a
gender difference in color preference.


Project Number: MBS018                                             Grade: 8
Title: Music and Moods
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to determine if listening to music affects a person's mood. To conduct this
experiment I will have fifteen human subject's answer a brief mood questionnaire. Then I will have them listen to
music for three minutes. After listening to music, I will have the subject's answer the same brief mood questionnaire.
The experimental results are measured by calculating the results based on a Likert scale to determine if the subject's
mood changed. The Likert scale is a psychometric scale used in research that involves questionnaires. The Likert
scale is used in the pre and post test I gave my subject's. The results of the experiment showed that music did
change the subject's mood. The results indicate that the hypothesis should be accepted because music does affect
one's mood.


Project Number: MBS019                                         Grade: 8
Title: Who Has a Better Memory-Boys or Girls?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether boys or girls had better short term memory. I
chose 10 female subjects and 10 male subjects. Each subject was required to study a test with 20 objects. Each
subject was instructed to memorize or remember as many objects as possible in a determined amount of time. On
average, the girls remembered 10 out of 20 objects while the boys only remembered 9 out of 20 objects. I concluded
that girls, on average, have a better short term memory.


Project Number: MBS020                                             Grade: 8
Title: What Color is Your Thirst?
Abstract: My science fair project studied the way color affects people’s perception of taste. My hypothesis was “I
believe that I can affect test subjects' perception of taste by serving the same water from different colored glasses.” I
gave subjects one cup of water of each a red, blue, and green, then had them fill out a list of questions. When asked
which they liked best, blue received about 51% of the votes, with green following at about 35%, and red least liked
with 17%. This supports my original thought that water is best sold in blue bottles.
         Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBS021                                             Grade: 8
Title: Specialized Education
Abstract: Today, more than ever, the educational process for “special needs” students is of great importance and
requires intensive research and planning. My work and research was intended to find the best learning method for a
group of special “spectrum disorder” students. I tested the Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic education methods by
taking each individual student and teaching them a set skill using pictures (Visual), objects (Kinesthetic), and song
(Auditory). I found that all three student subjects preferred the Visual education method best and they excelled at the
task utilizing the Visual education method more than the Kinesthetic or Auditory methods.


Project Number: MBS022                                          Grade: 8
Title: Stop the Noise
Abstract: For my science fair experiment, I tested to see if white noise is an effective studying tool. I gave each of
my subjects a simple memory test with white noise, distracting noise, and no noise, as a control. I found that the
scores were highest on the no noise tests, but higher on the white noise tests than the distracting noise tests, but only
by a very small amount. I concluded that it really depends on the person, but white noise is not an effective studying
tool for most people.


Project Number: MBS023                                           Grade: 7
Title: Can You Name That Color?
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to determine if reading written colors in ink that does not match the color in
word form affects the amount of time it takes to read the word. The procedures include timing the subject on the
amount of time it took to read the words written the word that does not match the ink, then the amount of time it took
to read the words that match. The average for the matching are 6 and the average for the colored are 10. Colors that
matched the word take a shorter amount of time


Project Number: MBS024                                             Grade: 7
Title: The Effect of Planned Distractions on Adolescents' Simulated Driving Times
Abstract: In my project the test subjects will play a video game while I will be distracting them. I hypothesize that the
distractions will have a major effect on the subjects. Test 1: Explain to the participant that you will ask him/her
questions and that they should answer the questions to the best of his/her ability. that he should identify verbally Test
3: Explain to the participant that he will be given a series of math problems to complete on a calculator, using one
hand. My conclusion was that my hypothesis was correct and distractions do affect your driving abilities.


Project Number: MBS025                                          Grade: 8
Title: Pretty Is As Pretty Does?
Abstract: My project is "Pretty Is as Pretty Does?" The purpose was to find out whether more attractive people are
viewed more favorably. I hypothesized that the attractive people would be seen as more successful, intelligent,
confident etc. I showed my subjects computer-generated faces and asked them to rate certain characteristics on a
scale from one to five. My results proved my hypothesis—the more attractive the person, the more positively they
were judged. The more unattractive the person was the less favorably they were seen.


Project Number: MBS026                                            Grade: 8
Title: Inattentional Blindness
Abstract: Does awareness increase as age does? If a person presents the intentional blindness video to 20
students each in 6th, 7th, and 8th grade, then the people who see the gorilla will increase as grade does. Load the
video from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJG698U2Mvo. Show it to 60 test subjects, 20 each from grades 6th-
8th. Start the video. While it’s playing, take down any facial expressions, body movements, etc. When the video ends,
ask them if they saw the gorilla. Record how many saw the gorilla. Compare each grade with each other. To finish,
see what percentage of each grade saw the gorilla.


Project Number: MBS027                                          Grade: 8
Title: Bunny Love
Abstract: My project is "Bunny Love." In my project I am going to test if human blood pressure and pulse increases
or decreases after petting a bunny. I am going to test the subjects blood pressure and pulse before and after petting
the bunny for 10 minutes.
         Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBS028                                            Grade: 8
Title: The Stroop Effect and Emerging Readers
Abstract: It is known that the Stroop Effect has significant effect on adults when they try to name the color of ink that
color words are printed in, but how would children who are still learning how to read respond to this phenomenon? I
tested children in the primary grades by having them read a paragraph with color words printed in different colors of
ink and asked them comprehension questions about the paragraph that were directly tied to color. Results will be on
display at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MBS029                                             Grade: 7
Title: Distracted Driving
Abstract: This experiment was done to see if the more the distracted a person is the more likely to cause an
accident. This will give us a better understanding of what not to do while driving. In order to complete this
experiment will need a Wii gaming system and the game Mario kart.
Each race used one of four different distractions. The distractions were eating and drinking, texting, talking, and no
distractions. Each distraction was raced three times. The total time for each race was recorded and then averaged.
This resulted in three data points for each distraction type.
The results showed that driving while texting was the most distracting with an average time of 2:97.390 minutes, and
that the other distractions all were worse than just driving the car. The average time for just driving was 2:21.535
minutes, eating/drinking while driving came in at 2:39.447 minutes and talking on the phone 2: 35.639 minutes. While
this experiment shows the difference in times and that distractions are a problem, it doesn’t show that most of the
extra time was due to accidents and not being able to stay on the road.
This hypothesis was true. The distractions encountered did produce a lower time/score. The more complex the
distraction the longer it took to complete the race.


Project Number: MBS030                                         Grade: 8
Title: Correlation Between Relative Pitch and Gender
Abstract: The problem for this experiment asks if males or females are better at singing on pitch. If relative pitch
depends on gender, the females with sing better on pitch. To conduct this experiment, this researcher will ask
students from the age of 11-14 to sign a consent form and sing a series of three notes as I play them on the piano.
Record the results from 100 students: 50 males and 50 females. Compare all results to determine the correlation
between relative pitch and gender.


Project Number: MBS031                                                Grade: 8
Title: Warped Words
Abstract: The problem for this experiment asks what way of oddly written words is easiest to read. To conduct this
experiment this researcher will ask students to fill out consent forms before have them take three short, timed tests.
They will decipher as many words as they can in the given time limit. The researcher will record the number of
correctly written words for the three tests for all fifty participants. Compare the average number of correctly
deciphered words for each test to determine what odd way of writing is read easiest.


Project Number: MBS032                                           Grade: 7
Title: Red or Green?
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBS033                                         Grade: 7
Title: What Color is Seen Best in Urban Traffic?
Abstract: Purpose: What color is most easily seen in an urban traffic setting?
Hypothesis: The darker dots are easier to see than light dots.
Procedure:
1. Explain the directions to the subject
2. Randomly select the transparency containing the urban traffic setting and the colored dots that will be tested
3. Open a manila folder containing the transparency form step 2 and determine the time required for the test subject
to find the 20 colored dots
4. Repeat steps 1-3 for the remaining transparencies.
5. Repeat steps 1-4 for 29 more test subjects
         Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBS034                                         Grade: 8
Title: BRAINBOW
Abstract: My experiment is about color effecting memory. Get two sheets of paper with black words on one sheet
and colored words on the other (they must be the same amount of letters). Get some subjects that will be willing to do
the experiment. Give the subject the black piece of paper and ask them to memorize it for 30 seconds. Ask them to
repeat the words they memorized back to you. Do the same with the colored words. Record your results.
My hypothesis was that that color would make you remember the words better. My hypothesis was incorrect.


Project Number: MBS035                                           Grade: 7
Title: Salts of the World
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to see if people can taste the difference between salts. The procedure
used was each subject ate three foods, with one of the four salts, Bretagna Grey Salt, Himalayan Pink Salt, Sea Salt
and Moroccan White Salt, and tell how it tasted. The data I have is that for the Sea Salt: four subjects said it was
strong, one subject said mild. Bretagna Grey Salt: four subjects said moderate, one subject said strong Himalayan
Pink Salt: All five subjects said mild Moroccan White Salt: two subjects said strong, two subjects said mild, one
subject said little.


Project Number: MBS036                                          Grade: 8
Title: What Type of TV Show Affects a Teenaged Boy's Heart Rate Most?
Abstract: Watching television can be an enjoyable past time for teenage boys, but is your heart rate impacted by
what you watch? The purpose of the project is to discover what type of television show affects a teenaged boy's heart
rate the most. Twenty participants will watch three examples of three types of age-appropriate TV shows in three
categories: comedy, suspense and documentary. The heart rate of each participant will be monitored three times
during viewing. Results will be available at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MBS037                                         Grade: 8
Title: Reading and Test Awww Man!!!
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBS038                                           Grade: 8
Title: Do Balance Braclets Work?
Abstract: Balance bracelets are bracelets that claim to improve balance, strength, and flexibility. This work intended
to learn if these bracelets truly improve balance. The balance of volunteers was tested by discovering how long each
person could stay on a Bosu ball. Times were recorded before and after wearing bracelets. It was determined that the
bracelets do improve the balance of people. Literature suggests that these bracelets regulate energy flow. Future
work is planned to determine if the Placebo Effect plays a role in the success of these bracelets.


Project Number: MBS039                                         Grade: 7
Title: Do you remember what you saw?
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to see if the eye witness testimonies are accurate. The steps in taking my
project are I took them in a quiet room and they watched a movie. I waited five minutes then I gave them a ten
question paper. I calculated the right and wrong of each student and I also averaged it. I concluded that the eye
witness testimonies were accurate.


Project Number: MBS041                                             Grade: 7
Title: Optimal Text Formating for Maximizing Reading Speed
Abstract: Does text format affect the speed of reading? The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether text
formatting affects the speed of reading. If so, determine the optimal text formatting. Procedure: 1.Prepare paragraphs
with different text formatting such as font sizes, line spacing, and number of words per line. 2. Ask subjects to read
aloud the same paragraph with different text formatting and keep their time.
3. Chart results and draw conclusions.
          Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBS042                                        Grade: 8
Title: Does Physical Activity Affect Cognitive Skills?
Abstract: Students of different ages were evaluated as to whether or not physical activity would improve one's ability
to remember details from a short story read aloud to a group.


Project Number: MBS043                                        Grade: 8
Title: Does Time of Day Affect Concentration?
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to see when kids concentrate the most. I want to know this so I can
strengthen my concentration and the concentration of others. To complete this project I observed 4 students in school
and recorded obeservations in my notebook. I concluded that kids concentrate more in the morning than in the
afternoon.


Project Number: MBS044                                              Grade: 8
Title: A Companson of Education Types and Logical Thinking: Phase 3
Abstract: This project expanded on previous research investigating educational differences between Montessori and
traditional education. The purpose of this project was to compare the cognitive skills of students enrolled in different
educational styles and to determine whether one educational style progressed faster into the Formal stage of thinking
as stated by Jean Piaget. The study was carried out using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT). The
GALT was administered online through the means of a survey. It was hypothesized that Montessori students would
perform statistically significantly better than traditional education because Montessori uses tactile and interactive
materials to better attend to an individual student’s needs, as well as based on previous experimental results. The
survey included questions about demographics, conservation of mass and volume, probability, and algebraic
concepts. No participant was asked to give their name or any personal information.. Participants gave informed
consent before participating in the study. Data collected form the survey will be analyzed using frequency
distributions to determine whether there is any statistical difference between the education types. A series of X2 test
will be conducted to determine if Montessori students perform better than other educational types.


Project Number: MBS045                                            Grade: 8
Title: Gender and Frustration
Abstract: My project will test to see if females have higher frustration levels then males using an electromagnetic
grid. The test will have thirty male and thirty female subjects. They will have three minutes to perform the task and I
will judge their frustration through their responses. Subjects will receive one point for each time they perform a
response (laughing or making jokes, asking for help, aggression, accusations, apathy, sighing, and saying this is
frustrating). Record the number of points they received in the data tables for their frustration levels. Compare results
to determine if my data supports my hypothesis.


Project Number: MBS046                                             Grade: 8
Title: Crazy Food Coloring
Abstract: Crazy Food Coloring Abstract
In my project, I was curious as to how a person's judgment would be affected toward eating foods that were
unnaturally colored. I tested ten test subjects in this experiment. Foods included; blue mashed potatoes, red rice,
purple pudding, orange milk, green eggs, and gray/green cake. I collected lots of data and my results varied. The test
subjects were more adventurous then I had expected and had mixed feelings about the food. In conclusion, however,
I found out that people will be willing to try stange colored foods without completely judging them for their color.


Project Number: MBS047                                               Grade: 8
Title: The Most Important Meal of the Day!
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBS048                                               Grade: 8
Title: reflexezzzzzz
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to see the true effects of sleep deprivation. In choosing to do this
topic; I had tested the subject's reflexes by ringing a bell. After the first trial, they were to lose two hours of sleep until
the next testing. After adding all finished times together, and finding averages, my final answer came as a bit of a
shock. The average times for both trials hadn't changed from being sleep deprived or not. Since the times were the
same, my hypothesis was incorrect, thus concluding my experiment.
          Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MBS049                                              Grade: 7
Title: Now You See It Now You Don't
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to find out which eye color has the best peripheral vision. I predict that the
color with the best peripheral vision will be light blue, because it is more reflective than dark brown. For my
experiment I will run peripheral vision screening tests on a group of ten participants. This group of participants will
consists of five boys and five girls varying in eye color. After the experiment is completed I will collect the data and
prove my hypothesis to be either right or wrong.


Project Number: MBS050                                       Grade: 7
Title: The Scoop on the Stroop Effect
Abstract: Students of various ages were evaluated with regard to the Stroop Effect.


Project Number: MBS051                                            Grade: 7
Title: Black on Black Crime
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBS052                                          Grade: 8
Title: Gender,Age and Peer Pressure
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine which age and gender was most impacted by peer
pressure. The investigator tested 12, 13 and 14 year old girls and 13 and 14 year old boys. The investigator took one
group into a room and gave them a questionnaire orally and recorded the scores. Then, they were given a second
questionnaire and asked to complete it in writing. The investigator determined that the 13 year old boys most
frequently changed their answers and were most susceptible to peer pressure.


Project Number: MBS053                                          Grade: 7
Title: Music Therapy: Can it Help the Hurt?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to see if bone marrow biopsy patients feel less discomfort if music is
played during the procedure. To conduct this experiment I questioned the patients after the surgery to ask what their
pain level was. The experimental results were measured by gathering the data into a log book and were then
prepared into graphs. The results of the experiment show that the average pain level for patients that heard music
was less than the average for patients who did not. The results indicate that the hypothesis should be accepted
because patients who heard music seemed to have less pain than patients who did not.


Project Number: MBS054                                         Grade: 8
Title: Gender and Identifying Expressions
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to identify which gender is better able to distinguish among facial
expressions. I gathered my participants (students in grades 4 – 8) in groups of seven. The participants were given a
worksheet and asked to study a group of pictures for three minutes. Then, they were asked to identify the emotion
shown in each picture. My data showed that the boys were better able to identify the emotions shown by facial
expressions.


Project Number: MBS055                                           Grade: 7
Title: Sit, Stay, Play...
Abstract: My experiment was to find out what my dog's favorite type of toy was, and what kind of toys she doesn't
like. My hypothesis was that my dog will like the plush toys the best, because her breed of dog likes to play shake
and kill, which is done with a plush toy. For my experiment I had three different categories of toys. The categories
were textures, shapes, and interactive toys. I had four toys in each category and used those to find the overalal
favorite toy. In the end her favorite toy was a plush one.


Project Number: MBS056                                        Grade: 7
Title: Who's Afraid of the Boogie Man
Abstract: My experiment asked if fear was common in different groups of people. Such as age, birth order or
gender. During my experiment I used survey to question people. I told my participants what my project was about,
and gave them surveys to answer. The data I gathered that children were more afraid of things like darkness. Adults
         Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade

were more afraid of monsters. Females were more afraid of animals, and insects. Youngest children were afraid of
insects and darkness compared to middle and oldest children. So fears do common in
different groups linking us constantly together.


Project Number: MBS057                                           Grade: 8
Title: Whatta You Lookin' At?
Abstract: The purpose of the experiement is to determine if the face plays a role in the attention and awreness of an
observier watching a person demonstrate an action. The experiement will involve a magician and several observers.
The magician will perform a ball and cup magic trick in two different ways: once when only his hands are visible, and
once when his face AND hands are visible. Although observers believe they are only watching the hands in both
circumstances, those who see the face and hands will more likely be "tricked." Final results will be reported once
experimentation has completed.


Project Number: MBS058                                           Grade: 8
Title: Can't Read It If you Red It
Abstract: The purpose of the experiement is it determine if it is more difficult for an early reader to read words
printed on red versus printed on white. This experiment will test early readers' abilities to read words on white versis
red flashcards. How long it takes to read the cards, and how many mistakes they make will be measured and
compared. Many young reader books are printed in color and might interfere with the students' ability to learn how to
read. The conclusion is likely that young reader books should be printed on white paper to imporve reading ability.


Project Number: MBS059                                          Grade: 8
Title: Fibonacci Numbers in Music
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see if people prefer music that follows the Fibonacci sequence. It
was hypothesized that people would rather listen to music that follows this sequence. However, it was found that
people actually favored music that didn’t contain the Fibonacci sequence. People who would be interested in these
results would be music producers and artists.


Project Number: MBS060                                         Grade: 7
Title: Why So Stressed?
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to find out why kids are so stressed. I used people, pencils, and
paper. I asked a series of questions about what makes kids stressed. My conclusion is that teens are stressed
because they have too much school work to do and are overwhelmed with stuff to do.


Project Number: MBS061                                           Grade: 7
Title: Does Gender Effect Color Preference
Abstract: The problem is: Does gender effect color preference?
It is hypothesized that males, ages 11-14, prefer primary colors over secondary colors; while females, ages 11-14,
prefer secondary colors over primary colors. A brief procedure of the experiment is as follows: I will gather all my
materials and write a plan for testing my male and female subjects. I will show to each individual separately color
swabs and ask them to pick their preference. I will repeat this with different subjects and record my data. As I
continue the process, I will also take pictures to support my data. I will repeat this process 4 times. Yes, my hypothes
was supported.


Project Number: MBS062                                           Grade: 8
Title: Does Age Make You Angry
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBS063                                          Grade: 8
Title: Testing For Bias In A Photo Lineup
Abstract: The problem for this experiment asks when the age group of people choosing a photo is changed what will
happen to the number of times a photo of a certain race is chosen. To test this the researcher will make their lineup
and gather 100 participants from 5 different age groups, read a description of a crime and ask them to choose a
photo out of a lineup, compare the total number of times each photo was chosen from each age group to determine
which had the most bias.
         Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MBS064                                           Grade: 8
Title: Family Ties
Abstract: My experiment was to test if children are more similar to their mother or their father in terms of common
physical traits and personality. I hypothesized that most people would look and behave more like their mother. I
created a simple test and gave it to each of the children and their parents. I compared and recorded the results in my
data book. My hypothesis was half-correct. Most people did inherit more traits from their mother, but most traits
inherited were traits that the mother and father shared.


Project Number: MBS065                                           Grade: 7
Title: Exercise and HeartRate
Abstract: The problem is: Out of the following 3 minute activities; lifting 3 lbs. jumping rope, or running, which will
raise a person's heart rate the most? It is hypothesized that: Running will raise a person's heart rate more than any of
the 3 minute activities. The procedure involved will simply be 3 people trying the 3 different exercises to see which
one raises their heart rate most. The results did support the hypothesis


Project Number: MBS066                                           Grade: 8
Title: Medicine Mishap
Abstract: The problem for this experiment asks if children mistake medicine for candy. If children are ask whether or
an index card shows candy or medicine on it then the most likely results will be that they will mistake medicine for
being candy. To conduct this experiment first graders will be shown a index card with medicine or candy on it. The
child’s gender will be recorded with all of the answers of 30 boys and 30 girls. I plan to compare which gender was
more aware of the differences between medicine and candy.


Project Number: MBS067                                          Grade: 8
Title: Music and Memory
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBS068                                          Grade: 8
Title: Are You Smarter Than an Eighth Grader?
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBS069                                       Grade: 7
Title: Gum and Memory: Chew or Taste?
Abstract: Everyone’s heard that chewing gum helps you concentrate. But what part of the gum actually helps? This
project was done to determine which of the two important elements of gum helps focus-the chewiness, or the flavor? I
showed test subjects cards with number sequences while they were chewing gum, sucking mints, or not eating
anything. Subjects were scored based on the numbers they had remembered correctly. Participants who did not eat
anything scored highest, but those chewing gum scored higher than those sucking mints. The candy distracted the
subjects instead of helping them focus.


Project Number: MBS070                                           Grade: 8
Title: Music Can Make Your Mood
Abstract: I tested what type of music would affect someone’s mood and in what way. I did this so people would
realize what type of music to listen to and when, it shows that music plays a important role in our lives daily. I had
people listen to two songs and rate their mood afterwards. I found that lower pitched songs worsened their mood and
higher pitched helped their mood. Knowledge like this can lead into helping people find if music can affect their lives.


Project Number: MBS071                                          Grade: 8
Title: Black or White?
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.
         Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBS072                                           Grade: 8
Title: Gender Based Scent Discrimination
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to test which gender was more attracted to a wider variety of certain
scents. To run my experiment I took each of my human subjects into a room, had them smell each of my 12 selected
scents, and rate them on the 9 – Point Hedonic Scale. My results showed that the males and females ranked a “like”
(6 or above on the scale) in 7 of the scents, but the females had a wider range between their likes and dislikes.
Therefore, I concluded that the females were more scent discriminating than the males.


Project Number: MBS073                                           Grade: 7
Title: How Do Vision and Hearing Affect Balance
Abstract: The purpose of this investigation is to study how vision and hearing affect balance by measuring how long
girls can stand on one foot with eyes or ears closed. Basic information about volunteers will be recorded first then
they will be asked to stand in a variety of combinations of stances while being timed
Intermediate – Behavioral and Social Science (MBS) – 7th & 8th Grade




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                           Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBI001                                            Grade: 7
Title: Does Fly Ash Negatively Effect Growth of Plants?
Abstract: Determine if fly ash in the soil negatively affects the germination, growth rate, and biomass of Oat Plants.
Procedure: A 0% (Control), 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% fly ash / soil mixture was prepared. An Oat seed and equal
amounts of the 0% mixture were placed in 40 different Styrofoam cups. Every 3 days the number of seeds that
germinated and the growth of each plant was determined. The same procedure was followed for the remaining
mixtures. The dry biomass of the plants was determined at the end. Data is still being collected and my results will
be available at the fair.


Project Number: MBI003                                            Grade: 7
Title: DNA Effect on Cell Morphology
Abstract: Mins6 and Ins1 are types of cells found in mice and rat pancreas. In this experiment, DNA was taken from
both types, and put in media of both types of cultured cells to see if any changes would occur. A phalloidin staining
procedure was done to look at pictures of the cells and observe any changes in morphology/cell growth. It was
determined that if DNA from the same species of cells is added to media of that species, cell count would decrease. If
DNA from another species is added, than cell growth would stay the same.


Project Number: MBI004                                             Grade: 8
Title: Potting Soil vs. Worm Soil
Abstract: I tested the effect of the worm soil to potting soil ratio on plant growth. This is an experiment that will be
very use full to anyone who likes gardening or just growing their own vegetables. If you want to do a garden this is a
way to start later than you usually do and still get about the same amount of growth. Over the course of the
experiment the full potting soil did very poorly and the full worm soil exceeded my expectations.


Project Number: MBI005                                            Grade: 8
Title: Loops, Whorls, and Arches
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to determine if children inherit their fingerprint type from their parents.
After all the protocol papers were filled out, permission slips were passed out and collected. Then, I went on an
interview with a state trooper to learn about the various types of fingerprints. With the data collected, I wrote a
research paper to organize the information collected about the different types of fingerprints. During the experiment,
the participants’ left thumbs were fingerprinted using a fingerprint kit and ink. A spreadsheet was designed to compile
the type of fingerprint each participant had. In conclusion, the data collected supported the hypothesis that children
inherit their fingerprint type from their parents.


Project Number: MBI006                                             Grade: 8
Title: Plants' Reaction to Changes in Gravity
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find out which plant reacts fastest to changes to gravity. The
investigator put plants in a room with no light except for the electric indoor growing light. Then she turned two
angiosperm plants and two gymnosperm plants horizontally to the right. Also, the investigator kept two angiosperm
and gymnosperm plants upright. THe investigator measured height/width over a period of two weeks. The
investigator concluded that the gymnosperms reacted and were impacted the most by changes in gravity.


Project Number: MBI007                                             Grade: 7
Title: Can differences in the colors of lighting affect plant growth?
Abstract: The sun's rays include different colors. Some of the colors in the sun's rays are necessary for plant
growth. The investigator wanted to prove that plants react differently to many colors. By covering three different
kinds of plants with a variety of colored plastic wrap, the investigator showed that plants grew better under blue light.


Project Number: MBI008                                            Grade: 7
Title: CAN'T Touch This
Abstract: My project is about how magnetism affects the foraging of ants. I put ants into a homemade ant farm, one
with magnets, and one without. The farm with magnets ended up finding the food better and after five days had about
half the amount of the regular amount of food. I found it a fun experiment.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                         Page 15
                            Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBI009                                          Grade: 8
Title: Coral Reefs and Beach Erosion
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess whether or not a coral reef prevents beach erosion. It is
hypothesized that not only does a coral reef prevent erosion, but a reef closer to the surface will be even more
preventitive. A model of a reef and a beach will be created and tested. The results of this experiment will be useful
to environmental scientitists located in communities impacted by erosion.


Project Number: MBI010                                         Grade: 8
Title: Does Coffee Kill Bacteria?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to see if coffee does kill bacteria.


Project Number: MBI011                                             Grade: 8
Title: Classical Chickens
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBI012                                               Grade: 7
Title: Comparing Family Fingerprints
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if families have the same types of fingerprints or share
similar traits in their fingerprints. The investigator fingerprinted the children and parents of seven families. The
fingerprints were classified into four categories: loop, whorl, arch, or composite. The fingerprints were then analyzed.
When comparing siblings to their parents and to each other, the investigator concluded that most families do not
share similar traits in their fingerprints.


Project Number: MBI013                                              Grade: 7
Title: Will Plants Grow When Watered by Different Liquids
Abstract: the purpose of my project is to determine if plants will grow when i water them with liquids other than
water. I will be putting different liquids like canada dry general soda, vegetable oil, black coffee, water and cranberry
juice in soil and then checking to see if they grow at different rates. If i use different liquids to water the plants, then
the plants will grow at varying rates. My prediction is that probably only one of the various substances will make the
plant grow and i think that it is the one closest to a water substance like fruit punch juice. The reason why i made that
hypothesis is that fruit punch juice is close to the water and doesn’t have as much acid. Canda dry has the largest
amount of acid with a ph of 5.18 compared to cranberry juice that only has 2.8 -3.0 ph cranberry juice also only has
coloring and fruit juice. However i still think that water would be the best choice.


Project Number: MBI014                                            Grade: 8
Title: Heart Health: How Does Heart Rate Change with Exercise?
Abstract: The problem for this experiment is, when the type of exercise is changed what will happen to the heart
rate? My hypothesis for this experiment is if I increase the intensity of exercise then the heart rate will increase. The
students will be asked to do a certain exercise for a certain amount of time, before they start their heart rate will be
recorded with my hand and when they are finished the heart rate will be recorded again. After I collect all of my data,
the data will be compared to their starting heart rate.


Project Number: MBI015                                               Grade: 8
Title: What Causes Red Eye and How Can I Reduce Its Effect?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see what causes red eye and how I could reduce the effect without
a computer or camera application. The first step was to take a picture of the 7 participants in different environments:
lights on – plastic bag, lights on – tissue paper, lights off – plastic bag, lights off – tissue paper, and lights off –
flashlight. The data proved that the lights off - plastic bag and lights on – plastic bag diffusers worked the best at
reducing red eye. I concluded that the diffusing methods worked, but none of them fully removed the red eye effect.


Project Number: MBI016                                          Grade: 8
Title: It's All in the Mind!
Abstract: Does using power bracelets improve one's strength or balance? I tested 15 subjects to find their dominant
foot. Using a flat surface, each subject had three attempts standing on dominant foot, for a specific time, without a
bracelet. This data was recorded. A second test done, with a placebo bracelet. A third test done, with a power
bracelet. All data is compared. Subjects dominate foot and dominate hand are the same. Balance tests showed no

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                           Page 16
                           Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade

significant difference. In conclusion, results proved hypothesis correct. Minimal difference of balance is proven with
bracelets. Wearing these bands seems helpful, but in reality they are not.


Project Number: MBI017                                           Grade: 7
Title: Can Coffee Stimulate Plant Growth?
Abstract: In this experiment, I attempted to find whether or not coffee can stimulate plant growth more than water. I
had four types of beans: Pinto, Red, Soy, and Mung beans. I used twelve of each bean; divided into three sections.
Each different section was watered with a different liquid: Regular coffee, decaf, or water. My data showed that the
water beans grew the best, followed by decaf, and then caffinated. My conclusion is that coffee does not make plants
grow faster, and in fact, restrains plant growth.


Project Number: MBI018                                               Grade: 8
Title: Germination Domination
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment, Germination Domination was to determine if soaking seeds in different
liquids would affect the seed’s germination rate and the rate at which the plant would grow. I tested four different
liquids-tap water, salt water, sugar water, and hydrogen peroxide water. For ten days the seeds germinated and then
they were planted and observed for two weeks. After I conducted the experiment I found that my hypothesis was
wrong. The tap water germinated the seeds the best and watering the plants with the sugar water showed the best
growth results. I realize that this is late and apoligize for any inconveniences thatit has caused


Project Number: MBI019                                          Grade: 8
Title: Alternate Resources of ES Cells
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBI020                                          Grade: 8
Title: Effect of Acid Rain on Plant Growth
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to determine if acid rain actually has a negative effect on plants. Two
plants were used. One plant was watered with regular, clean water. The second plant (independent variable) was
watered with acid rain(in this experiment lemon juice). Each plant had a matching spray bottle that contained the
substance they were being watered with. (one contained water; the other contained lemon juice with a pH of 4) They
were watered daily for one week. Both plants started to die, but the plant watered with lemon juice showed more
signs of suffering.


Project Number: MBI021                                            Grade: 8
Title: Which Fertilizer Helps Plants Grow the Best?
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to find out which fertilizer helps plants grow the best. The investigator
planted a handful of grass seeds in each fertilizer; Miracle Gro, Miracle Gro fertilizer sticks, compost and a control.
The plants grown in the Miracle Gro fertilizer sticks grew the best.


Project Number: MBI022                                         Grade: 7
Title: The Effects of Caffeine on Daphnia
Abstract: This experiment will compare the effects of caffeinated beverages on Daphnia. Using microscopes count
how many times the Daphnia's heart beats in sixty seconds in water, the control. Place the Daphnia on a slide and
add a drop of tea. County how many heartbeats the Daphnia produces in sixty seconds. This step will be repeated
for all ten Daphnia and will be repeated using Coca-Cola, Mountain Dew and coffee. The average heart rate of the
Daphnia in water was 169.4 bpm. The data showed an increase in Daphnia's heart rate when the specimen was
exposed to the caffeinated beverages.


Project Number: MBI023                                            Grade: 8
Title: pH Power
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the pH level of soil affects how much a plant grows. To
conduct this experiment, I tested the pH level of two different types of soil. I planted a bean seed in both soils, and
watered each daily. The experimental results were measured in centimeters, and by how much the plants grew. The
results of this experiment showed that the compost soil was a better soil for the bean plants. The compost soil plant
was always taller. The results indicate that I should accept my hypothesis.


PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                       Page 17
                           Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MBI024                                            Grade: 8
Title: The Five Second Rule - Fact or Fiction?
Abstract: The five second rule is a highly popularized myth worldwide; this study demonstrates the risks of using
this dangerous rule. To disprove this theory, marshmallows were split in halves and the dropped on different
surfaces. It was then picked up within five seconds and smeared across an agared petri dish. They were then left to
incubate at a temperature of ninety degrees. The end results would surprise the most avid believer of this myth; many
of the surfaces were unbelievably unsanitary. In the future, testing of more surfaces for bacteria and the ability to
Gram stain the bacteria found is predicted.


Project Number: MBI025                                           Grade: 7
Title: Reduction of Stereotypic Behaviors in Polar Bears at Pgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Abstract: Polar bears and other large mammals in captivity have exhibited stereotypic behaviors. Zoos across the
world are spending significant efforts and funds to further understand and decrease stereotypic behaviors. The
behaviors of polar bears from the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium were observed over a period of seven months,
using a focal data procedure. The stereotypic behavior of pacing was significantly increased when a polar bear was
isolated from other bears. Pacing disappeared when polar bear interacted with a companion polar bear. The results
suggested that companionship decreased the frequency of stereotypic behaviors in polar bears.



Project Number: MBI026                                        Grade: 8
Title: If It's Watered Enough Will It Grow?
Abstract: In this experiment plant one was watered twice a week with one half cup of water. Plant two was watered
once a week with one half cup of water. This was done to see which plant would grow more depending on how often
it was watered. For two weeks the plants were watered accordingly. Then they were measured in inches the week
after they were watered. Plant one grew three inches and plant two grew one inch. Future experiments that could be
done are watering a plant different amount of time per week.


Project Number: MBI027                                           Grade: 7
Title: Over the Limit
Abstract: This experiment’s purpose is to see if crowding affects plant growth.
To conduct this experiment I gathered bean seeds, six pots, and a measuring cup. I planted some seeds close
together and some in the normal way. I observed and charted data. I measured the plants in centimeters.
The results were measured by growth of the plants. Crowded plants grew better for two trials. The noncrowded
plants grew better for the other. In my hypothesis, I thought the noncrowded plants would grow better for all trials.
The crowded plants grew better for three trials. I disagree with my hypothesis.


Project Number: MBI028                                         Grade: 8
Title: Electromagnetic Harm?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine how microwaves can affect human health. There were
two different types of beans planted, Fortex Pole beans and Cosse Violette beans. Half of the beans (10 of each kind)
were watered with tap water (control) and the other half were watered with microwaved water (variable). This process
continued for 20 days. The hypothesis stated that the beans that were watered with microwaved water would have
less beans sprout than the beans that were watered with tap water. However, this was not how the experiment
resulted.


Project Number: MBI029                                           Grade: 7
Title: Factors Affecting Short Term Memory
Abstract: I did this project because I was interested if age, gender, or education level affects short term memory.
I tested twenty-one participants’ memory by showing them two memory tests; one picture test and one ten word test.
The results showed that age didn’t have a dramatic effect in the results. In both of the tests females had better results
then males and the participants with a lower education level did better on both tests.
My hypothesis has been partly supported and partly denied. I learned that most participants did better on the picture
test than on the words test.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                        Page 18
                           Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBI030                                        Grade: 8
Title: Crossed Up!
Abstract: Does crossed hand/eye dominance affect basketball shooting percentages? If a group of players that
have crossed hand/eye dominance shoot a number of free throws, then the results will be higher than a group of
players with uncrossed hand/eye dominance shoots free throws. Participants were asked to complete a series of
shoots on a basketball court. Their eye/hand dominance was recorded along with the number of shots made. Data
analysis compared the two groups to determine the effect of had/eye dominance.


Project Number: MBI031                                               Grade: 8
Title: How Long do the Effects of Hand Sanitizer Last after Being Applied
Abstract: The problem of my experiment is to see how long the effects of hand sanitizer last. To solve this problem
I’m doing multiple trials to find out. My trials consist of taking bacterial samples from people and testing their sample
at different time intervals, having them put on a consistent amount of hand sanitizer, and I’ll swab their hands at the 5,
15 and 30 min. intervals. Afterwards I’ll place the sealed inoculated Petri dishes in an incubator. After growing them,
I’ll find out how much bacteria was on the swab. Finally, I’ll compare the results to find my answer.


Project Number: MBI032                                           Grade: 8
Title: What's all the hype???
Abstract: In my experiment, I wanted to see if kids could taste the differencec between name brand soda and
generic brand soda. It was interesting to see their answers for the questions I had asked them. Some people were
confused on what to do in my experiment. Some people tried to guess what kind of pop it was even after I told them.


Project Number: MBI033                                            Grade: 8
Title: Plant Growth and Storage Temperature
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBI034                                           Grade: 8
Title: What Is the Effect of a Deer's Age on Antler Size?
Abstract: This experiment best helps hunters because it will help them know that the older the buck the bigger the
antler size. The experiment tested the effect of a deer’s age on its antler size. The experiment tested 3 different age
classes of deer (3.5, 2.5, and 1.5). The experiment tested them by measuring the mass at the base in of the antler,
also it measured the length of the main beam, and it measured the antler spread. This all determined if age effected
antler size.


Project Number: MBI035                                             Grade: 7
Title: Melody and Memory
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to see how music affects a child’s ability to remember directions. I
conducted different sets of tests in which directions were first spoken and then sung using a familiar tune. Subjects
first put colored blocks in order and then subjects colored in blank blocks on a sheet of paper. In the first test 11 of 21
subjects got more incorrect when directions were sung. In the second set of tests, 7 of 13 subjects got more incorrect
when directions were sung. In my results, both the tests proved my hypothesis to be incorrect.


Project Number: MBI036                                            Grade: 7
Title: I Spy
Abstract: I conducted this experiment to find which factor makes a visual search the most challenging: greater
variations in color, symbol, or an increase in the number of distractions. I designed four sets of tests following the
above criteria plus a control. I then tested ten subjects. I determined an increase in distractions makes the search
most challenging.


Project Number: MBI037                                        Grade: 8
Title: Dominant Hand
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess whether or not a person's dominant hand correlates with
his/her dominant eye. I hypothesized that the dominant eye would be of the same side of the body as the dominant
hand. Upon assessing eight people's writing hand, their eyes were tested by using an eye chart. Upon completion of
the project, the complete abstract will be rendered.


PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                          Page 19
                           Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MBI038                                             Grade: 8
Title: Songs for the Heart
Abstract: I tested how music affect the heart rate. I used a blood pressure machine to find out the subject's resting
heart rate, heart rate while listening to classic music, and heart rate while listening to rock or dance music. I recorded
these findings on graphs.


Project Number: MBI039                                            Grade: 7
Title: Do You See What I See?
Abstract:


Project Number: MBI040                                           Grade: 7
Title: Ready Set Grow
Abstract: My project was developed to determine whether a plant grown hydroponically would develop more quickly
than a soil grown plant.
To begin my project, I did quite abit of research, and developed the hypothesis that hydroponic plants would grow
more quickly. To plant the beans, I had to get sand and soil for growing mediums. The sand requires a nutrient
solution, since it doesn't have many nutrients.
Once I planted the beans, I made sure to water them every day. The beans began to develop very quickly;
however,the hydroponically grown plants grew faster. My hypothesis was correct.


Project Number: MBI041                                             Grade: 8
Title: Natural Stink Bug Repellents
Abstract: The Purpose of my project is to see which naturally occurring and environmentally friendly repellent will
work the best to repel Stink Bugs. First I got a clear, plastic container. I mixed together 1mL of water with two drops of
essential oil. I put 10 active Stink Bugs in container and covered it with a screen. I spread the Repellent on the screen
and observed how many were repelled. I used cinnamon, garlic, lemon, lavender, and water as control. Eight of ten
bugs were repelled for Garlic, Cinnamon three, Lemon and Lavender 1, and control one. Garlic repelled the best.


Project Number: MBI042                                           Grade: 7
Title: Antimicrobial Effects of Streptomycin, Herbs & Spices
Abstract: Herbs and spices are daily ingredients used in food dishes. This work was intended to learn if herbs and
spices have antimicrobial properties that help fight bacteria. Four different herbs and spices were put on disks in petri
dishes that were inoculated with Bacillus-Cereus and the inhibition zone in millimeters was recorded. The results
showed that garlic had the best antimicrobial effect followed by streptomycin, oregano, and the rest were all 0. Future
work is planned to see if tested with other herbs and spices , will garlic still have the best inhibition zone?


Project Number: MBI043                                            Grade: 8
Title: Grow Big or Grow Home
Abstract: Growing plants is a common hobby enjoyed by many people. This experiment was intended to learn if
beans would be able to grow well in different types of soils: sand, top soil and peat moss. Six seeds were put into
each of the three different types of soils. Plants will be exposed to UV light for 12 hours a day and watered as
needed 3 to 4 times a week. The growth of the plants will be recorded daily for a period of 9 weeks. Findings will be
provided at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MBI044                                             Grade: 7
Title: Compost vs Chemical Fertilizer
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to determine if compost (organic fertilizer) would work as well as
chemical fertilizer in pea plant growth. I made compost from discarded vegetables from our farm. I grew pea plants in
soil, soil with chemical fertilizer and soil with compost. I compared plant height and color daily. At the end of 5 weeks,
the control (soil) had an average height of 130 mm while the compost average height was 142 mm and the chemical
fertilizer was 126 mm. My hypothesis was supported. Pea plants grown in soil with compost grew taller than those
grown in soil with chemical fertilizer.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                          Page 20
                            Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MBI045                                              Grade: 8
Title: Burn those Calories
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess what type of food has the most calories per gram. The
experimentor will create a calorimeter in order to test a list of common foods for their caloric content. This data will be
useful to consumers at many levels including; dieting, health purposes and athletes in training.


Project Number: MBI046                                            Grade: 8
Title: Does Music Affect the Growth of Plants?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see whether showtunes, classical or rock n' roll music helped
plants grow the best. The investigator grew garden bean seeds in 9 cups. There were three cups in each room and
the three cups were exposed to a different kind of music. I watered them each day with 120ml of water. Also, each
day I measured the tallest plant in each cup. I did this for one month. At the end of the month I concluded that overall,
on average, music did not affect the growth of plants.


Project Number: MBI047                                         Grade: 8
Title: Cell Phones and DNA damage
Abstract: Studies show conflicting results on the association between cell phone use and DNA damage. This work
is made to learn if DNA can be damaged by cell phone usage. The Comet Assay (or the DNA electrophoresis
chamber assay) and the Yeast Assay using nutrient agar were used. It was determined that cell phones do not cause
any DNA damage; evidence showed that there was no difference with cell phone exposure and controlled DNA.
Future work is planned to further demonstrate that cell phones do not cause DNA damage by using mutant yeast
strains exposed to cell phones.


Project Number: MBI048                                             Grade: 7
Title: Fertilizing Raphanus sativus
Abstract: Fertilizer has high impacts on plant growth, but does not always show positive results. This experiment
was performed to determine if a varied fertilizer application has positive or negative results on radish growth. 300
seeds were distributed into 300 peat pots filled with potting soil. There were 100 peat pots in each of the three
groups. One group remained unfertilized and was watered at the same rate as the other groups, while in the other
two groups the amount given to the plants per weekly period was varied. Growth of the plants were measured in
height, root mass, and plant mass which was then recorded and averaged. The hypothesis was proven because the
group with smaller more frequent doses of fertilizer did better than the group with several large doses of fertilizer.


Project Number: MBI050                                             Grade: 8
Title: The Effect of 10-10-10 on a plant
Abstract: Abstract: I chose this project because I have a hobby for plants. My project ( What is the effect of 10-10-10
on a plant) involves a fertilizer that is made up of 3 elements, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. I was happy to
say that the fertilizer increased the plant`s growth more than a plant that relies in water and photosynthesis.


Project Number: MBI051                                              Grade: 7
Title: The Effects of Miracle Gro
Abstract: I did this to see if Miracle Gro fertilizer works better that generic brand fertilizer or no fertilizer at all. I set
up the 15 pots. Put Miracle Gro fertilizer and generic brand soil in 5 pots. Put generic brand fertilizer and generic
brand soil in another set of 5 pots and generic brand soil only in the last pots. I planted 2 flower seeds in each pot
and watered every pot. I continued to water every other day and once a week I recorded the plant height. I observed
the pots for several weeks. Miracle Gro worked best overall.


Project Number: MBI052                                         Grade: 8
Title: How Does Color Affect Heart Rate
Abstract: What I did for my project is I recorded my subjects heart rate while they looked at different colors. I sat my
subjects down and monitored their heart rate while they stared at a computer monitor.


Project Number: MBI053                                          Grade: 8
Title: Let it Grow
Abstract: I did my project because it interested me. Growing plants interests me. It would help people who grow
plants because they would know which color light to use. I started with buying my materials. We got everything set up

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                              Page 21
                           Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade

to grow the plants. I measured the plants ever week. I made sure to keep the green light plants away from white light.
I recorded everything in my data book. On the last week when I measured, the green light plants were about seven
centimeters bigger than the white light plants. The green light plants grew bigger than the white plants.


Project Number: MBI054                                             Grade: 8
Title: Effect of Hormones on Plant Growth
Abstract: Nowadays, nearly all of the produce we buy from grocery stores is exposed to some kind of growth
enhancers. Studies show that consuming animal products that are injected with growth factors can lead to early
puberty and cancer. I performed an experiment to find out how hormones affect plant growth. I tested and observed
two identical plants, grown in exactly the same conditions except for the fact that one was enhanced by hormones.
These hormones seemed to make the plants grow faster and bigger. In addition, they also produced a greater yield.
Recently, in China, farmers grew melons that suddenly started exploding due to the chemical furcholorfenuron. They
claim that this enhancer only presents little health risk. But how little is little? Are we willing to risk the health of
millions?


Project Number: MBI056                                          Grade: 7
Title: How Does Age Affect Reaction Time?
Abstract: The reason for my experiment was to record participants reaction time’s to see if older people where
faster than younger people. The question to solve it is “How Does Age Affect Reaction Time”. I conducted my
experiment by gathering my materials and then telling the participants what they needed to do. After, I recorded my
results and drew a conclusion.The important facts were that overall the females had a quicker reaction time than
males. Also, my hypothesis was correct. My results show me that when I get older, my reaction time will be slower
than when I was younger.


Project Number: MBI057                                         Grade: 8
Title: Moon Phases and Behavior Problems (Is there a Connection?)
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess whether the phase of the moon impacts the behavior referrals
within our school. It was hypothesized that the phases of the moon will impact the amount of behavior issues within
my school. As the beginning of the moon calendar begins, the data from the school will be charted using an excel
spread sheet. As the experiment is completed the full abstract will be available at the science fair.


Project Number: MBI058                                            Grade: 7
Title: How types of light affect ant activity.
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MBI059                                           Grade: 7
Title: Tea Time
Abstract: Red, black, white, green, oolong, and yerba mate tea were steeped in 190 mL of distilled water for 5
minutes. A Hyalella Azteca was placed in dilutions of 0, 25, 50, and 75% for 10 minutes. Heart rate was recorded
before and after exposure to the varying types of tea. Yerba Maté tea created the greatest number of beats per
minute.


Project Number: MBI060                                         Grade: 7
Title: Hydroponics vs Soil
Abstract: This year my project talked about hydroponics. The purpose of my project was to test the comparison of
plant growth between hydroponics and soil. During my procedures, I planted basil, lettuce, and spinach into the Aero
Garden and the soil. I made sure all the plants also got enough water and light. After the experiment was over, the
results showed that the Aero Garden is a better way to grow plants. The percentage of growth for the Aero Garden
went from 30% to 100%. The percentage of growth for the soil was 20% to 30%.


Project Number: MBI061                                             Grade: 7
Title: Hair and Static Electricity
Abstract: The title of my experiment is "Hair and Static Electricity". The purpose is to see if the color of hair affects
the amount of static electricity it can carry. I researched that we have hair everywhere except for the palms of our
hands, our lips, and the soles of our feet. The imbalance of electrical charges between objects creates static


PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                          Page 22
                            Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade

electricity. I tested this by rubbing a balloon on a shirt and holding it above a person's head. I measured the length
of the raised hair for data. People will learn about hair and static electricity from this experiment.


Project Number: MBI062                                            Grade: 8
Title: Mold on Bread
Abstract: What enviornmental conditions can bread be stored to prevent molding? Bread will not mold in a cold,
light and dry environment. Final results will be available on Fair Day


Project Number: MBI063                                              Grade: 7
Title: How Do People In Rural India Get Clean Drinking Water
Abstract: How do people in rural India get clean drinking water? Purpose: Rural Indians frequently die from
waterborne diseases. My hypothesis is that methods like distillation and filtration can be used to purify water.
Procedure: Distillation and filtration using materials readily available in rural India will be used to purify stream water.
Test water will be compared clean filtered water and stream water and tested for turbidity and bacterial growth in
chicken broth. Data: Although distilled and filtered were free from turbidity, only distilled water was free from microbial
contaminants when compared to the controls. Conclusion: Distillation may be used to purify water for drinking in rural
India.


Project Number: MBI064                                             Grade: 7
Title: Boys vs. Girls Running A Mile
Abstract: This experiment was a way to help myself and others have a accurate answer of who, girls or boys can
finish a mile faster. All the boys and girls gathered in the gym. The girls went then the boys. In the end on average the
boys were faster but some of the girls were faster than some of the boys. Attitude truly does matter some people that
really worked hard did very well the others that didn't care didn't do so well. In the end I enjoyed learning about
runners as I myself am a runner so I leraned more about myself.


Project Number: MBI065                                            Grade: 8
Title: Do Different Liquids Affect Plant Growth?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to find out if watering plants with different liquids would affect plant
growth. I had 12 plants, 3 for each different liquid and watered them with the same amounts of water. I measured
heights and changes throughout the experiment. Overall, the plants in water grew the best out of gatorade, mountain
dew and orange juice.


Project Number: MBI066                                              Grade: 8
Title: Plant Growth
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to determine if gravity affects the way that the roots of plants grow. I will test
this by placing the seed openings in different directions and seeing which way the roots will grow. I will take sixteen
seeds and put them in bags that are marked north, south east and west. I will watch the seeds for a few weeks. Then
after the time is up, I will measure how long the roots grew in each bag and see what direction they are facing. My
hypothesis is I think that if I place the seeds with their opening facing in different directions, then the roots will grow in
the direction that their openings are facing .I think this because it is the easiest way to grow. Also the opening is
straight so the seed will grow straight.


Project Number: MBI067                                            Grade: 7
Title: DNA Fingerprinting
Abstract: I will show and discuss how DNA fingerprints are made by the use of gel electrophoresis. DNA fingerprints
are recorded from the migration distance of the dye samples being shown. It relates to the DNA’s molecular size and
net charge. I measured the varying distances the dyes moved in the agarose gel, which depends solely on the
molecular size. I will also discuss how DNA fingerprinting is relevant to Forensics, Biotechnology, and Genetics. I
learned that a person’s DNA is composed of several components.




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                     Intermediate – Biology (MBI) – 7th & 8th Grade




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PRSEF Student Abstracts                                               Page 24
                         Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCH001                                              Grade: 7
Title: What Affects Chemical Reactions?
Abstract: By studying substances and the chemical changes that can occur we can better understand chemical
reactions that occur in order to maintain life. 1 or 2 Polident tablets were dissolved in 150 ml. of water at 3 different
temperatures.Ten measurements were taken for each concentration and water temperature and the average reaction
time was reported. The original hypothesis was that concentration and temperature would have an effect on the rate
of the chemical reaction. Increasing temperature led to an increase of the speed in the reaction. Increasing
concentration did not affect the reaction rate.


Project Number: MCH002                                              Grade: 8
Title: pH Up, pH Down, pH Changing All Around!
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to see if the pH of juices would change over time. I tested the pH of
different juices over the period of 5 weeks. All of the juices' levels went back to the starting levels.


Project Number: MCH003                                              Grade: 7
Title: What will the carbonation of Coca-cola do to different nailes?
Abstract: The purpose of the experiment was for the investigator to find out how destructive the carbonation in
Coca-Cola is. The investigator put three different nails into nine different containers (3 of each). Then the
investigator put a quarter of a cup of Coca-cola in each container. Then she closed the lids. Next, the investigator
put them in a storage area. After a month of check the nails, the investigator concluded that the carbonation of the
Coca-cola effected six out of the nine nails. It did not affect the brass nails. Therefore, brass is the most durable.


Project Number: MCH004                                     Grade: 7
Title: What Factors Affect Chemical Reaction Times?
Abstract: Chemical reaction times were measured after manipulating 1) reactant temperature only 2) reactant
particle size only and 3)solution type only.


Project Number: MCH005                                            Grade: 8
Title: Citris Acid & Electricity
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess the ability of different citrus acids to conduct electricity. It is
hypothesized that the stronger the citrus acid, the better the conductivity will be. A circuit will be built to assess the
conductivity of each acid chosen. In order the analyze the data, a chart and subsequent graph will be produced.
There are many applications, which this data can be used for including biological and energy uses.


Project Number: MCH006                                              Grade: 7
Title: Will It Chip When You Dip?
Abstract: My experiment asked if a certain kind of nail polish would last longer. During my experiment I asked
family and friends to wear different kinds of nail polish. collect data of what days the nail polish chips and the different
activities they did that day. I also interviewed professional nail artists asking their opinion about the better polishes. I
found out that some polishes have chemicals that cause cancer, but the new nail polishes are made without the
chemical. So do not buy the cheap nail polish from 5 below and claires, but buy the nail polish from opi and insta-dri.
OPi and Insta-Dri are the better ones to go with.


Project Number: MCH007                                            Grade: 8
Title: Burning the Midnight Oil
Abstract: My project is 'Burning the Midnight Oil'. In my project I am burning oil to see which oil produces the least
soot. When I find this out I hope to tell which could be used as a different intermediate energy source.


Project Number: MCH008                                         Grade: 8
Title: Acidic Reactions
Abstract: This experiment was to combine an acid with baking soda. It was chosen because I find great interest in
chemical reactions. I did this experiment by dumping baking soda into a container with an acid in it. From here,
people may go on to test other acids to see which has the highest reaction.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                            Page 25
                        Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCH009                                          Grade: 7
Title: Power Up
Abstract: Two copper electrodes and a temperature probe were placed into 300 mL of the drink being tested. A
circuit containing a Dc power source was constructed and an ammeter was used to record voltage. Orange juice
carried the most current and therefore contains the most electrolytes.


Project Number: MCH010                                          Grade: 7
Title: Ice Ice Baby!
Abstract: 20ml of tap water will be placed in a container and frozen for 48 hrs. before being removed and placed in
a funnel positioned in a modified graduated cylinder. 10 grams of ice melting agents were applied to the ice. A timer
was used to record the amount of time needed to melt the block of ice. The amount of melted water was recorded
every minute. Peladow ice melt melted the ice the fastest.


Project Number: MCH011                                             Grade: 7
Title: Food Preservation
Abstract: The problem is, out of aluminum foil, wax paper, plastic wrap, or baggies, which will prevent an apple from
spoiling faster? It is hypothesized that out of those products, an apple will spoil and rot faster when covered in
aluminum foil. A brief procedure of the experiment is as follows: I will take 1 medium sized apple and cut it into 4
slices. I will take each slice of the apple and wrap it into each of the 4 wrappings. I will stick each wrapped apple
slice into the refrigerator for 24 hourse. I will then open the wrapped apples, record my data, and repeat the same
process 4 additional times. From this data, I will analyze and draw my conclusion. The results did not support my
hypothesis.


Project Number: MCH012                                           Grade: 8
Title: How Safe Is Your Cup?
Abstract: My project is proving the health risks of using Styrofoam cups. To do it, get 150mL of water in a Styrofoam
cup and weigh it. Then, heat the water on the stove. After, pour it back into the cup and place a lid over it. Finally,
weigh it. Styrofoam is popular for hot beverages. There is a lot of debate whether toxins get into your drink. They
have done research and found that it does get into your cup, but only 0.025%. I can conclude that the cup does get
into your drink, causing it to weigh more.


Project Number: MCH013                                          Grade: 8
Title: Mysteries Behind Ice Cream
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCH014                                           Grade: 8
Title: Get Out!
Abstract: This experiment determined what solvent will best remove permanent ink from cloth. The procedure used
was: five pieces of cloth were labeled with the type of solvent, and marked with eight lines, representing eight trials.
Solvents were applied to each cloth and sat for 30 minutes. Cloths were rinsed and run through a washing machine.
Observations were recorded. The samples were treated and washed three times. Rubbing alcohol removed more ink
than the other solvents. The remaining solvent rankings follow: nail polish remover, baking soda and toothpaste.
Though no solvents tested completely removed the ink, the experiment wasn't a failure.


Project Number: MCH016                                            Grade: 7
Title: Super Soaker
Abstract: The problem is: by spilling motor oil in water, will sawdust, human hair, sheep's wool, or feathers absorb
the most oil within 24 hours. It is hypothesized that if the same amount of motor oil is spilled in the same amount of
water, then sawdust will clean up more oil than hair, feathers, or sheep's wool. A brief procedure of the experiment is
as follows: Equal amounts of oil and water will be poured into four separate containers marked A-D. Sawdust will be
then placed into container A, human hair in B, feathers in C, and sheep's wool in D. After 24 hours, measurements
will be taken to determine which substance absorbed the most oil. This procedure will be completed three times in
order to verify the original findings. Data will be recorded and analyzed. The results did not support the hypothesis.
Human hair actually absorbed the most oil.




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                         Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCH017                                              Grade: 8
Title: How Clean is Clean?
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to determine what type of hand sanitizer removes the most germs from a
person’s hands. After the protocol papers were filled out, permission slips were distributed and collected. After
collecting materials, the participants were given GLO lotion to rub throughout their hands. Then, the areas of the
lotion that were glowing on their hand were counted to determine the areas of germs. This process was completed
using three hand sanitizers, each three times. In conclusion, the results were inconclusive, although one was more
effective than the others; the results were different in the testing’s.


Project Number: MCH019                                             Grade: 7
Title: Which Substance Reduces the Acidity of lactic Acid
Abstract: Athletes suffer from muscle soreness and fatigue when lactic acid builds up during exertion. This
experiment determined which substance reduces the acidity of lactic acid with the smallest quantity. 14g of
substances commonly marketed to reduce lactic acid (NaHCO3, CaCO3, MgCO3) were individually added in 0.5g
increments to lactic acid (pH 1.2) and the pH measured. NaHCO3 raised the pH of the lactic acid to 6.6, CaCO3 to
5.7 and MgCO3 to 3.4. NaHCO3 , commonly known as baking soda, reduced the acidity of lactic acid the best.
Further studies can clarify if taking it can help athletes’ performances.


Project Number: MCH020                                        Grade: 8
Title: Got Milk?
Abstract: To determine the amount of calcium in 1%, 2%, Fat Free, Vitamin D, Silk Soy, Silk Almond, Rice, Organic
Soy, and Goat Milk, a an EDTA process was used. The EDTA was dripped through a buret above a solution of
chemicals and milk. The solution changed color from red to blue after being mixed with the EDTA. An equation of the
molarity and volume of the EDTA and milk was made. The product was multiplied by the atomic weight of calcium to
determine the amount of calcium. Silk Soy Milk contained the most calcium and Goat Milk contained the least.


Project Number: MCH021                                         Grade: 7
Title: Does This Smell Funny? Ozone vs. Odor
Abstract: My experiment was to work with odors. One hypothesis was that odors could be either masked or
removed. I developed a scale for judging the intensity and offensiveness of the odor. Samples were ranked before
and after two rounds of treatment. Samples were treated with ozone, treated with a masking agent, or control.
The data showed that the masking agent was effective. After two rounds of treatment, ozone was not. When a
smaller treatment area was used, it worked. The odors were both removed and masked. Another conclusion was
that odors are subjective and studying odors can be complex.


Project Number: MCH022                                          Grade: 7
Title: Stain Stain Go Away
Abstract: In my project, Stain Stain Go Away, I tested which product out of Shout, Oxi- Clean, Oxi-Magic, Baking
Soda, and Borax, would clean grape juice out of a carpet. The carpet I chose was made out of nylon.At the end of my
observations, Oxi-Clean cleaned the carpet the fasted out of the others, but after I let them sit after pouring water,
rubbing and vacumming them they all got clean.( I let them sit for about six hours and then they all became clean.)


Project Number: MCH023                                           Grade: 8
Title: POP! Which has more carbonation Diet Coke, Coke, or Sprite
Abstract: I tested three kinds of pop to determine which type had the greatest amount of carbonation. The bottles
were shaken and a balloon was placed over the cap before it was removed. After it was removed, the carbonation left
the bottle traveling into the balloon. The balloon became larger as it filled with carbonation. I measured the size the
balloons reached ar their largest point to determine which type had the most carbonation. The Coca Cola had the
most carbonation because the balloons were largest; the Diet Coke had the least amount of carbonation because the
balloons were smallest.


Project Number: MCH024                                              Grade: 7
Title: Broccoli and Vitamin C
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to find out which method of cooking broccoli retains the most vitamin
C. For my procedure, I first cooked the broccoli using different methods of cooking. Then I processed the broccoli to
make it a liquid, and I put the liquids into 15 test tubes. Next, using a starch solution with iodine, I dropped one drop
of the starch solution into one of the test tubes. If the liquid changed color, I recorded, but if it did not, I kept adding

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                           Page 27
                        Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

drops until it changed. The best method of cooking was the steamed broccoli and the worst was microwaving it. This
means that all the other methods decreased the amount of vitamin C.



Project Number: MCH025                                           Grade: 8
Title: The Wrap on Bad Apples
Abstract: My experiment ‘The Wrap On “Bad Apples”’ investigates the differences in permeability of the two leading
polymers—polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene—used in kitchen plastic wraps, to protect food from spoiling. The
investigation includes tests related to oxidation and evaporation. This experiment includes testing wedges of apples
as well as measuring cups of water over time using the two wraps compared to the constant of no wrap. I predict that
polyvinyl chloride is less permeable to oxygen and, therefore, prevents oxidation the best. While polyethylene is less
permeable to water vapor and, therefore, prevents evaporation best.


Project Number: MCH026                                          Grade: 7
Title: Freeze It
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to see which beverage freezes fastest. The investigator proposed that
beverages with the lowest concentration of sugar and salt would freeze first. Thirty milliliters of each beverage were
poured into 10 ice cube trays and placed in the freezer. Beverages included Gatorade, Coca Cola, water, milk,
cranberry juice and Rockstar. In series I, trays were sampled every 10 minutes for 100 minutes. In series II sampling
time was increased to 30-minute intervals. Freezing occurred in the following order - water, milk, Gatorade, Coca
Cola, Rockstar and cranberry juice and correlated with salt and sugar concentrations.


Project Number: MCH027                                          Grade: 8
Title: The Great Electrolyte Challenge
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCH028                                             Grade: 7
Title: Evidence Wiped Clean
Abstract: Purpose: To see if multi-purpose cleaners and multi-purpose oxygen cleaners actually clean blood from
crime scenes.Procedure:
1. I’m using two multi-purpose, oxygen cleaners and two multi-purpose, non-oxygen cleaners.
2. I stained the surfaces, tile, wood, and carpet, with synthetic blood.
3. I cleaned the surfaces with the cleaners.
4. I sprayed luminol on the surfaces in a darkened room to see if traces of blood were visible.
5. I recorded the data
Data: Blood could still be seen on some surfaces, but not all. Conclusion: Oxygen cleaners work better at cleaning
blood from a crime scene than other cleaners.


Project Number: MCH029                                           Grade: 8
Title: Tempering Chocolate
Abstract: The problem is what type of chocolate will temper the best? The goal of this experiment is to find out
which type of chocolate tempers the best by looking at the consistency. The hypothesis is if I temper different types of
chocolate then the milk chocolate with have the best consistency. The researcher must first temper the chocolate, set
aside the sample in refrigerator, and repeat steps with the other chocolate. I will analyze the data by comparing the
samples of chocolate to determine which chocolate tempered the best.


Project Number: MCH030                                          Grade: 8
Title: pH, Sports Drinks & Tooth Decay
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that acidic beverages such as sports drinks and soda have added acids that
can cause demineralization leading to tooth decay. Research showed that the most common acids used in such
drinks are citric, phosphoric, and carbonic acids. This experiment was conducted to see which drink would cause the
most tooth decay. Thirty sterilized teeth were obtained from an oral surgeon. Several homemade sports drinks were
included in this study. Before the experiment was started the mass of the teeth was taken using a digital balance and
the pH of each drink was taken with a pH meter. The teeth were soaked in the 9 different acidic drinks and the
control group, water, for 1 week. After soaking for one week, each tooth was taken out, the mass of the teeth was
taken and the pH of each beverage was measured. The mass of each tooth was again taken and the pH recorded.


PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                       Page 28
                          Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

My research found lemonade, which contained citric acid, caused the greatest amount of tooth decay in this
experiment.


Project Number: MCH031                                              Grade: 7
Title: Chemical Color Reaction
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to determine the different effects of the chemicals when they are burned to
make the different colors of flames. In my project I’m taking the pinecones and soaking them in the bag with the
different chemicals. Then I will take it out of the bag and put it on the fireplace and I will set it on fire. I will sit there
and observe. If I burn pinecones that were soaked in different chemicals then they will produce different colors of fire
that will cause various amounts of damage. I think that Cupric Chloride will be the hottest because to me blue the
hottest out of all the other colors.


Project Number: MCH032                                          Grade: 8
Title: Does an Ice Cube's pH Affect Melting Time?
Abstract: For my science fair project, I did an experiment to see if adding substances that each had a different pH to
water and then freezing the water into ice would affect how long it took the ice cubes to melt.


Project Number: MCH033                                              Grade: 8
Title: Boiling Over the Top
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment is to find out which of the six liquids boils the fastest and does cooking
macaroni in different liquids change the flavor. The procedures will be to take one of the six liquids, boil it, record the
data for that liquid, and then repeat the process with all six liquids. Then I will cook the macaroni in all of the liquids
and see if the different liquids change the flavor. Research is still being conducted so no hypothesis has been
determined. No conclusion has been determined since the testing has not been done. Final abstract will be ready at
my exhibit on Fair Day.


Project Number: MCH034                                          Grade: 8
Title: Effect of Different Factors on Evaporation
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see what factor would dry up 30 ml. of water in a total of 4 hrs. I
had three pie plates A, B , and C they all had 30ml in them then pie plate A in front of a 24 inch fan and then pie plate
B was set under a heat lamp and then pie plate C was set in a room with just a 60% humidity. This could be helpful
for when you might have a flood in your basement because I would use the fan.


Project Number: MCH035                                          Grade: 8
Title: Does the Amount of Chlorine in Water Change?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the time of day, day of the week, location and
temperature effects the amount of chlorine in tap water. The investigator tested the chlorine levels in the tap water
under all of these various conditions. She concluded that cold tap water had more chlorine in it.


Project Number: MCH036                                              Grade: 8
Title: Wood Wars
Abstract: Wood is often used in the making of personal watercrafts like canoes and small boats. The purpose of this
project is to test the buoyancy of five different species of wood: red oak, cherry, pine, walnut and maple. After being
dried in a kiln, the wood blocks will be placed in a container full of water and then weighed down with lead sheets.
Results of my experiment will be available at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MCH037                                            Grade: 7
Title: Bubbly Hard
Abstract: In my experiment, I wanted to find out which water type is the hardest; tap, bottled, or distilled. I
hypothesized that tap water was the hardest. I took three containers with two line drawn and poured each water type
to the first line. I then added one drop of soap at a time, shaking until the bubbles reached the top line. I recorded
how many drops of soap it took to reach the top lone and picked the water type that used the most. My conclusion is
that tap water is the hardest. I proved my hypothesis true.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                               Page 29
                        Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCH038                                           Grade: 8
Title: Colors Dry!
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to find out how fast paint dries. To do this, 3 mediums (fabric, poster
board, and canvas), temperatures (70º, 80º, and 30º), and types of paint (acrylic, tempera, and fabric) are selected.
The procedure is to paint three different mediums with five different colors of paint (red, yellow, green, yellow, blue,
and white) in the three different temperatures. The paints are checked until dry at selected time intervals, recording
the observations and time data. The paint that dried the fastest in this experiment was the white tempera paint, in the
70º room , on fabric.


Project Number: MCH039                                        Grade: 7
Title: Wine be Gone
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment is to find which carpet cleaner cleans the best out of four options. I first
poured the wine on each carpet sample and then cleaned the sample accordingly to the directions on each cleaner.
The Resolve® cleaner performed the best, getting most of the samples clean. The Woolite® performed very similar,
showing few stained samples. The Spot Shot® cleaner was the third greatest, having few clean but not horribly
stained samples. Austin’s® performed the worst, leaving some of the samples stained. In conclusion, I found that
Resolve® showed the best results.


Project Number: MCH040                                             Grade: 8
Title: Ice Cold
Abstract: The goal of this experiment was to freeze four different temperatures of water to find out if hot water
freezes faster than cold water. Sixty milliliters of water, heated to selected temperature, were placed into cups. Then
the samples were placed in the freezer and checked every ten minutes until the temperature reached 0 degrees
Celsius. The results were that the hot water temperatures drop faster than cold. However, they take a little longer to
freeze. Further experiments could test why 75 degrees Celsius took the longest to freeze.


Project Number: MCH041                                          Grade: 7
Title: In what ways does rust form?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to find out which liquid rusts nails the most. Several different solutions
were used and the screws were monitored weekly to check for rust.


Project Number: MCH042                                          Grade: 8
Title: Water Filtration Effectiveness
Abstract:


Project Number: MCH043                                           Grade: 8
Title: How Low Can You GO?
Abstract: Instant cold packs are a great way to treat minor bumps and bruises. This experiment is intended to
question if changing the amount of ammonium nitrate dissolved in water will affect temperature. The measurements
of .5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5 g of ammonium nitrate were dissolved in 50 ml of water seven times. Those seven
trials were repeated. A thermometer was used to measure the temperature in degrees Celsius before starting, every
15 seconds, and when the temperature stabilized. The results show that the samples with more ammonium nitrate
got the coldest.


Project Number: MCH044                                              Grade: 8
Title: Antacids on pH of Gastric Juice
Abstract: Antacids are commonly used to prevent and treat an upset stomach, heartburn, GERD (Gastro
esophageal reflux disease), and indigestion. Three trials were conducted for each of the 10 Antacids tested and the
control group, water. (33 trials in all). The gastric juice was heated to body temperature. The pH was measured and
recorded every 20 seconds for 10 minutes and the average was taken of each the 3 trials. Equate with calcium
carbonate and magnesium hydroxide raised the pH of the gastric juice most effectively and fastest. This experiment
can be used to help people to know which antacid to take if they need a fast, effective result to alleviate pain.




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                        Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCH045                                              Grade: 7
Title: Meltdown
Abstract: Ice build-up during winter months can cause hazardous conditions on steps and sidewalks. If ice can be
melted quickly these problems could be eliminated. The purpose of my project is to determine which material will melt
ice faster as a replacement for rock salt. I collected snow, melted it and re-froze it. I put one of my experimental
materials; fertilizer, gravel, rock salt or sea salt on my ice samples. I placed the samples in the freezer at varying
temperatures to determine which would melt the ice best. Results indicate that sea salt melted the ice fastest
regardless of temperature.


Project Number: MCH046                                              Grade: 8
Title: Temp. on Chemiluminescence
Abstract: Based upon research on chemiluminescence, this investigation studied the effect of temperature on
chemiluminescence as determined by the duration of glow time and intensity of light emitted from four colors of
chemical light sticks. Four light sticks of each of the four colors were housed in water baths of the following
temperatures: 0, 10, 20 (room temperature), 30, and 40 degrees Celsius. To measure the light sticks, the investigator
created a closed system of her own design. The luminescence of each light stick was measured at 1-hour intervals
for 8 hours and recorded. After activating the light sticks, to slow down the chemical reaction, housing them in
freezing temperatures will lengthen the duration of the luminescence. Also, increase of temperature maximizes the
intensity of the light stick’s luminescence. Miners, firefighters, and those working with hazardous chemicals and
explosives would find the results of this experiment crucial because light sticks act as their sole light source in these
situations.


Project Number: MCH047                                          Grade: 7
Title: Let It Rise
Abstract: I chose to highlight chemical leavening, the chemical reaction of baking soda and an acid releasing CO2
gas. I attempted to prove a dry, acidic ingredient would cause a slower chemical reaction and cause the greatest
leavening in a cupcake. Cupcakes were made using a common recipe including baking soda and 3 different acid
ingredients. The height of the cupcakes were measured and compared to a control trial made without an acid. The
data showed that all cupcakes with acid did rise higher than the control. The results showed that the dry acid
ingredient caused the largest amount of leavening.


Project Number: MCH048                                              Grade: 7
Title: Forensic Chemistry
Abstract: The problem is: Does lugol's iodine, iron nitrate, and sodium hydroxide help to identify unknown crystals
dissolved in water?
It is hypothesized that, by adding iron nitrate, sodium hydroxide, and lugol's iodine separately into each substance, a
particular color will identify the substance.
A brief procedure of the experiment is as follows: I will put distilled water in a reaction plate, and then dissolve four
different solutes in each ones assigned row. I will then add the appropriate chemical to each row. Then I will record
the data, and repeat five times.
The results did support the hypothesis.


Project Number: MCH049                                          Grade: 8
Title: How to make a steam engine more eficiant
Abstract: How do different “fuels” in a steam engine effect the efficiency of the engine? To test this I used a
homemade steam engine model and 6 different fuels. A magnetic counter recorded the RPMs of the engine while
running on the different fuels. Results were collect and compared to determine efficiency of the steam engine.


Project Number: MCH050                                           Grade: 8
Title: Can You C What I C
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCH051                                       Grade: 7
Title: On Cloud Nine
Abstract: Clabber Girl, Rumford, and Great Value were used to determine which brand of baking powder would
produce the fluffiest pancake. 34 grams of pancake batter was poured into an egg pan and cooked for 4 minutes on
each side. The pancake was then removed and cooled for 5 minutes before being massed and measuring the

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                        Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

thickness. A mathematical formula was used to determine the density to determine which brand of baking powder
created the lightest pancake. Great value created the lightest pancake while Rumford double acting aluminum free
baking powder created the most dense pancake.



Project Number: MCH052                                           Grade: 7
Title: Antacid Tablets, Liquids, and pH Levels, Oh My!
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to see if the pH levels of different liquids are affected by antacid tablets.
To conduct this experiment I will place an antacid tablet in several liquids and use pH strips to record the ph level.
The experimental results were measured by observing to see if the pH levels of the liquids changed by placing
antacid tablets in them. The results of the experiment concluded that the pH levels of the liquids either decrease by .5
or stayed the same. The results indicated that my hypothesis should be accepted because the pH levels changed or
stayed the same.


Project Number: MCH053                                          Grade: 7
Title: The Greener Drain Cleaner
Abstract: Commercial drain cleaners are corrosive to the sewage system, polluting our rivers and water supply.
While visiting ALCOSAN’s Open House about waste water treatment last fall, I found that household chemicals are
discharged into our rivers. This led me to investigate which drain cleaner unclogs blockages most effectively and
causes least damage to the environment. By replicating blockage material, completing multiple trials with varying
blockages, and testing pH and Turbidity of the resulting mixture, I concluded that the home solution of a baking soda
and vinegar combination cleared blockages best and was the least harmful to the environment.


Project Number: MCH054                                            Grade: 7
Title: I Ran Out of Batteries
Abstract: Batteries are very important, so why waste it on stuff that does not require so much of it? Three kinds of
batteries were "invented," two of the three succeeded in powering an led light but required more quantity to power
things with higher voltage (the voltage was measured). The batteries were made from food, as an advantage of it
being available forever. One was called the "potato battery," "film canister battery," and a bigger replica of the film
canister battery called the "container battery." The batteries are working today and future work will determine how
long the batteries last.


Project Number: MCH055                                               Grade: 7
Title: Which Soft Drink Has the Most Carbonation?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find out which soft drink has the most carbonation: Mountain Dew,
Coca-Cola, Dr. Pepper, or Sprite. The investigator cooled all of the soft drinks in the refrigerator overnight. When
she took them out of the refrigerator, she took the lid off the first bottle. Then she put a balloon secured with a rubber
band around it. After that she shook the botle vigorously seven times, waited 45 seconds, and then measured the
circumference of the balloon. After all of the bottles were tested, she found out that Coca-Cola had the most
carbonation twice, and Sprite had the most four times. The investigator concluded that Sprite has the most
carbonation.


Project Number: MCH056                                          Grade: 8
Title: How Temperature Affects Glow Sticks
Abstract: Glow sticks were put in the freezer, refrigerator, and boiling water while one was left at room temperature.
They were broken and put back into the condition they were started in (i.e. put back into boiling water after broken,
etc). Time was recorded when light was extinguished. The hotter the temperature of the glow stick, the brighter the
glow but the shorter the time until the glow was extinguished.




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                         Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCH057                                            Grade: 8
Title: Fuel of the Future
Abstract: My experiment was to determine if new or used oil makes a better biodiesel. The process started with
research before creating the biodiesel. This included titrating, mixing Sodium Hydroxide with Methanol to create
Sodium Methoxide, and then creating the biodiesel. I tested using the 3/27 test as well as a cloud test. The new oil
was better; it made more biodiesel per 100 mL of oil proving my hypothesis correct. The used oil made quality
biodiesel. However, it required more oil to make the same amount of biodiesel. This means less oil contaminating soil
or going into landfills.


Project Number: MCH058                                          Grade: 7
Title: Aspirin Absorption in Carbonated Solutions
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to find out which solution with aspirin has the highest pH. The
investigator puts water in three cups. They then put sugar in one cup and corn starch in the other. Then, they
recored the pH every minute for five minutes. Write down the pH and repeat this procedure ten times.


Project Number: MCH059                                              Grade: 8
Title: Hydrogen Under the Heat
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to see if the temperature that a hydrogen fuel cell was running at
would determine how long it would run. I obtained a fuel cell, then tested it in three different temperatures cold, hot,
and room temperature. To test the hot temperature, I just put the fuel cell in a cardboard box with a light turned on.
To test the cold temperature, I put the fuel cell in the refrigerator. Then I tied how long it took for the fuel cell to stop
spinning the motor that it was hooked up to. In the end my hypothesis was correct that the fuel cell would run longest
at room temperature.


Project Number: MCH060                                           Grade: 8
Title: Saving the World, One hydrolyzer at a time
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess whether hydrogen can be produced using a homemade water
splitting device known as a hydrolyzer. The experimentor will create a homemade hydrolyzer using instructions found
on the internet. The results of this experiment can be useful for several reasons within the alternative fuel research
community.


Project Number: MCH061                                             Grade: 8
Title: Get Well
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCH062                                            Grade: 7
Title: Which Salt Melts the Most Ice?
Abstract: My purpose is to find which compound for melting ice is most effective in decreasing the thickness of ice
and melting it rapidly. I used table salt, rock salt, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. I put 35 g of each salt on
four different blocks of ice, the placed them in the freezer and checked them at 15 minute increments up to a period
of an hour. I repeated this 4 times. Calcium chloride melted 376.5 mL of water, table salt melted 269 mL,
magnesium chloride melted 137.1 mL and rocks salt melted 71.2 mL.


Project Number: MCH063                                          Grade: 8
Title: Cleaning Ground Water
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess whether several samples of water can be cleaned using a
homemade filter system. The experimentor will create a filtration system using a series of levels of rocks. The
results of this test may be useful to people who cannot access clean drinking water. The full abstract will be available
at the Science competition.


Project Number: MCH064                                           Grade: 7
Title: Does M Stand for Melt or Maintain?
Abstract: Which M&M color will melt the fastest? By testing yellow, green and red M&M's in a 1100 watt microwave
I determine which color will melt the at the quickest rate. My hypothesis is that the red M&M will melt the fastest
because Benjamin Franklin discovered that the darker the color cloth, the deeper it sank into the snow.


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                        Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MCH065                                           Grade: 8
Title: Fizzy or Flat?
Abstract: The whole goal out of this experiment is to see what most common types of pop go flat the fastest and
why it goes flat. My conclusion is that Mountain Dew stays fizzy the longest. The reason why all the other pops went
flat was because of carbonation. When first pour out pop from a bottle it fizzes. That’s because of the carbon dioxide
in the bottle. When you open it the gas is released but when it’s closed the gas stays inside. If you let pop stay out it
gives it time for the carbon dioxide to escape causing it to become flat. That is my project on pop and Carbonation.


Project Number: MCH066                                             Grade: 8
Title: The Fuel Cycle of the Future
Abstract: The conversion of solar energy to hydrogen by electrolysis is a very interesting ways to achieve clean and
renewable energy systems. This experiment was intended to observe how efficient a cobalt-based catalyst can be at
helping to form molecular oxygen and hydrogen, that produce heat and electricity. A circuit was built on a
breadboard. Nickel electrodes were immersed into a pH7 phosphate buffer. Cobalt nitrate was added to the buffer
solution to form a catalyst. The baseline efficiency, without the catalyst, was compared to the baseline efficiency with
the catalyst. We found that more electricity could be produced with the catalyst rather than without.



Project Number: MCH067                                            Grade: 8
Title: From Flowers To Ink
Abstract: The Problem that I am investigating is: Does Liquid or Powder Pigment Ink made from flower petals
produce the more durable ink? To conduct this experiment, I made both kinds of ink. Then I tested the inks with
sunlight, heat, rain water, distilled water, humidity, smudging/smearing, and fingernail scratches to see which ink was
more durable. The results were measured on a scale from one to ten. I rejected my hypothesis because the Liquid
method produced the more durable ink.


Project Number: MCH068                                          Grade: 7
Title: Which Materials Burn the Fastest
Abstract: My experiment tested which materials burn the fastest. I burned cotton, polyester, rayon, nylon, and
nomex. My hypothisis was the cotton would burn the fastest. I tested cotton first. It burned in 7:12. It also had black
smoke. I tested polyester second. It melted (not buned) in 3:30. Then we burned rayon. It had little flames and burned
in 5:30. Then finnaly we burned nomex. It didnt burn or melt though. Next time, I might use different materials or use
diffrent colors. It was interesting.


Project Number: MCH069                                         Grade: 7
Title: Indigestion Is The Question
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine which antacid (base) is most effective in treating
indigestion. When combined with stomach acid (lemon juice) a chemical reaction occurs neutralizing the acid,
relieving the symptoms of indigestion. 15 mL of Tums, Alka-Seltzer and Maalox were added to 30 mL of lemon juice.
The pH levels of all substances were measured with a digital pH indicator before and after they were combined. The
antacid which brought the pH closest to neutral (7) was the most effective. Alka-Seltzer with a pH of 5.6 was the most
effective antacid.


Project Number: MCH070                                             Grade: 7
Title: Food VS. Diabetics
Abstract: My father is a diabetic and he has to check his blood, because it can’t be too high or low. I want to learn
the difference of change in some of the foods he eats. Test subject took their blood sugar before eating, and 1, 2, and
3, hours after eating. I recorded their blood sugar level. After eating the proteins I calculated percentage of blood
sugar changes. My hypothesis was partially correct. Tuna fish caused the blood sugar to go down the most but the
chicken went down the least.


Project Number: MCH071                                            Grade: 8
Title: Measure the Rainbow
Abstract: The question I was trying to solve was “Is standard food coloring used to dye M&M’s® and Skittles®?” Cut
coffee filters into three inch by one inch rectangles to use as chromatography paper. Extract the dye from the
Skittles® and M&M’s®. Dab the dye onto the paper. Put a spot of dye on the paper and place the paper in the solvent

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                         Page 34
                        Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade

for 40 seconds. Calculate the Rf value. Repeat the steps for the Skittles®, M&M’s®, and food coloring. For my
results, I compared the Rf values of the candies and the food coloring. The dye components were different.


Project Number: MCH072                                            Grade: 8
Title: Supercooling Water
Abstract: Water is an important part of our life. Without it, there wouldn’t be any living species in the world.
Whenever you take a long, cold road trip, you wonder if you should bring bottled water or tap water. This experiment
will show which type of water you should take. The water that takes longer to freeze is the type of water you should
use.


Project Number: MCH073                                         Grade: 7
Title: Juice-C-Juice
Abstract: A starch indicator solution was added to eight store brand juice products to determine the amount of
vitamin C. White Grapefruit provided the least amount of vitamin C while Orange juice contained the greatest amount.


Project Number: MCH074                                           Grade: 7
Title: Does Dying Hair Affect its Strength?
Abstract: The purpose of the experiment was to determine whether dying hair affected its strength. Individual
strands of untreated hair from three subjects were tied to a cup and pennies were placed into the cup until the strand
broke. The strands were then dyed and the procedure was repeated. The majority of the hair samples for all three
subject showed that the dyed hair was either the same or stronger as the untreated hair. The results did not support
the hypothesis because the data suggested that instead of chemically damaging the hair, the strands were equally
strong or stronger.


Project Number: MCH075                                              Grade: 8
Title: How Fast Do You Fizz
Abstract: The question I was trying to solve was “Will changing the particle size have a measurable effect on the
chemical reaction rate?” Use a measuring cup to add 236mL of water to a glass. Place tape outside of the glass to
mark the water level. Measure the temperature of the water. Drop the tablet in the water and start the stopwatch. Stir
at a slow, constant speed with a spoon. Stop the stopwatch. Record information. Repeat. I calculated the amount of
time it took the tablet to dissolve. The full tablet took the longest, then the halves, thirds, and fourths.


Project Number: MCH076                                         Grade: 7
Title: How pH Effects the Rate of Copper Dissolution
Abstract: Pennies were allowed to sit in solutions with a wide range of pH values. The copper concentration of
these solutions were then evaluated.


Project Number: MCH077                                          Grade: 8
Title: Ancient Battery
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to inestigate as to whether the object known as the "Bagdad Battery"
could really have been used in the ancient world as a battery. The experiemtor will create a reproduction of the
Bagdad Battery. The data will be recorded and analyzed. The results of this investigation will be useful in
understanding the civilization which this device was used.


Project Number: MCH078                                              Grade: 8
Title: The Magic of Photochemistry
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether incandescent, fluorescent, a grow light or LED
light would have the biggest effect on the chemical reaction of iodine-ammonium-oxalate. To conduct this
experiment, I must set up a place where each test tube solution I made can be exposed to one of these lights without
interruption for 5 hours. I will compare them to a scale of standard solutions I made, numbered 1-6. The
experimental results were measured and as I predicted, the grow light faded the solution the most. The results of the
experiment show that the grow light faded the solution the most. Fluorescent light faded the solution the second most,
and the incandescent and LED lights barely faded the solution at all. These results indicated that my hypothesis
should be accepted.
I think this project is important because it will help people be a little more educated about the importance of light in
our everyday lives.

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                        Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade



Project Number: MCH079                                           Grade: 8
Title: Is It Really Blood?
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to discover if the Kastle-Meyer test for blood always proves accurate when
something has traces of blood in it or looks like blood, and what substances can trigger a false positive. Also, it is to
investigate the chemistry and the workings of the Kastle-Meyer test. The purpose of my project is to discover if the
Kastle-Meyer test for blood always proves accurate when something has traces of blood in it or looks like blood, and
what substances can trigger a false positive.


Project Number: MCH080                                          Grade: 7
Title: Finding BPA in Thermal Paper
Abstract: Humans frequently touch receipts. The purpose of my project was to find if the chemical Bisphenol A
(BPA) is found on thermal paper, the material receipts are printed on. Bisphenol A is a very dangerous chemical that
causes breast cancer and other disease, and skin proves no barrier to it. In order to test each receipt, I used Iron 3
Chloride and a cotton swab to determine if each receipt was positive or negative. It was determined that most of the
receipts were positive; no significant amount of receipts were negative. In the future, people should be cautious about
touching receipts.


Project Number: MCH081                                            Grade: 8
Title: Honey, I Extracted the DNA!
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment titled “Honey, I Extracted the DNA!” is to learn about the DNA of living
things. I will use an extraction buffer of salt, dishwashing detergent, and water to extract the DNA from strawberry,
kiwi, and split pea samples. I will crush each sample, add the extraction buffer, and later add ethanol to each and
observe. The DNA should appear in cotton-like fibers. I will compare and contrast the DNA from each sample. I
hypothesized that strawberries would produce the most DNA because they have large genomes and are octoploid,
meaning they have eight copies of each chromosome in each cell.


Project Number: MCH082                                        Grade: 8
Title: Hair Raising Highlights
Abstract: This experiment showed results of different volumes of bleach on chemically treated and non-treated hair.
The solutions used were 40 volume, 30 volume, 20 volume, and 10 volume hydrogen peroxide based solutions.
These volumes were used to test the diverse colors that can be made by each solution and to further understand
why each solution creates each color. The 40 volume creates the lightest color.



Project Number: MCH083                                          Grade: 7
Title: The Great Cookie Finder
Abstract: Have you ever bitten into a beautiful golden-brown cookie only to realize that the bottom is burned and
black? I conducted this experiment to find out how to prevent that. I started by making the cookie dough with all the
ingredients, I used an ice cream scoop to make sure all the cookies were the same size. I preheated the oven to 375
degrees, I let the cookies bake for 14 minutes. The cookies cooled for 4 minutes for each batch, then I recorded what
I saw. Conduct my experiment for yourself and see what results you get.


Project Number: MCH084                                          Grade: 8
Title: Do You "C" What I "C?"
Abstract: The Vitamin C content of various orange juices is evaluated with respect to brand (Phase I) and container
type (Phase II). Titration techniques are used to determine Vitamin C concentration.


Project Number: MCH085                                         Grade: 7
Title: Brownie "Egg"stravaganza
Abstract: My experiment was run to test whether the addition of eggs in a brownie batter would increase or
decrease the density of the brownies. I had baked twenty batches of brownies, having five different variations with
different amounts of eggs in each variation. I had recorded any observations of the brownies, including the mass and
height of each batch, and had then calculated their densities. My results showed that the density of the brownies
had a slight decrease with the addition of eggs. Therefore, eggs add volume to brownies and decrease their density.


PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                         Page 36
                        Intermediate – Chemistry (MCH) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MCH086                                            Grade: 7
Title: Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Which Water is the Purist of All?
Abstract: In case the PDF is not working:
The water we drink comes from different sources, such as taps, springs, filters, and boiled. Which water is the purest
for consumption? My project addressed this question by looking at seven common contaminants. Water test kits were
used to conduct experiments. The results varied. Spring water has no bacteria, lead or chlorine, has low hardness
and neutral pH value. Tap and filter water had more nitrite. No chlorine or lead was detected in any water. Bacteria
were found only in boiled water. I conclude spring water is the purest.



Project Number: MCH087                                            Grade: 7
Title: Citrus Power
Abstract: Electricity can be conducted by some substances more easily than others. The purpose of my project is to
determine which citrus juice, lemon, lime and orange, conducts electricity best and if additives like sugar, salt and
vinegar support electron flow. I added equal amounts of sugar, salt and vinegar to equal amounts of each type of
citrus juice and used a Centech Digital Microscope to measure electrical current. Results indicate that salt, when
added to citrus juices, allowed electric current to flow more readily than other additives.


Project Number: MCH088                                           Grade: 8
Title: Coca Cola - Thinking Outside the Bottle
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCH089                                             Grade: 8
Title: How to Make the Best Cookies
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to determine if I can make the best cookies by making the cookie mix and
having it sit in the refrigerator for 48 hours. I am going to make a batch of cookies and refrigerate the batch for 48
hours. After 48 hours, I will make another batch of cookies. I will then bake both batches. I will have three
volunteers to taste the cookies to see if they prefer cookies refrigerated or freshly baked. I will also measure the
sizes such as the length, width, and height. If I make the mix and have it sit in the refrigerator for 48 hours then I may
have better cookies.




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PRSEF Student Abstracts                                               Page 38
              Intermediate – Computer Science/Math (MCM) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCM001                                             Grade: 8
Title: Is It Stable?Structural Analysis Using FEA Software
Abstract: The stability of structures, like bridges, are important in day to day life and they need to be safe so that
people can use their services. The purpose of this experiment is to observe how well FEA softwares predict
outcomes.I will be using an FEA software to predict the outcome of stress applied on several wooden bridges that i
will purchase. I will plug in the stress into the software and then compare the results. Experimentation will continue
to figure out the accuracy if te software compared to real life.


Project Number: MCM002                                           Grade: 8
Title: Going Ballistic in the 18th Century
Abstract: This experiment is a real world simulation of a cannonball’s trajectory from a revolutionary war cannon.
The goal is to see if you can calculate the angle needed to fire a cannonball using the distance, the force of gravity
and the velocity of the cannonball. A formula is used to calculate a set of angles from a set of distances, the force of
gravity and the velocity of the cannonball being shot by the simulated cannon. The formula was successfully used to
do this.


Project Number: MCM003                                           Grade: 8
Title: Games People Play
Abstract: In my project, I am testing to see if a robot can defeat a human in 5 trial games of chess (Best of 5 is the
conclusion). To do this I will be programming a game of chess in Text-Pad with a few adjustments to the settings
using the Java computer coding language. I will also be programming the bot, player which I will be playing in the 5
games.


Project Number: MCM004                                         Grade: 7
Title: Saving the world - one byte at a time
Abstract: The purpose is to Design an assembly-language program for the microprocessors of a colony of Nano-
organisms (NANORGs) in a virtual world. Imagine yourself as a software engineer, 15 years from now. You are called
upon to help solve the world energy crisis by programming nano-organisms to extract energy from industrial sludge.
Project Procedure:
(1)Make sure to have a computer with Internet access, text editor, and unzip program.
(2)download Compsci WinZip file, which enables program that runs the virtual nanobot vat.
(3)Unzip file CompSci_p021_Files.zip using unzip program and extract files.
(4)research assembly language.
(5)Open text editor and write program for nanobots.


Project Number: MCM005                                           Grade: 7
Title: Tumor Diagnosis with Image Processing
Abstract: I wrote a computer program to help doctors diagnose tumors. It takes an image of a stained tissue
sample, extracts and analyzes the relevant sections, and outputs a final score. I separated sample images into a test
set and a verification set. I researched different image processing algorithms to extract relevant sections and created
programs using combinations of these. I also developed my own analysis and score computation algorithm. I tested
each program on the test set. My final program produced scores with a very strong correlation with the expert ratings
for both the test set and the verification set.


Project Number: MCM006                                       Grade: 8
Title: Random Number Generators
Abstract: Pseudo-random number generator, true random number generator, and a die were used to produce
numbers from 1-6. Probablity was calculated for each generated number. There was no significant difference.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                        Page 39
              Intermediate – Computer Science/Math (MCM) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCM007                                            Grade: 7
Title: What Type of Password Best Resists Hacking
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether a password should be longer or more complex to
resist brute force cracking. 60 people each contributed 9 passwords of varying length and complexity. An original
brute force cracker was written in C++, but was too slow, so a model was made to crack the 540 passwords
gathered. The data showed that increasing the length was more beneficial than increasing the complexity. This
supported my hypothesis that longer passwords would take more attempts because there would be more possibilities
for the program to try before it could identify the correct password.


Project Number: MCM008                                          Grade: 7
Title: Remed & Enrich Web on Ancient Greece
Abstract: Purpose: To create an interactive enrichment and remediation Website students can access on ancient
Greece.Procedure: When students access the Website, they can choose from the topics of mythology, architecture,
or history. From there, they can either choose to play the game (Olympic Matching) or read a lesson. Each topic has
three lesson choices. For example, in the mythology topic, they can select from lessons about gods and goddesses,
heroes, or monsters.


Project Number: MCM009                                           Grade: 8
Title: Computer Simulated Billiards
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find which angles of shots terminate in a pocket from a billiards
shot originating in a corner. To conduct this experiment I designed a billiards table using Logo programming
language. I shot 90 different angles from each different corner for a total of 360 shots. The experimental results were
measured by whether the shot terminated in a pocket or not. The results of this experiment were that of the 360 shots
14 went in a pocket. The results indicate that my hypothesis should be accepted because the angles 30, 50, and 60
didn’t terminate in a pocket.


Project Number: MCM010                                           Grade: 8
Title: Gambling:What's Your Chance of Winning?
Abstract: This project is intended to introduce a gambling game, and estimate the chance of winning by
mathematical probability. Also, a real experiment will be conducted. People will be asked to play the game, and the
data will be recorded. Finally, a computer program will be written to simulate the game, and the results will be
compared with the other two methods.


Project Number: MCM011                                             Grade: 8
Title: A Failure to Telecommunicate
Abstract: My project was designed to assist people in more effectively and efficiently using cell phones by exploring
what factors have the greatest impact on cell phone transmission signal strength. Before I performed my experiment,
I predicted that topography, including man made obstructions, would have the greatest impact on cell phone signal
strength. In conducting this project, I analyzed a variety of factors including what effect distance from cell phone
towers would have on signal strength, what affects various locations within in a typical building would have, and what
other forces generally impact transmission signal strength.


Project Number: MCM012                                       Grade: 7
Title: Enrich & Remed Web on Quakes & Volcanoes
Abstract: Purpose: To create an interactive remediation and enrichment Website which students can access
pertaining to earthquakes and volcanoes.
Procedure: Students accessing my Website will be able to view the following topics dealing with earthquakes and
volcanoes:
1.     Vocabulary
2.     Photos
3.     FEMA preparedness information
4.     Interactive activities
5.      Maps of current earthquake and volcanic activity
6.     Additional geological information
7.     Games
8.     Tests




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                      Page 40
             Intermediate – Computer Science/Math (MCM) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCM013                                       Grade: 8
Title: The Mathematics of Insects
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to analyze the mathematical symmetry of insects. Oragami models were
used to measure the symmetry of insects and develop mathematical rations of proportions. It was found that insects
have a set mathematical symmetry.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                   Page 41
           Intermediate – Computer Science/Math (MCM) – 7th & 8th Grade




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PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                   Page 42
                  Intermediate – Consumer Science (MCS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCS001                                           Grade: 8
Title: The Soda That Stains the Darkest
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCS002                                            Grade: 7
Title: How Should I Eat It?
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment is to determine what type of orange product contains the most Vitamin C
and is most cost effective. I will use popular brands of canned, fresh and juiced oranges. I will test the Vitamin C
content of each sample with an iodide solution. I will compare the Vitamin C content and cost effectiveness of the
samples and make recommendations. The results of my experiment will be helpful to people who want to cost
effectively choose the orange product with the most Vitamin C.


Project Number: MCS003                                         Grade: 7
Title: How Clean is Clean?
Abstract: Plates containing nutrient agar were divided into 4 quadrants. 20 ML of Windex, Lysol, Mr. Clean, Clorox,
Green Works, Murphy’s Oil Soap, Tap water and distilled water were placed on a sterile Petri dish. Sterile paper discs
were soaked for 5 minutes before being removed and allowed to drip for five minutes. The discs were placed on the
agar plate containing E coli. The zone of inhibition was measured, recorded and averaged. Clorox clean-up cleaner
with bleach eliminates the most bacteria. Mr. Clean and Green Works eliminated the least amount of bacteria.


Project Number: MCS004                                          Grade: 7
Title: Heartburn Releivers
Abstract: In my science fair experiment I tested four different medications used to relieve heart burn to determine
which one of them would best neutralize stomach acid. The stomach acid was simulated by using muriatic acid
mixed with water. i also made a red cabbage pH indicator and added this to the stomach acid to act as a visual aid to
determine which medication neutralized fastest. i used pH strips to determine which medication neutralized stomach
acid the best.


Project Number: MCS005                                             Grade: 8
Title: Does Vision Effect Taste
Abstract: Many people think that taste things with our mouth, but actually we taste with our eyes too. Before tasting
things we often check to see what it looks like. If the appearance of the food does not increase our desire we
normally don’t eat it. I used four sodas and took out the original mixture and replaced it with a homemade mixture
made out of club soda, food coloring, and flavoring that is used for flavoring hardtack candy. The test subjects
expectations and tastes seemed not to match.


Project Number: MCS006                                            Grade: 8
Title: The Cost of Clean Air
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine which furnace filter cleans the air the best. The
investigator tested 3 furnace fliters of varying costs (Flanders EZ Green filter, Filtrete Micro Particle Reduction,
Filtrete Advanced Allergen Reduction). The filters were tested over two, 5-day trials with the furnace fan running for
24 hours a day. The mass of the filter was determined before and after each trial using a triple beam balance. The
investigator determined that the second most costly filter--the Micro Particle Reduction filter removed the largest
number of particles and the Micro Particle Reduction filter was the most cost effective--that is, it removes the most
harmful particles per dollar.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                        Page 43
                  Intermediate – Consumer Science (MCS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCS007                                             Grade: 7
Title: Durability of Paint
Abstract: Painting your home can be very expensive. Knowing the most durable paint could help consumers save
money in the future. I used 6 types of paint in this investigation: Behr paint (which is the most expensive) latex gloss
and flat, Valspar paint (much less expensive) latex gloss and flat, and Glidden paint (in between in price) gloss and
flat. I painted twenty-four 12.7cm x 12.7cm square plywood boards with the different kinds of paint. I put aside the
control boards. I then put the different boards through various weathering stations of heat, freezer, and acid rain.
They were rotated through the stations for 12 days. I calculated the amount of chipping using an overlay
transparency, which was the same size as the board and had 200 graph squares. Chipping in 2 squares was
counted as 1 percent chipping. When results were analyzed, Behr paints, the most expensive, were found to be the
most durable, possibly because of the higher amount of titanium dioxide.


Project Number: MCS008                                            Grade: 8
Title: Studies Utilizing Detergent Samples (SUDS)
Abstract: There are many different brands of laundry detergent on the market, all claiming to have the best stain
removal power. This work intended to find out which of four popular stain-fighting laundry detergents could remove
the most stain from a piece of white fabric. Each piece of fabric had 3 stains applied (ketchup, chocolate sauce, and
grape juice), and then was put through a mock-washing machine cycle, each using a different brand of detergent.
After evaluation, it was determined that Tide brand detergent worked the best at removing stains.


Project Number: MCS009                                           Grade: 7
Title: Eye Can See Clearly Now!
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to determine which kind of contact solution eliminates the most bacteria
and is the least costly to the consumer. 10 ml of name brands as well as a generic brand of contact solutions was
placed in a sterile petri plate. Paper disks were soaked in the solution for 10 minutes and allowed to drip for 5
minutes before being placed on a nutrient agar plate that had been streaked with staphylococcus Epidermidis. The
zone of inhibition was measured. Tap water served as the control. Clear Care eliminated the most bacteria.


Project Number: MCS010                                              Grade: 8
Title: UV Protective Fabrics
Abstract: UV light is radiation with wavelengths shorter than visible light, but longer than x-rays. Even though it is
not visible, it can still be harmful. Overexposure to UV light can cause skin damage such as sunburn and skin cancer.
Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. About 45% of people who live to be 65 years
old are diagnosed with skin cancer at some point of their lives. You can protect yourself from this damage, however,
by wearing the proper material clothing. In this project, the amount of UV light that passed through the different
fabrics was tested. In conclusion, it was decided that the red polyester and the black 50% polyester 50% cotton
fabrics performed the best. Over all, the polyester fabrics performed the best, the 50/50 did the second best, and the
cotton did the worst. Also, the darker the fabric, the better it performed.


Project Number: MCS011                                           Grade: 8
Title: Pop and Tooth Decay
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCS012                                          Grade: 8
Title: How Sweet It Is
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to determine the sugar level in apples by using a refractometer. Apples of
the same size were hand-picked from trees of a local farm. The same variety and number of apples were purchased
from a grocery store. Every three days, six apples of each variety and from each location were juiced; three were
peeled and the other three left unpeeled. Eighteen trials were completed on each day of testing. The refractometer
was used to measure the Brix, or sugar, of the juice. The red delicious apples were the apples with the highest Brix.


Project Number: MCS013                                         Grade: 7
Title: Drumstick Rebound Characteristics
Abstract: The rebound characteristics of different drumsticks used to play the drums was evaluated.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                         Page 44
                  Intermediate – Consumer Science (MCS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCS014                                          Grade: 8
Title: Can Sandwich Bags Expode?
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to see which sandwich bag will best withstand a chemical explosion. I
wanted to find this out because children always have accidents with their lunches, whether it is leaky peanut butter
and jelly sandwiches or juicy watermelons. I wanted to find this out so that consumers will know which sandwich bag
is best to buy. My hypothesis was that the store brand bag will last longer because it will hold more pressure
because of how it is made. This specific bag is "Boulder".


Project Number: MCS015                                            Grade: 8
Title: Keep Out of Reach of Children
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCS016                                            Grade: 8
Title: Diaper Absorption
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCS017                                             Grade: 7
Title: Taste the Difference
Abstract: I wanted to find out if people really could taste the difference between reduced fat and regular foods. i
tested a total of 30 people between the ages of 10-69; five people from each decade. i picked out foods from the
different areas of taste buds on the tongue; sweet, salty, bitter, and sour. The food I picked for sour was salt and
vinegar chips. The seet food was ice cream. i chose Cheez-its for the salty food. i picked chocolate wit a lot of
cacao in it for the bitter food. All of the age groups scored pretty well. The 10-19 age group scored 10 out of 20. The
20-29 age group scored 12 out of 20. Ages 30-39 scored the worst with 7 out of 20. 40-49 also scored 10 out of 20.
The 50-59 age group scored the best; 13 out of 20. Ages 60-69 also scored 12 out of 20.


Project Number: MCS018                                          Grade: 7
Title: Show Me Those Pearly Whites
Abstract: Whitening toothpastes are used to make teeth appear whiter. This experiment was chosen to find out what
whitening toothpaste will perform the best. 36 teeth were obtained from an oral surgeon and stained with tea for one
week. Next, they were separated into 9 different groups, 4 teeth in every group. I recorded the shade of the teeth
before and after every brushing. I brushed each tooth exactly the same – 25 strokes, 2 times per day. The results of
the trials were averaged. This experiment showed that Arm and Hammer Whitening Toothpaste whitened the best.
Arm and Hammer performed the best because it contains a large amount of Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda).
Baking Soda helps whiten teeth because it dissolves into the water and penetrates the enamel, when brushing the
baking soda removes the yellow and brown stains usually caused from coffee, tea, or smoking.


Project Number: MCS019                                         Grade: 7
Title: Paper Towels and Water Absorption
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see which paper towel absorbs the most water. Three brands
Sparkle, Brawny, and Bounty were tested. My procedure was to dip a paper towel into a measuring cup that was filled
to 250 milliliters of water, and see how much each paper towel would absorb. Measurements taken after each trial,
five trials per sheet were compiled on a graph. My conclusion was that Bounty was the most absorbent paper towel of
the three that were tested.


Project Number: MCS020                                           Grade: 7
Title: Air Care
Abstract: The reason for my project was to see which filter consumers should purchase. I bought three filters, then
weighed each filter before I placed them into the furnace, then I took the weight difference between each filter,
concluding that the ending weight was equal to the amount of particles the filter strained. I predicted that the "Filtrete"
filter would strain the most particles because the company claimed to be the best. The brand "Filtrete" strained the
most particles. Its starting weight was 189 grams, and its ending weight was 190 grams. The other filters' weight
decreased, proving my hypothesis correct.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                          Page 45
                  Intermediate – Consumer Science (MCS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCS021                                                Grade: 7
Title: Chill Factor
Abstract: I conducted an experiment testing if temperature effected how long a battery would last. I was interested
in this topic because of car batteries. It is true that car batteries most of the time stop working in cold weather. I
decided to test this. I could not test this on a car battery so i decided to test it in the form of a flashlight. My
experiment went as planned and nothing out of the ordinary happened. As i suspected the flashlight in the freezer
stopped working first. Next i suspected the flashlight in room temperature would stop working. I was wrong and the
flashlight in the refrigerator stopped working next. This left the flashlight in room temperature.


Project Number: MCS022                                             Grade: 8
Title: Preventing Christmas Tree Fires
Abstract: Christmas tree fires can be catastrophic, and my experiment will determine if flame retardant sprays
(commercial and homemade) will effectively prevent fires. Three fresh branches were tagged and sprayed with
commercial flame retardant, three were tagged and sprayed with homemade flame retardant, and three were tagged
and left as control branches. One of each was burned at twenty-four hours, eight days, and fifteen days and time to
ignition was recorded. The time to ignition was similar for all treated branches and only slightly less than untreated
branches. Flame retardant spray has minimal value to prevent fire in well watered trees.


Project Number: MCS023                                         Grade: 7
Title: Hot Hands
Abstract: Various types of ski gloves were evaluated to determine which would maintain temperatures the best.
Glass bottles of very warm water (approximating body temperature) were placed inside gloves to be tested. Gloves
were then placed in a freezer, with a temperature probe attached. Temperature drop was monitored for a set time. A
glass jar (with very warm water) and no glove served as the control.


Project Number: MCS024                                        Grade: 8
Title: Do mints or gum affect test scores
Abstract: The purpose behind this experiment is to test whether or not a student chewing on mint affects test
scores. A test will be given and assessed three times. The 1st test will be given without the mint, while 2nd and third
will be given and assessed with the mint/gum. The remainder of the abstract will be completed when the experiment
is over.


Project Number: MCS025                                            Grade: 8
Title: Effect of Settling on Cereal
Abstract: The objective of the project was to see how cereal settles. Many people complain that a lot of the cereal
bag is empty. This is because air fills in between the pieces of cereal after it is packaged. The cereal is packaged to
the top though. The process was to crush up the cereal and measure it against the un-crushed cereal. The height
changed, but the weight did not.


Project Number: MCS026                                           Grade: 8
Title: Bubbles in a Bottle
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.



Project Number: MCS027                                             Grade: 7
Title: What is the Best Paint for Polystyrene Model Kits?
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to compare different paints from different manufacturers to see which
are best for ease of use, durability, price, and environmental friendliness.I applied stress to the paint samples and
compared results. In some cases, I used documentation about the paint to also get results. The best paint was found
to be acrylic with use of water for clean up. Enamel paints required harmful cleanup materials which were more
dangerous to the environment. Comparing more samples from other companies and running more trials
might have strengthened the results.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                        Page 46
                  Intermediate – Consumer Science (MCS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCS028                                         Grade: 7
Title: Keep It Cool
Abstract: My question for my project states: "Which insulation is the most effective for your home?" From my
research, I hypothesized that spray foam would be the most effective insulation because it forms an airtight barrier
and is denser than most other insulations. To determine which insulation will keep ice from melting, I tested seven
different insulations enclosed in containers and measured th e amount of melted water found in each measuring cup,
which was located under each container. After seven hours, the cup that colected the least amount of melted water
determined the best insulation. My results showed styrofoam had the least amount of water in its measuring cup.


Project Number: MCS029                                           Grade: 7
Title: Glowing Water
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCS030                                          Grade: 7
Title: Germs Be Gone!
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to determine which hand sanitizer eliminated the most bacteria and costs
the least. Sterile paper discs were soaked in 6 mL of Purell, CVS Instant Hand Sanitizer, EZ Foam, and TopCare
liquid hand sanitizer for 2 minutes before being removed and placed on a petri dish streaked with staphylococcus
epidermidis. TopCare had the greatest zone of inhibition but EZ Foam cost the least per mL.


Project Number: MCS031                                              Grade: 8
Title: Pop Corn Storage Temperature
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to see which storage temperature would be the best to store popcorn
kernels, to get the popped kernels. I had three storage areas, room temperature, refrigerator, and warmed in an oven.
I kept them there for 2 hours. The better storage area was room temperature. So if you want to get more popped
kernels out of a bag of popcorn, the best place to store it is in a warmer area.


Project Number: MCS032                                           Grade: 8
Title: Not So Easy Bake Oven
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MCS033                                              Grade: 8
Title: Germs in the Bottle
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess whether or not plastic water bottles are safe to reuse. The
experimentor will test a series of plastic water bottles over a duration of time. The 6 water bottles will be then be
tested for bacteria. The results of this test will be used to better inform consumers whether to reuse their plastic
water bottles.


Project Number: MCS034                                            Grade: 7
Title: Which paper towel brand can absorb the most water?
Abstract: The purpose of the experiment was to find which paper towel brand could absorb the most water. I ripped
four sheets from each roll. Then I put them in a glass filled with 200 mL of water for 15 seconds. I squeezed all the
water out into a glass and measured how much each sheet held. Bounty could hold an average of 38 mL of water,
Brawny could hold 30 mL of water and WalMart's generic brand could hold 22 mL of water. Brawny was the best buy
for consumers since it absorbs the most and has the most number of sheets.


Project Number: MCS035                                             Grade: 7
Title: Household Cleaners and Fruit
Abstract: For my science project I tested the effects of household cleaners on fruit. I did this because I wanted to
see if these cleaners had any effect on the fruit I eat since I use these cleaners to clean my counter tops. For my
procedure I took the cleaners Mr. Clean floor cleaner, The Works glass cleaner, Great Value glass cleaner, Febreeze
and water. I then cut up some apples and placed them into 6 even groups, and added a small dose of each cleaner
for ten days. By the end the Mr. Clean had caused the most discoloration.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                        Page 47
                  Intermediate – Consumer Science (MCS) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MCS036                                             Grade: 7
Title: Pepsi versus Coke
Abstract: My purpose for choosing to do this project was because I like Coke and Pepsi, so I wanted to see what
other people think. I prefer Coke over Pepsi. But other people may choose Pepsi. So I decided to do an experiment,
to test the hypothesis: In a blind taste test, Coke will be chosen more frequently than Pepsi. Each taster signed the
consent after i explained the experiment to them. I gave them an answer index card and had them drink from the "A"
labeled cup first, and then drink from the "B" labeled cup. They then checked their answer card which one they liked
best and wrote either Pepsi or Coke beside the A and B letters. After all this I recorded all of my data. Surprisingly,
neither product was preferred over the other nor was the nubmer of incorrect identifications higherin comparison to
the correct identification. Age made no difference in the ability to differentiate between the products. In conclusion, I
was surprised by the results as I felt that Coke would win hands down each time or at least take the lead in being the
preferred product. My hypothesis was not proven based on my results that each product was preferred 50/50.


Project Number: MCS037                                              Grade: 8
Title: Vitamins & Minerals
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess which multi-vitamins are an efficient way to receive vitamins
into the blood stream. It was hypothesized that the multi-vitamins which contained more vitamin D will be able to be
absorbed more than the multi-vitamins which did not have as high of D dosage. Using a solution which mimics
stomach acid, the ability of the vitamins to go into solution will be observed, and data will be gathered. This
experiment will produce information which will pertain to consumers of multi-vitamins.


Project Number: MCS038                                         Grade: 8
Title: Do Green Food Savers Work?
Abstract: I decided to do this project because I wanted to see if a reusable food saver would be just as effective as
a common household food saver. I cut pieces of apple and put them into Tupperware containers and covered each
with Press and Seal wrap, Reynolds wrap, reusable food saver, and nothing, which was the control. I observed the
apples over the course of two weeks, and found that the reusable food saver was the best food saver, which was
surprising. This research shows that an environment friendly food saver worked better than a common household
food saver.


Project Number: MCS039                                           Grade: 8
Title: Which Wood Seems to be Most Durable During a Controlled Burn
Abstract: Wood is used for a variety of things including framing homes, making furniture and providing warmth. The
purpose of my project is to determine which woods were more durable during a controlled burn. I burned five different
types of wood on three separate occasions to see how they might break down and disintegrate over time. I recorded
the mass of each wood sample at the start of my project and after each burn. Additionally I recorded physical
changes that noticed from the burn. Results will be available at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MCS040                                          Grade: 8
Title: Lifespan of Carved Pumpkins with Preservatives
Abstract: In the project I used 5 different preservatives and a control pumpkin with no preservatives. It took almost
two months, the purpose of the project was to see how long the pumpkins would last. Most of them decomposed in
the first 40 days or less. Two of them, which were alcohol and Lysol, lasted almost 2 months.


Project Number: MCS041                                          Grade: 7
Title: Storing apples
Abstract: In my project I was trying to find out which storage method works best in keeping apples from browining. I
used plastic wrap, a plastic container, brown bag, and vaccuum bag. I used Gala apples for this project. Over the
course of two weeks my results showed that the vaccuum seal worked the best to keep the apples from browning.


Project Number: MCS042                                           Grade: 8
Title: What Gets The Red Out?
Abstract: My science experiment is about testing what home products are most effective at removing red wine from
fabric. The research question that I posed is: What is the most effective way to remove red wine stains from clothing
- Milk, Salt, or Bleach? My independent variables are milk, salt, and bleach and my dependent variable is the red
wine stain on the fabric.


PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                        Page 48
                 Intermediate – Consumer Science (MCS) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MCS043                                        Grade: 8
Title: Effect of Carbonated Soda on Meat
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to see how much carbonated sodas would dissolve meat. Cola, Diet Cola,
Lemon Twist, and an energy drink was used as the carbonated sodas. Meat was submerged in these different sodas
for a 16 day period. Data was recorded every 4 days. The meat was weighed every four days, pictures were also
taken. The energy drink dissolved the meat the fastest, Lemon Twist was second.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                Page 49
              Intermediate – Consumer Science (MCS) – 7th & 8th Grade




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PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                 Page 50
             Intermediate – Earth/Space/Environment (MES) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MES001                                            Grade: 8
Title: Can Water Float on Water?
Abstract: Water can be warm at the surface, and cold down deeper, as literature suggests. This work is intended to
learn if hot or cold water can float over the other. Colored hot tap water, on top, will be combined with differently
colored cold tap water of the bottom. (3x) What occurs between the solutions, when they are combined, will be
recorded. The data collection from the experiment will show how ocean, lakes, etc. temperatures will work.


Project Number: MES002                                               Grade: 8
Title: Affects of Global Warming on the Gulf Stream
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether global warming, which is causing the glaciers to
melt, will affect the velocity, temperature, or salinity of the global conveyor belt known as the Gulf Stream.


Project Number: MES003                                         Grade: 8
Title: It's Raining Acid Up In Here
Abstract: Randomly germinated lima bush bean seeds were placed 2 cm deep in purchased seed starter. The
plants were placed in trays and labeled with the corresponding pH levels of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 for the control. The
height and biomass of the plants were measured to determine the effect of acid rain on the overall plant. Plants with a
pH of 5 had the greatest biomass while plants watered with water having a pH of 2 had the smallest biomass.


Project Number: MES004                                             Grade: 8
Title: When are Cosmic Rays Most Active?
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MES005                                          Grade: 7
Title: Mother Nature Empties Her Trash
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment is to test plastic bags in different environments to determine if and how fast
they decompose in comparison to paper bags and newspaper in the same environments. Biodegradable and
nonbiodegradable plastic bags, a paper bag, and a newspaper were secured and exposed to the sun, and placed in
both a leaf and mulch pile. These materials were also individually put into water and salt water. After a several month
time period, I observed that newspaper and paper bags decomposed quickest in the mulch pile and leaf pile, followed
by salt water, water, and lastly in the sun alone. The biodegradable plastic bags decomposed very minimally, and the
nonbiodegradable plastic bags did not decompose in time period.


Project Number: MES006                                          Grade: 8
Title: Heat Racers
Abstract: The rooms in my house are painted many different colors and I have noticed that some rooms seem to
feel warmer on sunny days than on others. The purpose of this experiment to determine if different colors of paint
might impact temperature of a room on sunny days, if that room is exposed to the sun. I constructed Paint Boxes and
set these out on sunny days for a period of two hours. I monitored temperature changes and collected data
accordingly. Results will be available at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MES007                                              Grade: 8
Title: pH Levels Acidity vs. Alkalinity
Abstract: My project is called pH Levels Acidity vs. Alkalinity and it was to see which of three types of soil had the
highest pH level. I hypothesized that the soil sample from the gas station would have the highest pH level. My
hypothesis was correct.
The first thing I did was go to the three locations and collect soil samples. Next I set up the test kit, and then I tested
the soil's pH. Last I recorded all of my results. The soil sample from the gas station had the highest pH level.


Project Number: MES008                                           Grade: 7
Title: The Effect of Energy Saving on Household Carbon Footprints
Abstract: My experiment’s purpose was to test if reducing energy consumption decreases household carbon
footprints and which energy source (natural gas, electricity, and water) contributes the most. Each energy source’s
usage was recorded each week. Experimental weeks, implementing energy saving measures, alternated with control
weeks of normal energy usage. CO2 emissions for natural gas, electricity and water were calculated and compared
between control and experimental weeks. Saving energy decreased CO2 emissions by 43kg (15.3%) per week and

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                           Page 51
             Intermediate – Earth/Space/Environment (MES) – 7th & 8th Grade

natural gas savings contributed to 62% of the decline. Thus, reducing energy consumption decreased household
carbon footprints, and saving natural gas contributed the most.


Project Number: MES009                                                 Grade: 8
Title: DAWN to the Rescue
Abstract: The purpose of my project was to see if Dawn dishwashing liquid cleasned oil off of feather better than
other types of soap. I predicted that Dawn would clean the best. The first thing I did was gather all of my supplies.
the I put two milliliters of oil on four feathers. The I let them sit for 24 hours. The next day i cleaned each feather with
one teaspoon of soap. After, I repeated these steps three more times. In the end,Dawn dishwashing liquid ended up
cleaning the feathers the best.


Project Number: MES010                                          Grade: 8
Title: Let's Heat It Up
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine if the heat from a compost pile can generate enough heat
energy to raise the temperature of water. To conduct this experiment you will need a compost bin, 25 pounds of
compost material, 3 thermometers, and a metal can with 600 mL of water. The experimental results were measured
by taking the temperature of the water in the can, the compost, and the air. The results were that the water
temperature increased as well as the compost temperature increased even though the air temperature decreased.
My hypothesis should be accepted.


Project Number: MES011                                               Grade: 8
Title: Moisture Retaining Properties of Rocks
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess whether different types of rocks retain differing amounts of
water. The experimentor will collect several types of rocks and place them in containers which contain water. The
mass of the rocks will be measured before and after their exposure to water. The data collected in this experiment
will be useful to scientists involved in the fracturing of rock in the Marcellus shale area of the country.


Project Number: MES012                                            Grade: 7
Title: Tornadoes and Air Pressure
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MES013                                          Grade: 7
Title: Chemical vs. Natural - The Ultimate Smack-down
Abstract: My project tested whether Chemical fertilizer was better then Natural fertilizer. I grew six spider plants and
divided them into categories. One was "Chemical", one was "Natural", and the last two were "Regular". I grew the
"Chemical" category plants with Miracle-Gro and Vigoro, two common fertilizers. I used mixed in coffee beans, and
Kitchen Compost in the soil for the "Natural Category". Lastly for the "Regular" plants, I watered normally. Contrary
to my hypothesis, the two "Regular" plants did the best in growth and color.


Project Number: MES014                                           Grade: 8
Title: Comparing and Contrasting Insulation
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to find the most effective insulator out of fiberglass, foam board, and
cellulose.


Project Number: MES015                                          Grade: 8
Title: Where do Worms Grow the Best?
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment is to see in which type of soil worms will grow the best. The procedure for
my experiment is to count out 20 worms and put them in five individual containers labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Once a
week count and weigh the worms. The data collected had no clear pattern until the number of worms increased in
containers C and E. In conclusion, container E with a mixture of everything that I also put in the other four
containers, did the best because it had a good food source for the worms.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                           Page 52
              Intermediate – Earth/Space/Environment (MES) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MES016                                            Grade: 8
Title: Can I Get You A Drink?
Abstract: I picked this project, because I thought it would be helpful if you can still have plants that usually would die
because you couldn’t water them, and this would help people that only need to water their plants 3 times a month. My
hypothesis was that if you use x amount of water on the regular plant, you would save that much. I was wrong,
actually you might only save half of what you usually use, but it still saves water.


Project Number: MES017                                          Grade: 8
Title: The Amazing Affect of Weather and Temperature
Abstract: This project was designed to see how temperature and weather affect a rubber band. The project was
made to see where the best place to store rubber bands is. To test the experiment one must put rubber bands in
different places with different temperatures. Colder temperatures make rubber bands the most elastic. In further work
on can test how temperature and weather affect different things


Project Number: MES018                                         Grade: 8
Title: Plastic or Metal, What's Best for the Earth?
Abstract: The environment is a hot topic these days. Much work can be done to identify how different products
affect our Mother Earth. This experiment was conducted to test and compare two products-a hair dryer and a toaster,
on their eco-frienliness. The objects were disassembled and in turn placed into the ground for one month to test for
corrosion and decay. The toaster had emitted corrosion unlike the hair dryer. Future work will determine the "green"
object.


Project Number: MES019                                          Grade: 8
Title: Chemicals and Biodegrading
Abstract: I searched to find which chemical when added to a substance produced the most methane gas. I placed
three substances, corn, a banana, and a piece of newspaper, in a plastic container. I added the appropriate
chemical, lime juice, alcohol, and compost maker, to each substance and sealed the top. I connected a tube from the
container to an upside down water bottle filled with four hundred milliliters of water. I recorded my data for fifty days
marking how much methane each substance produced. I concluded that lime juice produces the most methane gas
when added to a substance.


Project Number: MES020                                           Grade: 8
Title: Natural Gas Drilling and Water
Abstract: Oil and natural gas are a big part of a new generation of cleaner fuels. Although they are “clean” fuels,
many people say otherwise. They file complaints about their water being contaminated and point the finger at natural
gas wells. A recent study by Penn State says otherwise. Since the wells are surrounded by thick layers of concrete
and steel there is practically no chance of anything escape the well. The average well for water ends at around 150 to
250 feet. The average natural gas well ends at around 5,000 to upwards of 11,000 feet. If anything should happen to
leach out it would be far too deep to affect any water well. My project will determine whether or not natural gas wells
are affecting our nations drinking water.


Project Number: MES021                                              Grade: 8
Title: Melting Ice
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to see what substance makes ice melt the fastest. I am going to test it by
placing 1 ice cube on each plate and sprinkling 2 tablespoons of each substance on 1 ice cube. Next I will start the
stopwatch immediately to time how quickly the ice has melted after 1 minute. I will measure how low the ice has
melted. If I use different substances then the ice will melt at different rates. My prediction is that salt will melt ice the
fastest because people use road salt to melt ice all the time in the winter.


Project Number: MES022                                             Grade: 7
Title: Decomposition of Natural Plastic
Abstract: I made my own plastic from whole milk.I seperated the curds from the whey. Then I added vinegar.I let it
sit for two hours.I drained out the leftover liquid, and molded the subdance into a shape.I let it dry and I put it in soil. 2
weeks later it started to decompose.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                              Page 53
             Intermediate – Earth/Space/Environment (MES) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MES023                                          Grade: 8
Title: Creek Connections Water Testing
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MES024                                           Grade: 7
Title: The Earth's Energy
Abstract: I wanted to see if more energy is produced using a power plant verses geothermal reservoirs.
I used a can with two holes to represent the power plant. The boiling water represented the geothermal
resevoirs, the aluminum foil the earth's crust, and a pinwheel represented the turbine so I could
measure the amount of energy produced.
I learned that a power plant is necessary in order to produce more energy.
I concluded that more energy is produced when the power plant is used. More holes caused less energy.
Therefore, geothermal power plants are needed to increase energynproduction.


Project Number: MES025                                           Grade: 7
Title: "Hair-Gone Crazy"
Abstract: Does your hair go crazy when the weather turns rainy? My question is, "Does different hair strands
change as humidity varies?" I hypothesized that chemically treated hair will absorb the most moisture on humid days.
I built a hygrometer and tested the humidity outside using different hair strands; chemically treated hair, curly brown
hair and straight blond hair. The hygrometer was placed outside on days when the temperature reached 72, 40, and
30 degrees. All results were recorded.
Humidity was absorbed in all three types of hair. It was concluded, temperature and hair type has an affect on how
much humidity is absorbed by human hair.


Project Number: MES026                                          Grade: 7
Title: Hurricanes In A Bottle
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MES027                                             Grade: 7
Title: Composting - A Better Quality of Soil
Abstract: Composting speeds up the natural process of decomposition, by providing conditions that are best for
breaking down organic and improves the quality of dirt. The presence of Nitrogen in soil may determine the quality of
that soil. This project will compare traditional composting involving dirt, water and organic waste with
vermicomposting which is composting using the traditional method plus worms. Nitrogen levels will be measured at
the start of my project and again at 3, 6 and 9 weeks. The amounts and types of organic matter added to the
composts will be identical. Results will be presented at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MES028                                          Grade: 8
Title: Is There Lead in the Land?
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.



Project Number: MES029                                        Grade: 7
Title: How Can I Save on my Air-Conditioning Bill?
Abstract: The importance of color and heat transfer were evaluated in this study. Model decks and adjacent walls
were constructed and painted a variety of colors. An unpainted deck served as the control. Temperatures under the
deck and on the adjacent wall were recorded over a two-month period.


Project Number: MES031                                           Grade: 7
Title: Crystal Chaos
Abstract: The purpose of my expirment was to find out what type of crystal grows faster. I took two beakers of warm
water and two beakers of cool water and mixed them with sugar and salt. I hypothesised that the warm salt water
would crystalize the best. I tested the expiriment for two weeks. In conclusion my hypothesis was correct.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                      Page 54
             Intermediate – Earth/Space/Environment (MES) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MES032                                          Grade: 8
Title: Ways To Kill Stink bugs
Abstract: For my science project i was determined to find out a way to kill the increasingly residential and
crop/garden destructive stink bugs that have taken over areas in northeastern United States. I tested ten different
products on the stink bugs by putting the bug in a baby food jar with a chemical. The stink bugs died a different
amount of time in each chemical. By the end of the experiment I found that the stronger the chemical the more slowly
the extermination was completed, which is the opposite of the hypothesis I declared in the beginning.


Project Number: MES033                                             Grade: 7
Title: It's Electric
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to test if electricity can be generated from a homemade microbial fuel
cell model. To conduct this experiment I built a model of a microbial fuel cell and tested the voltage daily. To measure
the voltage I used a digital multimeter. The results were that it did generate electricity. My results did agree with my
hypothesis which stated that if I make a homemade microbial fuel cell then electricity will be generated.


Project Number: MES034                                                Grade: 8
Title: Many uses of solar energy
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to create a low-cost solar system capable of powering small devices. I
chose this project because of my interest in renewable resources. First, I searched to find how solar panels work.
Then, I searched for similar designs on the internet. I finally began to design. Next, I will create my first prototype, and
test it on small electronics. Finally, I will retest and redesign to create the most practical product (my design will be
available on fair day). To further my research, I will create more solar products, and expand their uses.


Project Number: MES035                                         Grade: 8
Title: What does Acid Rain Do?
Abstract: Does acid rain destroy plants? This project shows how acid rain degrades the growth of plants. I found
out whether dicot and monocot plants show any difference when exposed to acid rain. I studied what different pH’s
do to the heights and dry masses of plants of the two classes—dicot and monocot. I tested the pH’s 6.8, 5.0, and
2.0. After the experiment, I found out that pH decreases the growth of the plants. As the pH decreases the plants’
heights and masses deteriorate as well.


Project Number: MES036                                            Grade: 7
Title: Effects of Pollutants on Lemna Minor Plants
Abstract: 50 mL of soda, weed killer, fertilizer, motor oil, and boat cleaner were added to labeled plastic aquariums
containing 2 L of distilled water. 30 Lemna minor were measured and counted before being placed in each aquarium.
Roots and fronds were measured and counted every week for 4 weeks. Per cent reduction was used to determine
that motor oil had the greatest affect on the plants.



Project Number: MES037                                         Grade: 7
Title: College Students' Knowledge on Marcellus Shale
Abstract: I surveyed 328 students with a survey designed to test five hypotheses on Marcellus Shale knowledge.
Out of the five hypotheses, three were supported: 1) Senior/graduate level college students know more. 2) College
students who come from area know more than from outside states. 3) Students whose parents or friends work on
topic will know more.


Project Number: MES038                                         Grade: 8
Title: Effect of Household Cleaners on Plants
Abstract: Pollution is a major factor in the environment. Brown water, the mixture of chemicals and detergents from
the washing machine, are often not disposed of properly. When this occurs it can cause harm to many things. To
show this I grew beans from the seed for 15 days watering them every other day with only water. For the next 15
days each group was watered with a different chemical but the same amount liquid. Each group had 3 plants. The
results had a negative effect on my bean plants.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                           Page 55
             Intermediate – Earth/Space/Environment (MES) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MES039                                         Grade: 7
Title: Are There Ways to Manage Water?
Abstract: The goal of my project was to find inexpensive ways to control excess rainwater. To complete this project,
I evaluated three methods of controlling excess rainwater. The methods I chose were tunnel reservoirs, green roofs,
and permeable pavement. I interviewed representatives for the Allegheny Green Roof, the Allegheny County
Sanitary Authority, and the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. I then tested samples of permeable
pavement, bituminous pavement, green roof soil and substrate, and roofing shingles to determine the amount of
water each sample was capable of holding. I then researched and calculated the cost and water absorption amount
for each method.


Project Number: MES040                                            Grade: 8
Title: The Power of Acid
Abstract: My experiment is based on what would happen if plants got acid rain as a main supply of water. The
normal ph of acid rain is 5 to 7. Mine uses ph of 1 to 3. My experiment is based on what would happen if air pollution
(what causes acid rain) would continue. If the air pollution continues then the ph of acid rain would get higher. My
hypothesis is that the plants are going to grow more slowly and the acid rain will weaken them enough so that a lack
of untainted water killed them. My hypothesis was true.


Project Number: MES041                                             Grade: 8
Title: Solar Panels
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see how background color affects solar power. Do solar panels
work better on a white or black background? A simple and safe solar powered electrical circuit was designed to
operate a light bulb, a fan, and a siren. It was found that solar panels worked more effectively on a white background
than a black one. This experiment can be applied in studies of energy and engineering.


Project Number: MES042                                                Grade: 8
Title: Cause and Effect: Save the Coral, Save the Earth
Abstract: Coral makes up eight percent of the Earth's surface, and is a habitat. Coral death is becoming prominent,
and the potential for disaster and coral death stimulated me to find the cause of coral death and a natural, non-toxic
prevention. Through research, I found that the most likely causes of coral death were a temperature change, a
salinity, acidity, and nitrate increase, and a resultant Cyano HAB-algal bloom. I tested each factor, comparing each to
a control. Throughout this procedure, I found that all of these were at the root of coral bleaching. At this point, I found
that my control was coated in red slime algae, which is extremely detrimental to the coral, existing in surplus,
triggered by pollutants. Through experimentation, I found a cage of clay, activated charcoal, and hydrogen peroxide
to be effective in getting rid of the algae, creating a ratio of 6:3:1, respectively


Project Number: MES043                                            Grade: 8
Title: Cleaning Oil Spills
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MES044                                            Grade: 8
Title: Temperature vs. Dissolved Oxygen
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MES045                                            Grade: 8
Title: Stink Bug Repellent
Abstract: Stink bugs are small, flying bugs that eat crops and let off unpleasant smells. In my experiment I tested
five different stink bug repellents to see which was most effective. I chose this project because people were being
infested with these bugs in their homes. My experimental setup had three lanes, and at the end of each lane was the
repellent. On the other side of the lane was alcohol, the control. After 15 minutes I measured the distance the stink
bug was away from the repellent and concluded soapy alcohol worked best.


Project Number: MES046                                        Grade: 8
Title: Growing Plants with Magnets
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine if magnets affect plant growth. Grass seeds were planted
in three containers (no magnets, magnets under the soil, magnets above the soil) and watered every other day. After

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                          Page 56
             Intermediate – Earth/Space/Environment (MES) – 7th & 8th Grade

fifteen days the average growth was 17cm (no magnets), 17.7 cm (magnets under) and 17.2 cm (magnets above).
After thirty days the average growth was 12.1cm, 20.6cm, and 16.5 cm respectively. My hypothesis, if magnetic
fields affect plant growth then the plants will grow faster because the magnets will affect the minerals in the soil, was
supported by the data.


Project Number: MES047                                           Grade: 8
Title: Crazy Crystal Creations
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to analyze how temperature affects the crystallization of Borax. The
crystals were placed in a refrigerator, at room temperature, and in an ice bath. It was hypothesized that the crystals
would grow better in cooler temperatures (the refrigerator), because in order in order for the saturated water to regain
solubility and crystallize, the temperature must be cold. Crystals seemed to grow the best in the coldest temperature.
Environmentalists and earth scientists would be interested in these results.


Project Number: MES048                                            Grade: 8
Title: Salty Seas
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MES049                                            Grade: 7
Title: Sizing Up the Moon
Abstract: I did this project to discover whether or not the apparent changing of the moon’s size is illusory. I took
various quantities of data, such as angle from the horizon and temperature, and took photographs of the moon. Then,
I measured how many pixels tall the moon was on a paint program, and compared the size of the moon with the other
data. I did not find a correlation between angle and the size of the moon. Then, I can conclude that the changes are
illusory. Further research includes seeing if other factors might affect the size of the moon.



Project Number: MES050                                          Grade: 8
Title: Decomposition
Abstract: The purpose of the experiment was to see if you could accelerate or decelerate the rate of decomposition
in leaves. The procedure was to put the leaves in the jars and then put a substance in the jar with them. The data
showed leaves steadily decayed while others decayed much more quickly. The conclusions were bleach and air
decay leaves the fastest.


Project Number: MES051                                           Grade: 8
Title: Acid Rock
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to find out how Marcellus Shale drilling impacted the pH levels in local
water sources. In my project, I tested water from Nine Mile Run, the Monongahela River and the Allegheny River. To
test the water, I used an aquarium testing kit. I have found normal levels of pH in the water sources. In the coming
days, I plan on comparing the data I found in the water to data I found about pH levels before Marcellus Shale drilling
began. This will show me how much the Marcellus Shale drilling has impacted our waters.




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          Intermediate – Earth/Space/Environment (MES) – 7th & 8th Grade




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PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                    Page 58
                Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MER001                                         Grade: 7
Title: Catapult Chaos
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the angle of a catapult determined the distance a ping
pong ball would travel. Hypothesis: As the pull back angle increased so would the distance the ping pong ball travel.
Designed and built a catapult. Tested experiment ten times.
Results: As the pull back angle increased so did the distance the ping pong ball traveled. No significant differences
within each set of experiments. Conclusion: Experiment confirmed hypothesis that as the angle increased so would
the distance the ball traveled. Balls launched at 60 degree angle traveled the farthest.


Project Number: MER002                                           Grade: 8
Title: Magnetic Levitation
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to find out which types of materials would be the most likely to levitate
a magnet and, then, be able to be used to build a Maglev Train. The problem was: “Which material will levitate a
magnet?” It was hypothesized that aluminum and copper would be the best conductors under Lenz’s law to levitate a
magnet. It was found that the aluminum pipe was the best conductor to levitate a magnet. People that would be
interested in these results would be electrical engineers or scientists.


Project Number: MER003                                        Grade: 7
Title: Take Me Out to the Ballgame
Abstract: The composition of a baseball bat and its impact on ball flight distance was evaluated.


Project Number: MER004                                          Grade: 8
Title: Aw 'Chute!
Abstract: My purpose for this experiment was to see what size parachute is most effective for a safe landing. I
hypothesized that the largest parachute would be most effective for a safe landing because more air resistance will
be created. I made three parachutes of different sizes- small (35cm), medium (40cm), and large (45cm)- from
garbage bags. Then, I dropped each parachute 10 times from a 388 1/2cm high balcony, and used a stopwatch to
time how long it took each one to drop to the ground. I recorded the results and my data showed that my hypothesis
was correct.


Project Number: MER005                                        Grade: 7
Title: Which Truss Bridge Is Best for You?
Abstract: A variety of bridge types were constructed using balsa wood models. Each bridge was then evaluated for
strength and durability with scaled testing.


Project Number: MER006                                         Grade: 7
Title: The Electro-Magwheel
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MER007                                              Grade: 8
Title: Cost Effective Soundproofing
Abstract: Everywhere in the world there is sound. There is sound in places we want, like music, but there is also
sound that we don't want like in a private bedroom. The ides for Cost Effective Soundproofing is to find a simple,
affordable way to make common day places soundproof. In this experiment, I will be testing a multitude of materials
from egg cartons to dry wall with 3 trails using a Decibel (DB) meter to measure the results. The research can be
used for improving the quality of life in homes, offices, hotels, airports, etc.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                     Page 59
                Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MER008                                           Grade: 8
Title: Maximum Fiber Optic Bend Radius
Abstract: A fiber Optic cable is a very thin strand of glass used for transmitting data in the form of light. The fiber
optic cable is transparent and no smaller than a single human hair. Five brands of fiber optic cable were tested. In my
project I found which brand of fiber optic cable has the greatest tolerance for light transmission when bent. I came to
conclude that the fiber optic cable Lucent had the greatest tolerance for the light. This would benefit anyone installing,
or using fiber optic cables in modern times. Most fiber optic cable are installed and used in wire closets. These
closets keep getting filled up and sometimes the cables have to be bent just to fit. With the results of this project, you
can know exactly how far is too far to bend these cables.


Project Number: MER009                                         Grade: 8
Title: Learn Colors Game iPhone App
Abstract: iPhone Apps are quickly becoming a popular source of entertainment and education. This project focuses
on the development of an application that teaches young children, as well as those learning English as a second
language, to connect colors with the English words that describe them. At this current date, December 23, 2011,
Learn Colors Game has been downloaded 548 times across the world since its publication on October 14, 2011, and
has a five star rating.


Project Number: MER010                                         Grade: 8
Title: Fox Hole Radio
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to attempt to make a "Foxhole Radio" as constructed during World War II.
Using simple materials, such as wires and a pencil, a rudimentary radio was created that can pick up radio
frequencies. The goal to was measure the quantity of radio frequencies that could be received via the Foxhole
Radio.


Project Number: MER011                                           Grade: 7
Title: Rocket Car
Abstract: Potential energy is the energy that is stored in a system. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and
movement. The results of potential energy compared to kinetic energy depend on many different variables which
affect the velocity and distance of motion. My researched topics for potential energy transformed into kinetic energy
were the computer, Dictionary, Encyclopedia, and a science top 20 magazine. I went on 3 different websites for the
computer research: Kinetic Energy, Understanding Potential and Kinetic Energy Hypothesis, and Studying Potential
Energy. I also researched encyclopedia to understand the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy.


Project Number: MER012                                              Grade: 8
Title: Rushing Water
Abstract: In my project, I am testing to see if the size of a hole in a tidal barrage effects how much hydroelectricity is
produced. To test this I have built a tidal barrage with three different sized holes. I will measure the amount of
hydroelectricity that is being produced in various ways to support my outcome. I will count the rotations of a propeller
of each hole, how long each hole powers a light bulb, the flow rate of each hole, and I will use the power equation
P=eHQg to determine the total energy output of each hole.


Project Number: MER013                                           Grade: 7
Title: Increasing the Elasticity of Rubber Bands
Abstract: Given a package of #64 rubber bands, could I manipulate the bands to make one shoot farther, and retain
its elasticity longer? I manipulated the rubber bands in five ways. I soaked the rubber bands in 34°, 61°, and 150°F
water, heated them in a 170° oven, and cut them down to half their width. The oven heated rubber bands shot the
farthest on average. The half-width rubber bands shot the shortest on average.


Project Number: MER014                                               Grade: 8
Title: Testing the Poundage of Fishing Line
Abstract: Testing the Poundage of Fishing Line
I took 6lb test fishing line and took 5lb of weight, tied the fishing line on the weight and pulled the line up with the
weight, it held so I put more weight on the line until it broke. Then I took two 6lb fishing line and put doubled the line
and tested with weight to see if it would hold double. I did this with a line folded in 3. The line did not double or triple
it’s holding ability.


PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                            Page 60
                Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MER015                                         Grade: 8
Title: Hydroelectricity
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see if a water turbine could be engineered and successfully light a
1.5 voltage light bulb. The design worked successfully with a pressurized hose. The light bulb could also be lit by
spinning a crank (using mechanical energy). Environmentalists and engineers would be interested in this design


Project Number: MER016                                               Grade: 7
Title: Spin Right Round
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to determine how the number of coils affects how quickly a motor spins. I will
make motors with different amount of coils in order to see which spins the fastest I will measure the speed with a
voltmeter. If I build three electric motors, one with 10 coils, one with 30 coils and one with 50 coils, then the motor will
spin at different rates. I think that the motor with 50 coils will spin the fastest. The reason why I think the motor with
50 coils will spin the fastest because I think that it makes more electricity.


Project Number: MER017                                          Grade: 8
Title: Salt Water: Alternative Energy?
Abstract: Desalination is the process of removing salt from seawater so that it can be used for drinking and
irrigation. However, this process has many problems such as using extreme amounts of energy, being very
expensive, and the chemicals used are harmful to the environment. In this experiment, 11 metal electrodes were
tested in a 20% and a 40% salt concentration, measured in volts, then the top 2 metals were measured in amperage,
and the top metal was doubled to show the effect of different salt content in various sea waters. It was determined
that magnesium performed the best in a 40% salt concentration and doubled. Therefore, it is theoretically possible to
power the desalination process using salt water. This would be known as “Regeneration” or “Re-gen” for short.


Project Number: MER018                                            Grade: 7
Title: What stops an arrow the fastest?
Abstract: The problem is: using the following materials; foam block, pillow, sand bag, or 3D archery target, what
stops an arrow the fastest? It is hypothesized that the object with the greatest density will stop an arrow the fastest
and cause less penetration. A brief procedure of the experiment is as follows: Set up the foam block, sand bag,
pillow, and 3 D archery target and shoot each one five times. Take pictures, record data, and analyze data to draw
conclusions. The results do not support my hypothesis


Project Number: MER019                                           Grade: 8
Title: Best Insulation for Clothing
Abstract: Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer. Insulation for clothing is necessary to prevent
hypothermia. This work intends to determine the most effective fabric for use of insulation. Four different fabrics were
compared: Cotton, Under Armour, Fleece, and a Cotton/Polyester mix. To test which fabric provides best insulation,
temperature change was compared between a container wrapped with a test fabric and a control container. It was
determined that Fleece was the best insulator, because it yielded the least temperature change.


Project Number: MER020                                            Grade: 8
Title: Suspenseful Potential
Abstract: My experiment is to test if the gravitational potential energy of a coaster will have to be greater than the
kinetic energy it needs to complete its track. I hypothesized that the potential energy will always be greater than the
kinetic energy. In my experiment, I made three tracks using foam pipe insulation. Then I measured how high the
starting point was and how long the track was. Then I got the mass of a marble, let it run down the track and
calculated it velocity. Using these measurements, I calculated the amount of energy for both types in joules. I
realized my hypothesis was proven correct.


Project Number: MER021                                                Grade: 7
Title: Soaring High
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to determine which wing design creates the most lift. I am going to do this by
creating six different wing designs. They will be a conventional straight wing, a swept-back wing, a swept forward
wing, a delta wing, variable swept wing, and a flying wing. I will test all of them to discover which one creates the
most lift. I will do this by first creating the wings out of plywood, then placing them at a thirty degree angle on top of
wooden supports. Next I will slide the wings into a wind tunnel. Then I will begin to periodically add weights onto the

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                           Page 61
                Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER) – 7th & 8th Grade

wing until it goes under thirty degrees. I believe that the delta wing will create the most lift. I believe this because they
have a large wingspan and are used for military aircrafts.


Project Number: MER022                                           Grade: 8
Title: The Effects of Aerodynamics on Paper Gliders
Abstract: My experiment is on the effects of aerodynamics on paper gliders. My purpose is to see which plane is
better, an omniwing (single wing plane) or a standard plane. My hypothesis is to see which plane will fly farther and
better. I used three different planes, a control, an omniwing, and a standard plane. To test my planes I used a tape
measure to measure the distance and a stopwatch to time them. After I got the time and distance I found the
average of both planes and announced the winner of that day. That is how I tested.


Project Number: MER024                                             Grade: 8
Title: The Waterwheel
Abstract: If I use more bottle caps on my wheel will the wheel spin faster because there is more flowing water and
increase power? My project is to show how energy is created through flowing water. I decided to do this when I was
researching different things to pick my topic then I noticed a ling to a video of a water wheel. It looked like it would be
very fun to build so I picked it. I hoped to achieve success by getting the water wheel in motion but then I figured out
this was going to be hard. But knowledge will increase when you experience failures so I would not give up.


Project Number: MER025                                             Grade: 8
Title: Soaking Up The Storm
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MER026                                               Grade: 7
Title: Solar Panel Efficiency Comparison
Abstract: My science project is going to test various ways to increase solar panel efficiency. I will be conducting
three tests. First however I will be assembling the solar panel from scratch. After that I conducted the tests. These
were cooling the solar panel, using mirrors to angle more light onto the solar panel surface, and mathematically
angling the cells of the solar panel to get the optimum light intake from the sun. These tests will be performed on
three different days with the same solar panel. Once the tests are done I think hypothesize that using mirrors to angle
light will increase solar panel efficiency the most. I will reach this possible conclusion by measuring the energy output
and voltage.


Project Number: MER027                                        Grade: 8
Title: Bridge The Gap
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to analyze the strength of various bridge designs. Using Kinex materials,
K-Truss, Arch, and Suspension bridges were created. Load weight was added until the bridge design was
compromised. The K-Truss bridge was found to be the most successful at holding the largest amount of weight.



Project Number: MER028                                            Grade: 8
Title: 15 Miles on the Erie Canal
Abstract: A makeshift calorimeter, which measures heat, was made up of a cup and a foam lid. Inside was an
eggbeater pedal suspended in 200 milliliters of water. A drill press was used to turn the eggbeater at 620 rotations
per minute. The eggbeater pedal rotated in the water, and the water temperature fluctuated. A temperature probe
was inserted into the cup before testing and remained throughout to graph the temperature rise. The data was
collected on the computer program Logger Pro and recorded. The results show that when water is subjected to more
mechanical energy, the thermal energy increases accordingly.


Project Number: MER029                                          Grade: 7
Title: Hovercraft Hero
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to find which surface a homemade hovercraft glides the best on.
To conduct this experiment i constructed a homemade hovercraft and placed it on three different surfaces.
The experimental results were measured by finding the mean of several trials.
The results of this experiment showed that the tile surface was the best for the hovercraft to glide on.


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                Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER) – 7th & 8th Grade

The results indicate that the hypothesis should be accepted because the hovercraft did have the least amount of
friction and glided easily on the tile surface.


Project Number: MER030                                         Grade: 8
Title: How Much Electricity Could Be Saved By Using Smart Technology?
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to determine whether energy saving devices really work and how many
watts, CO2 and money you could conserve per month and per year by using them. The investigator tested a lamp
using a CFL and an incandescent light bulb. The investigator measured both light bulbs with the Belkin Conserve
INsight. The investigator measured watt and CO2 output and also the cost. The investigator repeated the same steps
using a television with and without an energy saving power cord. The investigator concluded that an energy saving
light bulb saves you money, CO2 output and watt output but that the power cord had little impact on the watts, CO2
and cost of using the television.


Project Number: MER031                                          Grade: 8
Title: Building a Stronger Bridge
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the difference in strength between bridge designs.
This project compared 3 different bridge designs (Simple Beam, King Post truss, and Warren Truss). I used the
following steps: 1) Build three bridge designs out of balsa wood, 2) hang a bucket from the middle of each bridge, 3)
add weight to the bucket until each bridge breaks.
As more supports are added to a bridge the stronger it becomes. As expected, the model bridge with the most
supports was the strongest. The Warren Truss held 6 times as much weight as the Simple Beam and e times as
much as the King Post Truss.


Project Number: MER032                                               Grade: 7
Title: Which Bridge will support the most weight?
Abstract: The purpose of the investigator's experiment was to determine which bridge (beam, arch, or suspension)
is most structurally efficient. The investigator first build the bridges out of balsa wood. Each bridge was 16 inches
long. Then the investigator attached a weight basket to each bridge and tested how much weight it could hold. Next,
the investigator recorded the weight. The eam bridge held 64 pounds, the arc bridge held 39 pounds, and the
suspension 59 pounds. The investigator then concluded that the beam bridge has the best structure of the three
bridges.


Project Number: MER033                                            Grade: 8
Title: Shapes and Scattered Light
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to determine which shapes scatter the most light. I will tape the inside of a
box with black paper and tape a lux meter sensor to bottom of the inside of the box. I will cut hole for flashlight above
and test the shapes made to determine which scatters more light. The lower the lux meter, reading the more the light
that is scattered. I think that the crumpled cylinder would scatter the most light. I made this hypothesis because the
cylinder that’s crumpled has lots of creases that could make the radar not send back accurate reading.


Project Number: MER034                                           Grade: 7
Title: Bullseye!
Abstract: A chronograph was placed in front of the bow to calculate the velocity of the moving arrows. After
calculating the velocity the velocity and the mass of the arrows will be used to calculate momentum. These results
were recorded, graphed and analyzed. The results showed the arrows with 6.48g tips had the most momentum while
arrows with 3.24g tips had the most velocity.


Project Number: MER035                                          Grade: 7
Title: Charge in the car
Abstract: The purpose of the experiment was to find the most efficient way to charge an iPod using a homemade
device. The power source was connected to the homemade charger and a reading was taken of the amount of raw
energy produced by the power source and the energy after going through a 5V regulator. If was found that batteries
lost about 1/3 of their energy while solar panels and generators lost about half of their energy. Batteries are less
durable and therefore more costly even though they work best.




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                 Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MER036                                              Grade: 8
Title: Building Bridges
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MER037                                        Grade: 7
Title: I Can't Hear You
Abstract: Bubble wrap, carpeting, foam, and corrugated cardboard, where placed in a wooden box to determine
which reduced the volume of sound the most. A speaker was wrapped in these and placed in the box and connected
to a computer. A program called signalgen generated the sound. The volume was measured with an SPL meter.
Twenty frequencies were used with 5 measurements taken per frequency. These where averaged to get 20
measurements. The formula =10*(LOG(A1/A2))=10^(A3) was used to find the percent difference between the
variables and control. Foam worked the best, carpeting was the worst.


Project Number: MER038                                                 Grade: 7
Title: Frozen Again!
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to solve the problem of my goat’s water freezing during the cold winter
nights. When the water is frozen the goats cannot drink and their milk production plummets. Our family depends on
the milk from our goats. I will be testing the insulative properties of four different materials; rice hulls, straw, fiberglass
insulation, and wool fiber. For each of the four materials, I will be using two used tires, stacked upon each other, filling
their cavities with one of the materials. The control will be two stacked tires with empty cavities. Then placing a
bucket of water inside of each, I will record three temperature readings in the evening, and then measure the
temperature differences. My initial results pointed to the rice hulls and fleece being equal at maintaining the water
temperatures. One definite result was my control showed that tires alone add an insulative effect compared to a
bucket of water just sitting outside of the tires. I am still collecting data so my final Abstract and results will be
available on Fair Day.


Project Number: MER039                                            Grade: 7
Title: Comparative Woodburning Temperatures
Abstract: The problem is: what type of wood can create the highest temperature in a certain amount of time? It is
hypothesized that the wood that is largest in size, and has the thickest bark will generate the highest temperature. A
brief procedure of the experiment is as follows: Put the wood in the stone and cast iron wood burning stove.
Positition and light the fire starter making sure the wood has caught fire before closing the door. Once the wood has
caught fire and door is closed, shut the flu properly and set the thermometer to measure every few minutes for
approximately 5 minutes. Repeat the process five times for each type of wood. Observe and record data.
My hypothesis was supported.


Project Number: MER040                                              Grade: 7
Title: Hot and Cold Heat Transfer
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to see which liq




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                Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MER043                                             Grade: 7
Title: Square Root Machine
Abstract: How do machines calculate square roots? Although computers and calculators contain special pieces of
hardware that directly perform addition, multiplication, etc., they typically calculate square roots either through
software or through logarithmic lookup tables. In my project, I have designed a new hardware-only machine that
uses digital logic (e.g., AND and OR gates) to directly compute square roots without using lookup tables, using the
digit-by-digit method on binary numbers. I have implemented a prototype of my design on real hardware using an
FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) development board, and I have evaluated tradeoffs between speed and
hardware cost.


Project Number: MER044                                            Grade: 7
Title: Light Up My World
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to determine if the light brightness output of a LED will vary when different
regulated voltages are introduced to it. All four LED lights turned on at a specific forward voltage and increased in
brightness with an increasing regulated DC voltage input as predicted. All four LED lights reduced their brightness by
approximately 60% when a square oscillating wave was introduced to the same LED lights with the same respective
voltage peak levels as predicted.


Project Number: MER045                                         Grade: 8
Title: The Effect of Wind on Bridges
Abstract: I chose this project because when I seen the lives that were lost to bridge accidents related to wind I was
overwhelmed. The goal of my project was to see if widening a bridge or adding handrails would make it better stand
up to the wind. My hypothesis was that adding handrails would strengthen the bridge. I also said widening the bridge
would make it stronger. My hypothesis was correct my data showed that when the bridge was widened vibration
decreased. It also showed that when handrails were added the vibration decreased.


Project Number: MER046                                               Grade: 7
Title: Building From the Ground Up
Abstract: Building a skyscraper, or any structure, is more than just building the walls, windows, and floors. All
structures require a foundation to keep them from falling down. This especially important when a structure is built on
a hill or on a slope. In this science project, I will build a tower of Legos on slopes with different angles. I will
investigate how deep an engineer has to dig the foundationfor each angle of slope so that the building does not fall
down.


Project Number: MER047                                          Grade: 7
Title: Pole The Flag
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.



Project Number: MER048                                          Grade: 7
Title: Shielding from Laptop EMF Emmisions
Abstract: Laptops emit electromagnetic radiation, (EMF), which can be hazardous to the user’s health. EMF shields
are available, but they are expensive and only shield the bottom of the laptop. In this experiment EMF laptop bottom
shields were made using removable fabric pouches to cover metallic fabric inserts. Additionally, a see-through shield
material was attached to each bottom shield in order to protect the user from EMF emissions over the entire surface
of the laptop. The homemade shields blocked over 99% of laptop EMF. The homemade shields were more
economical and unlike commercial shields, provided protection over the entire laptop.



Project Number: MER049                                          Grade: 7
Title: I Love My Cell Phone, But Does It Love Me?
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.




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                Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MER050                                     Grade: 8
Title: Truss Bridge Strength
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment is to determine whether it makes a difference in the strength of a truss
bridge whether the truss is above or below the roadbed.


Project Number: MER051                                           Grade: 8
Title: The Black Hole Box
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MER052                                             Grade: 8
Title: 3-D Holographic Projector
Abstract: In this project, I attempted to design a device that can project images in three dimensions. The idea for
this project was inspired by fascination in futuristic technologies such as a holographic projector. I made hypothetical
designs based on research, then attempted to test them by creating a rough prototype. During experimentation, I
found that glass bent in the correct way could reflect light in a way that can be used for 3-D. I conclude that, while a
working prototype hasn’t been disproven, I have not achieved. Further testing will be necessary to prove the concept.


Project Number: MER053                                            Grade: 8
Title: You Would Be Shocked!
Abstract: The purpose of the experiment is to discover what level of relative humidity is necessary to suppress a
static electric field. To test this a Van De Graaff generator was built to generate the static charge needed. Also
constructed was a highly sensitive static field detector. Both devices were then placed in a small room where the
relative humidity could be manipulated.
Final results will be reported once experimentation has completed.


Project Number: MER054                                            Grade: 7
Title: Just a Bunch of Static
Abstract: My experiment deals with static electricity. Ouch! You just got shocked on a door knob and you don’t know
why. The answer simple static electricity. The purpose of this project is to see if I can create transfer and discharge
static electricity using a Leyden jar and an electrophorus. I determined that you get different voltages of static
electricity with different charge numbers.


Project Number: MER055                                               Grade: 7
Title: What is the best natural insulation?
Abstract: There are many natural insulation materials. I have chosen leaves, grass, pine needles and dirt to study.
My hypothesis is that dirt will insulate the best. I will investigate how these materials will keep cold water cold and
warm water warm. Each material will be placed in wooden boxes and measured after two hours. The material that
keeps the water temperature closest to the starting temperature will insulate best. Pine needles had the best
insulation followed by dirt, in insulating cold water. Dirt provided the best insulation in keeping the warm water
warmest.



Project Number: MER056                                         Grade: 8
Title: The Effect of Temperature on LED’s
Abstract: This project is to see how much and when temperature affects the light output of a LED (Light Emitting
Diode). Wouldn’t you like to know this if you where camping, hunting, fishing, etc? So if you’re outdoorsy this project
is for you. I have completed numerous tests at different temperature and concluded that temperature does affect the
light output of a LED just like my hypothesis stated.


Project Number: MER057                                             Grade: 8
Title: Go, Solar Car, Go!
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to see how the angle of sun rays affects the speed of a model solar car. First
I have to buy and build a solar toy car. Then I get a flash light and angle it at different angles to determine how they
make the toy car move. Next I will time the speed of the car. I will make sure the flash light is at the same distance. If
I took those steps I would find out if a certain angle would affect the speed of my solar car. I think that if change the


PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                         Page 66
                Intermediate – Engineering/Robotics (MER) – 7th & 8th Grade

angle the speed would be different. I think a 45 degree angle will make it go faster because it is a lower angle and
closer to the car.


Project Number: MER058                                          Grade: 7
Title: Electromagnetic Piston Engine
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.




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PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                   Page 68
          Intermediate – Medicine/Health/Microbiology (MMH) – 7th & 8th Grade



Project Number: MMH001                                            Grade: 7
Title: Tooth Enamel Staining by Beverages
Abstract: This project tests which commonly consumed beverages cause the most discoloration or staining of tooth
enamel. Cups are filled with either milk, water, coffee, black tea, grape juice, Coke, green tea, or red wine. The pH of
each beverage is measured. An egg is placed in each cup and allowed to soak for various time intervals. After each
time interval, the amount of discoloration of the eggs are measured and compared. Eggs are used to simulate tooth
enamel because eggshells have similar mineral content. The more acidic beverages caused the most staining.


Project Number: MMH002                                      Grade: 7
Title: Which Flour Has the Most Gluten?
Abstract: All-purpose, whole wheat, and unbleached flours were tested for the amount of gluten. Whole wheat flour
contained the most gluten.


Project Number: MMH003                                            Grade: 8
Title: Whose Mouth is Cleaner? - A Dog's or a Human's?
Abstract: The problem for this experiment asks whether a dog’s or a human’s mouth is cleaner. If bacteria colonies
are grown from human and dog samples, then the cleanliness of the mouth can be determined. To conduct this
experiment this researcher will ask peers to fill out consent forms before taking swabs of the mouth. Collect the
swabs, and then lightly rub all swabs into separate Petri dishes. Petri dishes will be sealed after inoculation, and
incubated. After the colonies have grown, compare the color and number of bacteria colonies to determine whose
mouth is cleaner.


Project Number: MMH004                                      Grade: 7
Title: Can Microorganisms Be Affected By the Magnetic Field?
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MMH005                                          Grade: 8
Title: When Cancer Attacks
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to analyze the karyotypes of patients with cancer. The chromosomal
karyotypes of individuals with leukemia were compared to those of healthy individuals. Various mutations, deletions,
and insertions can be identified from the karyotypes that may be the cause of certain forms of cancer. This project
can provide useful information in the fields of genetics and medicine.


Project Number: MMH006                                           Grade: 8
Title: How Bacteria Contaminated are Restaurant Menus
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine which restaurant’s menu is most contaminated with
bacteria. Swabs will be taken from 2 of each restaurant menu, one will be sterilized and the other will not. Swabs will
then be used to inoculate 10mL of sterile saline water. Two different kinds of agar, Nutrient agar and MacConkey
agar, will be inoculated with the water samples previously prepared and will be incubated at 37 degrees Celsius. If
you would like to see the results of this experiment, please view this presentation on the day of the science fair.


Project Number: MMH007                                          Grade: 8
Title: Effect of Dynamic vs. Static Stretches on Pitching
Abstract: Take five or more people and have each do either a dynamic or static stretch. A few stretches they can do
are shoulder stretch, hamstring stretch, scorpion, etc. Then have each one pitch ten times. Keep track of how closely
grouped the pitches are.




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          Intermediate – Medicine/Health/Microbiology (MMH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MMH008                                           Grade: 7
Title: Bye, Bye Boo Boos!
Abstract: Sterile paper disks were soaked for 2 minutes in 10 mL of hydrogen peroxide, povidone iodine, Walgreens
antiseptic skin cleanser, Walgreens first aid antiseptic spray, CVS decolorized iodine, and Neosporin were placed on
an agar plate streaked with non pathogenic staphylococcus epidermidis. The plate was taped shut, inverted, and
placed in the incubator for 48 hours before being removed and the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded.
Hydrogen peroxide created the greatest zone of inhibition.


Project Number: MMH009                                               Grade: 8
Title: Most Effective Acne Medication
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to see which acne medication is most effective in killing acne causing,
Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria I will test my experiment by taking a circular piece of paper soaked in the
diluted antibiotic, and placing it in the center of a section of a Petri dish rubbed with Staphylococcus epidermidis.
After four days I will measure the inhibition zone that formed to determine the effectiveness of the acne medication. I
observed and concluded that Clindamycin Antibiotic had the largest inhibition zone followed by Benzoyl Peroxide and
then the Tetracycline Antibiotic.


Project Number: MMH010                                            Grade: 7
Title: Herbal vs. Synthetic
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see if tea tree oil or erythromycin would inhibit more bacteria. First,
pipette 3 l of staphylococcus aureus onto each agar plate, then poke four holes in each of two plates, and place four
erythromycin discs on the third one. Fill one plate’s holes with tea tree oil, and fill the other’s with sterile water. Place
them in an incubator and record data at 24 and 48 hours. My conclusion supported the hypothesis, in which it was
predicted that tea tree oil would work better than erythromycin.


Project Number: MMH011                                         Grade: 8
Title: Bacterial Resistance
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to make people aware of current bacterial resistance. To conduct
experiment, spread three bacteria species on each plate and place four erythromycin disks on each plate. Allow the
bacteria to grow and record all data. Remove the bacterial colony closest to the disk and re-culture for next
generation. The data collected showed that all bacteria became less instead of more resistant to erythromycin which
was unexpected. The hypothesis was incorrect because the bacterial species became less instead of more resistant
to the erythromycin antibiotic.


Project Number: MMH012                                          Grade: 7
Title: Spices and Bacterial Growth
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether spices inhibit bacterial growth and if so which
spice is most effective. Triptych soy agar plates covered in Escherichia Coli, containing for holes filled with oil spice,
were put in an incubator at 37 degrees centigrade. The zones of inhibition around each hole were measured at 24
and 48 hours and data showed that all of the spices inhibited bacterial growth. However coriander had a significantly
larger zone of inhibition at 22.1 mm. My findings on coriander can be used for medicinal purposes and cures in the
prevention of harmful bacteria and disease.


Project Number: MMH013                                               Grade: 8
Title: Freaky Fingernails
Abstract: The project was done to try and figure out how different liquids affect fingernails. There were 42 fingernails
in all, seven for each liquid, and five different liquids, Water, Dish Soap, Vinegar, Olive Oil, and Coke. Some
fingernails were left on the counter as the control. For seven days data was recorded to see the results. The water
ended up being the best for the nails. The vinegar and coke turned the nail a brownish color. The control became
hard. The dish soap and olive oil turned the nail a yellowish color. Liquids have many interesting affects on nails.


Project Number: MMH014                                          Grade: 8
Title: Vitamin's Affect Inhibiting Bacteria
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find out which liquid vitamin would inhibit the most bacteria. The
liquid vitamins tested were B12, C, D, and E. Four holes were poked into TSA agar plates, were filled with one of the
liquid vitamins, and were placed into the incubator at 37 degrees Celsius. After sitting for 48 hour time periods in the


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          Intermediate – Medicine/Health/Microbiology (MMH) – 7th & 8th Grade

incubator, each plate was taken out and the zone of inhibition was measured around each hole. My data showed that
liquid vitamin C inhibited the most bacteria out of all of the liquid vitamins tested in this experiment.


Project Number: MMH015                                            Grade: 7
Title: Reckoning the Effectiveness of the Flu Vaccine
Abstract: Influenza is caused by a RNA virus, which frequently evolves into different strains by constantly changing
its nucleotides. Every year the World Health Organization recommends vaccine strains by guessing the next year’s
virus strains. As the vaccine is developed by prediction, its effectiveness varies yearly. This project will analyze the
past 10-years' flu vaccines' effectiveness. The H protein sequences from vaccines and circulating virus strains will be
compared to find the vaccine efficacy. A correlation graph will be generatedby plotting the percent sequence identity
against the number of people hospitalized with flu symptoms, and will be used to estimate the effectiveness of the
current (2011) flu vaccine. I’m still conducting my experiment. My final abstract will be available on Fair Day.



Project Number: MMH016                                            Grade: 7
Title: Hand Sanitizers vs Antibacterial Wipes
Abstract: Hand sanitizers and antibacterial wipes can help prevent disease and illness from germs transferred by
the hands. This experiment was intended to find out whether sanitizers or hand wipes would most inhibit bacterial
growth. Paper discs soaked in 7 sanitizers and 7 antibacterial wipes and sterile water. They were then were placed
on agar plates streaked with E. coli, S. epidermidis, and M. luteus. Four trials were conducted for each
sanitizer/wipe/control for each bacterial strain. The 90 agar plates were placed in the incubator for 72 hours at 37
degrees Celcius. Plates were removed, zones of inhibition were measured, and the results of the four trials for each
were averaged. Hand wipes inhibited more growth than sanitizers. Also, Baby Ganics sanitizer and CVS hand wipes
inhibited bacterial growth the best. These both contained Benzalkonium Chloride as the active ingredient. Future
work is planned to test more strains of bacteria.



Project Number: MMH017                                            Grade: 7
Title: Lung Capacity in Children
Abstract: The investigator's purpose is to see if boys' lung capacity is bigger than girls' lung capacity. The
investigator did her project by making three boys and three girls blow into separate balloons, and measuring them.
The investigator's conclusion is that a boy's lung capacity is bigger than a girl's lung capacity.


Project Number: MMH018                                              Grade: 8
Title: Effects of Alcohol
Abstract: My purpose was to determine the effects of alcohol on a random group of people. Tequila was given to
participants followed by acuity testing at regular intervals. I learned that alcohol affects people differently, depending
on age, height, weight and gender. As hypothesized, most participants’ tests results declined. The results were as
expected. I knew alcohol affected people and this experiment showed me exactly how. This project would be
beneficial to bars and restaurants to help detect excessive drinking. For a future experiment, I could use different
types of alcohol and run more tests for more precise results.


Project Number: MMH019                                              Grade: 7
Title: Flippin' Out
Abstract: I have been on a swim team for five years. Our team enjoys working out using flippers to improve the
kicking action of our strokes. For this project I am examining the impact of flippers when used regularly during
practice for the dolphin and flutter kick. Participants will swim strokes using these kicks with and without flippers for a
duration between 5 and 20 minutes. I will look at 25 yard swim times without flippers to help determine if this device
might be helping swimmer performance. Results will be available at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MMH020                                             Grade: 8
Title: How Sweet It Is
Abstract: I will be testing different types of food and drink to see how much glucose is in each. To test this, I put
30mL of different types of food (mashed bananas, steak sauce, mashed zucchini, mashed carrots, mashed bread
and Diet Pepsi) in clear plastic cups. Then I added 30mL of water to the food to make it more of a liquid. Next, I
dipped a glucose test strip, which is typically used for urinalysis, into each solution. I checked the amount of glucose


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          Intermediate – Medicine/Health/Microbiology (MMH) – 7th & 8th Grade

with the scale on the side of the box. I hypothesized that the mashed bananas would have the highest amount of
glucose. My hypothesis was shown to be incorrect. I concluded that bread actually had the most glucose.


Project Number: MMH021                                          Grade: 8
Title: The effect of exercise on sleep
Abstract: Abstract                                                       The effects of exercise before bed.
While knowing sleep and exercise are both important for enjoying good health, research is unclear about exercise
before bed having an effect on sleep and then on the performance of a person the next day. This project intended to
see if exercising before bed would have a positive effect on sleep due to fatigue from exercise as well as increased
performance the next day due to a good night’s sleep. My research suggests that the best time to exercise is 60-90
minutes before bed – that exercise closer to bedtime may lessen the amount of restful sleep.



Project Number: MMH022                                            Grade: 8
Title: Bacteria Be Gone!
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to determine what dilution rate best decontaminates a household
sponge. I placed a sterilized inoculating loop into a tube containing E coli, swirled it around to catch the organism,
swirled the organism into a broth, and incubated the broth. I diluted the bleach into 33 ppm, 66 ppm, 132 ppm, and
200 ppm. I soaked the sponges in the broth, placed each sponge in the different dilution rates, and plated the sample.
I counted the bacteria growth colonies. My hypothesis was correct; the 200 ppm dilution most effectively killed
bacteria.


Project Number: MMH023                                           Grade: 7
Title: Off Balance
Abstract: Balance is essential for completing many everyday tasks like walking or riding a bike. This project is
intended to bring awareness to the role that two of our senses play in keeping us on balance. Sight and hearing will
be the focus of my project. Participants will be deprived of one or both of these two senses as they walk and do basic
skills on a standard balance beam. Results will be available at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MMH024                                            Grade: 8
Title: Eat Your Way to a Healthy Day
Abstract: Whenever I eat a good breakfast I always feel better at lunch than if I eat nothing. The purpose of this
project was to learn what type of breakfast would impact a student’s performance in school the best. The five different
categories tested were carbohydrate and protein, carbohydrate based, protein based, refined sugar based, and no
breakfast. I had each student eat a certain type of breakfast and then recorded their hunger and alertness on a scale
of 1-5, followed by self-observations. Results will be available at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MMH025                                         Grade: 7
Title: Does Strength of Magnet Affect Bacteria to Proliferate?
Abstract: Prepared two tubes containing sterile Lauria Broth solution which was inoculated with E. coli. One tube
was placed in a device containing eight N 42 magnets. The other tube was placed in a similar device not containing
magnets (Control). Both tubes were incubated at 37°C and a sample was removed from each tube after 24, 48, 72,
and 96 hours of incubation. The number of bacteria present in the sample was determined by using a Spec 20 and
by counting colonies present on MacConkey agar plates.


Project Number: MMH026                                          Grade: 8
Title: Do Ice Packs Keep Lunches Cold?
Abstract: Ice packs numbering from 0-5 were placed in a lunch box. Temperatures within lunch box were measured
before and after the investigation. At least 2 ice packs were needed to keep lunch box under 4 degrees Celsius.


Project Number: MMH027                                             Grade: 8
Title: Which Topical Antibiotic Works Best?
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to see which topical antibiotic worked the best. First, using a pipette.
Spread 5 microliters of Stahylococcus epidermitis bacteria into an agar plate. Then, make a square out of holes made
by a straw. Place a drop of the antibiotic into each of the holes, and out it into an incubator for 48 hours. After each 24


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          Intermediate – Medicine/Health/Microbiology (MMH) – 7th & 8th Grade

hour period, measure the radius’s of the holes and average the data. The data showed that Neosporin did the best
out of the four antibiotics, but was more expensive than Triple Antibiotic, the next leading brand.


Project Number: MMH028                                         Grade: 8
Title: How Effective Are Mouth Guard Cleaning Methods
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MMH029                                          Grade: 8
Title: Does Moisture Affect Yeast?
Abstract: Bread dough was made using yeast and different amounts of moisture. One amount was more than
recommended, one amount was less than recommended, and one was the recommended amount.
There was no significant difference among the heights of the risen dough.


Project Number: MMH030                                            Grade: 8
Title: Is Listerine Any Better than Home Remedies?
Abstract: Although Listerine mouthwash is the most used mouthwash in the United States, recent studies have
shown that it increases the risk of oral cancer. This experiment was conducted to see if home remedies of salt or
lemon mouthwash could be better alternatives to Listerine. These three mouthwashes were tested by incubating 40
Petri dishes for 24 hours on 37 degrees Celsius with bacteria from my mouth. Data was taken by measuring the zone
of inhibition from the edge of the paper disc to the nearest colony of bacteria. It was determined that the lemon
mouthwash prevented the most bacterial growth.



Project Number: MMH031                                         Grade: 8
Title: How Does Exercise Affect Your Heart Rate?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find out if anaerobic or aerobic exercises increase a human's heart
rate more The investigator tested walking for the anaerobic exercise and running for the aerobic exercise. The
investigator had eleven human subjects execute each exercise for one minute. The investigator gathered all data and
concluded that aerobic exercise increase a human's heart rate the most.


Project Number: MMH032                                         Grade: 7
Title: Mouth Stuff
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MMH033                                              Grade: 7
Title: How Bacteria Contaminated is Ice Served @ Restaurants?
Abstract: Purpose: Which restaurant serves ice contaminated with the most bacteria.
Procedure:
1. Place 1 mL of sterile distilled water on a petri dish containing MacConkey Agar. (Control)
2. Repeat step 1 using 7 more dishes.
3. Randomly select one of the four restaurants for testing.
4. Repeat steps 1 – 2 using the ice water from the restaurant selected in step 3.
5. Repeat steps 3 - 4 for the remaining restaurants.
6. Incubate all petri dishes at 37°C for 48 hours and record the number of bacteria colonies present.
7. Repeat steps 1 – 6 using nutrient agar petri dishes.
 Data is still being collected and my results will be available at the fair.


Project Number: MMH034                                          Grade: 7
Title: The Effect of Different Sweetners on Yease Fermentation
Abstract: This experiment's purpose was to determine if yeast will proof when using artificial sweeteners. The
investigator measured sixty ml of water into three jars and added yeast to each jar. Three grams of suer were placed
in one jar, and the same amount of Splenda to another. The third jar remained a control jar with nothing aded to the
yeast. The height the yeast raised in each jar was recorded every five minutes for forty-five minutes. The
investigator concluded that sugar caused yeast to raise more than Splenda.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                    Page 73
          Intermediate – Medicine/Health/Microbiology (MMH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MMH035                                         Grade: 8
Title: Wipe It Clean
Abstract: Sterile discs were placed in 20mL Lysol, Giant Eagle Disinfecting Wipes, Sani-Cloth, Clorox, Seventh
Generation, Up & Up, and Distilled Water (control). The paper discs were soaked in the solution for 10 minutes and
dripped for 2 minutes before being placed in agar plates streaked with bacillus cereus. The plates were inverted in
an incubator set at 37° Celsius for 48 hours before being removed and the zone of inhibition measured. There was a
7mm difference between Up & Up which had the largest zone and Seventh Generation with the smallest and was 6
cents more costly than Up & Up.


Project Number: MMH036                                           Grade: 7
Title: What can you eat before working out?
Abstract: The purpose of the experiment was to determine whether it was better to eat carbohydrates or proteins
before performing physical activity. The investigator used ten girls ages 12-13 and had them eat meals of
carbohydrates or proteins. They then rested for an hour and then jumped rope until they became fatigued. The data
concluded that most of the girls performed better after eating carbohydrates.


Project Number: MMH037                                             Grade: 8
Title: A Basketball's starting position's affect on a player's shooting percentage
Abstract: People shoot from all different angles at the basket and I'm trying to find if this affects the player's shooting
percentage. This will help people and me making better shots.


Project Number: MMH038                                             Grade: 7
Title: Computer Analysis to differenciate the cancer cells from benign cells
Abstract: My name is Varun Parwani, I am from Dorseyville Middle School. My project for PRSEF is Image
Processing to Differentiate Cancer cells and non-cancer cells. I did this project because I didn't know how much
about cancer cells and non-cancer cells. Using a Image Analyzing software I was able to measure and analyze
different slides of kidney cells(with and without cancer). With the results I could compare the different cells and see
some results that scientists are starting to get into. My Project is a start for comparing cells with ImageJ(the
computer software) to see the differences that can' be seen on a microscope


Project Number: MMH039                                            Grade: 8
Title: Congenital Heart Failure
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to analyze the differences between healthy hearts versus congenital
hearts. Along with this research, an investigation was conducted on the pulse rates of various individuals. This
project can provide useful information for the field of health and medicine.


Project Number: MMH040                                            Grade: 8
Title: Fun in the Sun
Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is considered the main cause of skin cancer. People often think that the only
parts of their skin that are at risk of being damaged by the sun are the parts of skin that aren't covered by clothing.
They assume that clothing - of any kind - protects their skin completely from the sun's UV rays. But this is not true.
Because the ozone layer is slowly weakening, our skin is even more in danger. That is why I tested different fabrics
to see which would protect your skin from UV rays the most. I found that dark colored cotton fabrics blocked UV rays
the most.


Project Number: MMH041                                           Grade: 8
Title: Which Acne Medicine Works Best?
Abstract: The purpose was to discover which acne medication would help adolescents and young adults with their
acne the best. Proactive did the best.
1.Swab agar plates with five L of Staphylococcus Aureus
2.Take the sterile straws and make four holes in the agar
3.Fill the holes with equal amounts of each different type of acne medicine, one brand per plate, and then place them
in the incubator.
4.After 24 hours, remove the plates and measure the closest bacteria to the holes. After 48 hours, repeat this step.
5.Disinfect work surfaces with a 10% bleach solution.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                          Page 74
          Intermediate – Medicine/Health/Microbiology (MMH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MMH042                                            Grade: 8
Title: Are Brand Drugs Better Than Generic Drugs?
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment was to find out the difference between generic and brand drugs and which
is the most effective for stomach upset. The problem was: “Is there a difference between generic and brand drugs?
Which type is more effective for stomach upsets?” It was hypothesized that famous brand drugs are more effective
for stomach upsets, because they are manufactured in big facilities, are popular, safer, and have higher prices. It
was found that there was no significant difference between generic and brand antacids, regardless of regular pH or
different pH conditions. These results will definitely help consumers as they will save money when buying generic
drugs. Also doctors can recommend generic drugs to their patients.


Project Number: MMH043                                        Grade: 8
Title: Relax With Yoga
Abstract: For the experiment, blood pressure was tested after yoga was done. There were three participants that
did yoga three times a week for three weeks. Their blood pressure was measured to see how yoga affects it. And
there was one participant that blood pressure was taken to compare with the other participants. So after doing that,
the results were that blood pressure decreases over time when yoga is done. Further tests can be done on how
different yoga moves affect blood pressure.


Project Number: MMH044                                             Grade: 8
Title: Stretching and Throwing
Abstract: Stretching is a practical warm-up before a game. The purpose of my experiment was to show that
stretching will increase the distance of a throw. Three partners ,along with myself, threw from a starting point without
stretching. Then, we performed a series of dynamic stretches and threw again. We repeated my experiment a total of
five times but, we also did five days of throwing twice but not stretching at all. We did this to show the effects of
stretching. The stretching had a positive effect on the throws.



Project Number: MMH045                                             Grade: 7
Title: Wii Workout
Abstract: Many people claim that using a Nintendo Wii can improve your health by elevating your heart-rate and
burning calories. I want to see if this is true. The purpose of my project is to determine if the heart-rate of a child
between the ages of 11 and 15 will actually rise when playing Wii Sports. I will focus on the games tennis, bowling,
and golf. I will record my subjects’ resting heart-rate to establish a baseline. Heart-rate data will also be collected
during and at the conclusion of the activity. Results will be available at the PRSEF.


Project Number: MMH046                                            Grade: 8
Title: Eat Your Way To Health
Abstract: My science project is titled “Eat Your Way to Health”. I decided to study my body’s reaction when
eliminating animal products and refined sugar from my diet. First, I cut out all red meat from my diet. Then, I
eliminated junk foods and refined sugar. After that, I eliminated meats. Finally, I eliminated animal products. I have
noticed dramatic health changes. During my study, I have kept a record of things such as weight, mood, and energy
level. All of which have changed for the better. Seeing the health changes involved in this project I have decided to go
vegan.


Project Number: MMH047                                         Grade: 8
Title: Doctors Clean Your Pens
Abstract: I provided an untouched pen to a pediatrician's office, a family physician’s office and an ER center for five
days. The receptionist was in charge of monitoring the pens. After receiving all the pens back, each pen was
swabbed and placed on a Petri dish. I waited 30 days and examined the dishes under a microscope. I recorded the
data. My hypothesis was incorrect. The Petri dishes from the pediatrician’s office had nearly double the volume of
bacteria from the Petri dishes then the ER dishes. When was the last time you cleaned the pen you are using right
now?


Project Number: MMH048                                            Grade: 7
Title: Does Weight Training Increase Running Speed?
Abstract: I looked at different ways to increase running speed and decided to give weight training a try. The purpose
of my assignment is to see if weight training and leg training will improve my current speed in a 36.58-meter dash.

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                        Page 75
          Intermediate – Medicine/Health/Microbiology (MMH) – 7th & 8th Grade

The procedures that I used are the following. I measured 36.58 meters with a tape measure on a field. I ran and
recorded time with a stopwatch. I performed weight-training exercises once a week. I ran and recorded running times
to monitor progress. The results proved the hypothesis to be successful. Increased leg muscle strength directly
affected running speed. The more weight added, the faster the time. Weight training strengthens the cores muscles
used in sprint running. The strengthening of those would impact speed. Weight training and leg training will
accomplish the goal.


Project Number: MMH049                                          Grade: 8
Title: Tried and True Vs Brand New
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MMH050                                            Grade: 8
Title: Do Shoes make the Athlete?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find out what shoe design showed the best performance for the
athlete. To conduct this experiment I used Adidas Running Shoe, Nike Running Shoe, Nike Skater Shoe and Bare-
feet. To conduct the experiment run 100yards and see which time was faster for four trials for each shoe. The result
was that bare-feet had the fastest time out of all the shoes. The hypothesis was supported by the data collected
because the hypothesis stated that there will be a direct effect on the performance due to the design of the shoe.


Project Number: MMH052                                           Grade: 7
Title: Antibacterial Effects of Manuka Honey
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to find out if Manuka Honey with a higher level of UMF will inhibit
bacteria as well as one with a lower UMF. First, the agar plates were spread with bacteria and pipetted with honey,
then placed in the incubator for 24 and 48 hours and then measured respectively. Four trials were conducted to
make the experiment more accurate. The conclusion was that Manuka Honey UMF 20 did indeed inhibit bacteria
better, which was supported by the experimental data.


Project Number: MMH053                                         Grade: 8
Title: Music: Can it Really Help a Sick Dog?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to discover whether or not music therapy would help dogs better
tolerate chemotherapy. I used a double-blind controlled design where dogs were randomly selected by veterinary
technicians to either hear music or not during chemotherapy. The technicians and the dogs’ owners rated each dog’s
calmness, affection, and cooperation on a standardized scale before and after chemotherapy. The technicians also
measured vital signs before and after chemotherapy. Averages and histograms of the changes in scores showed the
music had no effect on behavior and vital signs. Thus, my hypothesis was disproven.


Project Number: MMH054                                           Grade: 8
Title: Decaying Teeth
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to see how much different liquids decay a tooth in four days. During the
experiment seven liquids were tested; apple juice, caffeine free Pepsi, root beer, Mountain Dew, Ultra Purex (laundry
detergent), Kool-Aid, and iced tea. The amount of acid in a liquid is measured on the ph scale. In four days apple
juice decayed the tooth the most. Now people will brush their teeth at night.


Project Number: MMH055                                            Grade: 7
Title: What is your pulse?
Abstract: The purpose for this experiment is to find out which exercise I picked out that worked the best to raise
heart rate. The investigator used different cardiovascular exercises and had volunteers do them. The investigator
took the volunteers' radial pulse, recorded it before and after exercise and continued the process with all volunteers.
The investigator waited ten minutes until having the volunteer do the next exercise. The investigator totaled up all the
numbers to see which exercise raised the heart rates the most. The investigator concluded that the squat thrusts
raised the heart rates the most.




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                          Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MPH001                                             Grade: 8
Title: To Oil or Not to Oil
Abstract: I did this project because I barely understand the topic of how oil effects how a bowling ball spins and
travels. I had hoped to be able to see the results more clearly and understand it more. To do this I had two bowlers
try out two patterns, one with a lot of oil on the lane and one with absolutely none. My results showed that the heavier
oil was more unpredictable than the lighter oiled lane. I had predicted that the heavier oil would cause more spin and
less travel however my results showed otherwise


Project Number: MPH002                                         Grade: 7
Title: Ready, Set, Release!
Abstract: The experiment’s purpose is to see if I can consistently throw the ball in a specific spot of the strike zone
depending on my release point.

Make a target wall and place behind home plate. Make a grid wall; place beside pitcher. Throw a variety of pitches.
Record them.
My results show that the earlier you release the ball the higher it crosses home plate.
My hypothesis was supported. The earlier you release the ball, the higher it will go. This helps people improve at
pitching. Next time, I would use a black ball and a stronger target wall.



Project Number: MPH003                                           Grade: 8
Title: Coke Density
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MPH004                                          Grade: 8
Title: Keep the Heat
Abstract: The purpose of this science experiment is to assess which of the following is the best insulator; foil,
newspaper, cloth or plastic. Four one gallon containers will be wrapped with each chosen item. Water will be placed
inside the containers and the temperature will be monitered and recorded. As temperatures are recorded, the data
will be charted and analyzed.


Project Number: MPH005                                             Grade: 8
Title: Thermal Conductivity in Metals
Abstract: Metal is a very significant part of one's life. Metal is ubiquitous in our world and can be seen everywhere,
from buildings to frying pans. Therefore it is very important to evaluate different metals thermal conductivity values.
Teh thermal conductivity value is important because it allows engineers or astro-scientists to find a material that could
insulate objects in outer space, where it could be boiling hot or freezing cold. The lower the thermal conductivity, the
better the material insulates. For my project, I will experiment with three metals: copper, steel, and aluminum. I will
measure how far rhe heat will move through the wires, in intervals of 20 mm. I will try to find out in which metal the
heat travels farthest the fastest. This metal will have the highest thermal conductivity.


Project Number: MPH006                                               Grade: 8
Title: How Gear Ratios Change the Amount of Work Done
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see how gear ratios change the amount of work done. Start by
measuring the diameter of the front gear being used. Tape a wooden stick to the side of the bike for a solid starting
point. The piece of tape on the tire will track the distance it traveled. Do one rotation of the front gear and see how
many rotations the back wheel does. Next, do five rotations to see how many rotations the back wheel does. Do this
for two more gear settings and compare the results. Then, predict three rotation results. The investigator determined
that an increased gear ratio results in more work being done.


Project Number: MPH007                                          Grade: 7
Title: Density of Water
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find out which liquids were more dense than water and which
liquids were less dense. The investigator poured 100 ml of a liquid into a beaker, weighed it and then poured 100ml
of water into the same beaker containing the liquid. The investigator concluded that oils and liquids containing
alcohol are less dense than water and the other liquids are more dense.


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                           Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MPH008                                           Grade: 8
Title: How does temperature affect the efficiency
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine if the temperature affects the efficiency of a solar panel.
Data will be collected as a solar panel collects solar energy and it is converted to chemical energy within a battery. In
order to analyze the data, a graph will be produced in excel. This data may be useful to companies within their
promotion of their alternative energy products.


Project Number: MPH009                                         Grade: 8
Title: How Green is Your Light Bulb?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to see which light bulb (compact fluorescent, LED, halogen or
incandescent) has the best energy efficiency and lowest cost. Each bulb was hung in the center of a hula hoop. Light
was measured at equally spaced spots on the hoop. Efficiency was calculated by dividing lumens by watts. Overall
cost was calculated by summing the hourly cost of the bulb and electricity cost in kwh. Results show that compact
fluorescent and LED bulbs have better efficiency and lower overall cost than incandescent and halogen.



Project Number: MPH010                                                Grade: 7
Title: The Domino Effect
Abstract:
The purpose of my experiment was to find how fastest fall rate of dominoes at different lengths. First, I set up the
dominoes at the different lengths. Then, I tapped the first of the set of dominoes and timed how long it took for the
last one to fall. I then calculated the different fall rate of the dominoes. In conclusion to my experiment the dominoes
fell faster at the 15 millimeter mark then the others.


Project Number: MPH011                                               Grade: 7
Title: Standing Waves On A Guitar
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to predict where nodes are on guitar strings. First I will measure the string
then I will predict the first, second and third node for the string. Then I will play the node and measure the frequency
with an electric tuner and record. I will then compare the frequency that I recorded with what the frequency really
should be. My hypothesis is that if I play different harmonics I will get different wave patterns or frequencies while
playing the first three nodes. I think that I will be able to accurately predict the frequencies for each node. I think this
because I have been studying a lot of websites like guitar-chords.com


Project Number: MPH012                                         Grade: 7
Title: Swim Cap and Drag
Abstract: The reason I am conducting my project is to see if a swim cap creates or reduces the amount of drag
when swimming. The procedures are to swim four fifties freestyle with a cap and then repeat without a cap. At the
moment, my project is still being conducted.


Project Number: MPH013                                        Grade: 7
Title: Fabrics and Time of Drop
Abstract: Mini-parachutes were created using nylon, silk, and cotton. Masses were attached to each and dropped
from a height of 9 meters. A mass was also dropped without a parachute. The mass attached to the nylon parachute
took the longest to fall.


Project Number: MPH014                                             Grade: 8
Title: Fluid Friction Addiction
Abstract: My question is: Which liquid has the highest viscosity? I hypothesized that syrup would have the highest
viscosity based on my research. First, I got a clear pipe and put a cap on the end of it. I marked off two lines, one
near the top and one near the bottom. I filled the pipe up with liquids. I dropped the marble. When the marble
crossed the first line I would start a timer. I stopped the time when rthe marble crossed the second line. I did this
three times for all four liquids. My hypothesis was incorrect. Dishwasher liquid had the highest viscosity. If I did this
experimet again, I would use a shorter pipe and test liquids at different elevated temperatures.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                             Page 78
                          Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MPH015                                           Grade: 8
Title: Recycled Airplanes
Abstract: Many people enjoy making and flying paper airplanes, but everyone seems to be using regular paper.
What would happen if one were to use different paper? Recycled paper such as newspaper or paper from a
phonebook would seem to affect the flight of an airplane, but it would only seem like that. Our group would like to test
this to see if it actually does affect the flight.


Project Number: MPH016                                             Grade: 7
Title: Soccer Under Pressure
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to determine whether the difference of air pressure and brand of soccer ball
affects the distance it travels when kicked. A Robotic Prosthetic Kicker designed and constructed by student
investigator was used in testing. Utilizing the prosthetic foot (on loan from University of Pittsburgh School of
Prosthetics and Orthotics Lab) and this RPK devise ensured that the kick was exactly the same with each trial. Four
brands of soccer balls (Nike, Umbro, Puma, Adidas) at three different air pressures (low, medium, high) were tested.
There were 3 trials for each condition. Results were then averaged. It was determined that the Umbro soccer ball
traveled the farthest in the medium and high air pressure category. This experiment was conducted to see what air
pressure we should use for our school soccer team.



Project Number: MPH017                                            Grade: 8
Title: The Freezing Race
Abstract: I tried to see if adding other substances to water would change its freezing point. I got my materials. I put
different substances and water into each container. I froze them and saw if the water or other liquids froze first. I
learned that it takes a long time to freeze water and longer to freeze salt-water and less time to freeze sugar-water.
This means that to freeze something in a shorter amount of time, add sugar. I knew that freezing salt takes pretty
long but I didn’t think it would take as long as it did.


Project Number: MPH018                                           Grade: 8
Title: Which Color Gets the Hottest
Abstract: When players play baseball they always seem to be so hot in their colored jerseys. This project intended
to find out which color the players should use for baseball games. Four different colors of paper were used in this
experiment and exposed to a 200W light bulb and temperature was taken. It was determined that the orange paper
got the hottest. The color of your jerseys could make a difference in baseball games.


Project Number: MPH019                                            Grade: 8
Title: How Does Drumstick Material Affect Rebound Characteristics
Abstract: My experiment tests the most popular drumstick materials to see which has the highest rebound. I
conducted tests by building a catapult like system. The system has a modification from a traditional catapult in that
there is no middle bar to stop the lever arm, therefore it travels all the way down to contact the snare drum. The stick
will be placed on the end of the arm to contact the drum. I have not yet conducted said experiment therefore I have
no concrete conclusion but a prototype has been tested and the experiment will conducted shortly.


Project Number: MPH020                                          Grade: 8
Title: Turn of the Nail
Abstract: I hypothesized that a screw would take more effort to insert inot wood than a nail, and that a screw would
take more effort to extract from the wood by pulling. Comparable size nails and screws were tested using soft wood,
inserting them to a depth of 1 cm. The nail was knocked in using a measured weight and the screw was screwed in
using a lever attached to a fishing scale and turned by hand. The nail and the screw were pulled out by attaching
weights to a pulley system. My hypothesis was correct.


Project Number: MPH021                                          Grade: 8
Title: Surface Area vs. Surface Tension
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to assess the surface tension of different sized screens. It is
hypothesized that the larger the grade of screen, the less water will remain in a container. The complete abstract will
be presented at the Science Fair Competition.




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                          Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MPH022                                            Grade: 8
Title: A Brighter Spectrum
Abstract: Four different colored pieces of paper were placed beneath red, blue, green, and White CFL bulbs, as well
as an incandescent light bulb. A fiber optic cable, connected to a photo spectrometer, was placed 0.5cm above the
paper under each light bulb and natural sunlight. The incandescent light bulbs wasted most of its wattage to heat, or
infrared, as opposed to the white CFL bulb which shows strong signals of all colors, especially in the green, which is
right in the middle of the visible color spectrum, which is most sensitive to our eyes.


Project Number: MPH023                                         Grade: 8
Title: Cold Water Freezes Faster Than Hot
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the temperature of water affects the time in
which it takes to freeze. The experiment was conducted by heating a beaker of water to one of four initial
temperatures, putting the beaker into the freezer, and then monitoring the temperatures every 5 minutes. There were
three samples for each initial temperature. The data was then recorded and the average temperatures were plotted
on the graph. The hypothesis was supported by the data. The initial temperature of 30 degrees Celsius was the
fastest to freeze.


Project Number: MPH024                                          Grade: 8
Title: Is the Force with the Legos?
Abstract: My project is entitled “Is the Force with the Legos?” My hypothesis is that Lego blocks would accurately
model some of the forces experienced by real concrete building blocks. To test this hypothesis I dropped weights
onto a Lego and real block wall from a measured height and recorded the data. The Lego brick wall accurately
modeled the scale force needed to break apart the joints on a real block wall. The Legos did not accurately scale the
compressive strength of a real block or the force needed to break the face of a real block.


Project Number: MPH025                                      Grade: 7
Title: Room Temperature Affects Candles?
Abstract: Candles were burned in rooms with diferent temperatures: 24 degrees Celsius, 21 degrees Celsius, and
18 degrees Celsius. Times until candles burned out were measured. The candles in the 24 degree room burned out
the fastest.


Project Number: MPH026                                            Grade: 8
Title: A Non-Sticky Situation
Abstract: I am testing if the differences in surfaces affect the adhesion of tape. For my project I taped the string of
the Styrofoam bowl to the surface I was testing with the tape I used. I kept adding dimes to the bowl until the tape
peeled off. I recorded the weight of how much it took to make the tape peel off. Duct tape stuck to glass the best.
Masking tape stuck to wood the best. Masking tape stuck to fabric the best. Duct tape stuck to metal the best. Metal
was the surface all tapes stuck to the best.


Project Number: MPH027                                              Grade: 7
Title: The Diameter Makes the Image
Abstract: The purpose of my problem is to figure out what diameter length of a magnifying glass could project an
image onto a piece of blank paper. The procedure that I used was first off shining the light onto the object and moving
the magnifying glass in between the object and the paper. My hypothesis was that I think that the bigger the diameter
is, the closer it is to the object and father away from the paper. I developed this thought because usually the bigger it
is, the clearer the picture will be in the end.


Project Number: MPH028                                           Grade: 8
Title: Water is A Drag
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MPH029                                           Grade: 8
Title: Video Games to Reflexes
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                        Page 80
                          Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MPH030                                          Grade: 8
Title: The Mpemba Effect
Abstract: The purpose of my experiment is to find out if hot water freezes faster than cold water. To do my
experiment I would test 100 degrees Celsius, 90 degrees Celsius, and 80 degrees Celsius and 70 degrees Celsius
water. First I would measure 150 ml of water into a beaker and label the temperature. Then I would heat the water to
the correct temperature. I would then pour the water into the beaker and cover it and place it in the freezer and record
the time. I would check it often. When each beaker becomes frozen I would record the time, weigh it and repeat the
experiment for each temperature. I think the hot water would freeze the fastest because the MPEMBA Effect says
that:” Hot water freezes than faster”?


Project Number: MPH031                                             Grade: 8
Title: That's Attractive
Abstract: In my project, I had many difficulties. First I couldn't decide on the subject. Then I couldn't find proper
references. I also had trouble finding some of the supplies I needed and putting everything together. Even though it
was hard, it was fun to complete the project. When my project was finished, I answered many questions, thought
about my experiences, and made observations and charts. All of this will help me with my final report. Finally, I hope
my report and project are judged to be well done.


Project Number: MPH032                                            Grade: 7
Title: 0- 80 Will The Song Remain The Same?
Abstract: I am going to be a professional guitarist. I want to know how different temperatures and weather
conditions effect my guitar and playing. Would my song remain the same in hot, cold, room, and humid
environments? Using a guitar-to-computer interface, my guitar, a MacBookPro, and a Garage Band app, I played a
G,C, and a D, in 4 different environments. Before each trial, I tuned my guitar precisely in room temperature.
1. Room Temp-69 degrees, In tune
2. Hot- 84 degrees, Stayed in tune
3. Cold-30 degrees, 10 cents sharp
4. Humid- 77 degrees, 10 cents flat
Conclusion: Cold and humidity effected the guitar the most.


Project Number: MPH033                                           Grade: 8
Title: How does flex affect accuracy and speed?
Abstract: For my science fair project I tested to discover which hockey stick flex was better for accuracy and speed.
My hypothesis was that the higher flex stick would result in greayer accuracy and speed. I started by using 3 different
flexed sticks. My father helped by being my second shooter. I recorded the data from the slap shots speeds and how
many targets we could hit. Then I found the average of the slap shot speeds and the percentage of our accuracy. In
conclusion the appropriate flex depended on strength, size, and other variables.


Project Number: MPH034                                           Grade: 8
Title: Which basketball shooting position is the most accurate?
Abstract: The problem for this experiment asks which basketball shooting position is the most accurate. If I have
someone shoot a basketball from their chin then their shot will be more accurate than when they shoot from their
chest or above their head. To conduct this experiment a researcher will have 50 test subjects shoot 15 foul shots
from each of the specified shooting forms. Then average all data and conclude if the data supports my hypothesis.


Project Number: MPH035                                             Grade: 8
Title: How does blade pitch affect the production of electricity on a wind mill
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether the pitch of a wind mill's blade will affect its ability
to produce energy. It is hypothesized that a 45 degree pitch will be the most effecient pitch for a blade setting. A
model of an industrial size wind turbine will be used to test different wind scenerios. This data will useful in the wind
energy industry.


Project Number: MPH036                                         Grade: 7
Title: Solar Energy: Does more light produce more energy?
Abstract: Solar energy is a clean and alternative form of energy source. I wanted to find out what effect the amount
of light exposure had on the solar energy produced. I used three light bulbs with different lumens namely 360
lumens, 630 lumens, and 1380 lumens. I shined each bulb using a desk lamp onto two solar panels that

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                          Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade

were connected together to an ammeter. I recorded the energy produced in milli-amps unit using each bulb.
I found that the 360 lumen bulb produced 49.4 milli-Amps, 630 lumen bulb produced 100.7milli- Amps and
1380 bulb produced 231 milli- Amps. I graphed the outcomes in a line graph with lumen power on the x axis
and milli-Amps on the y axis and discovered that there was a linear relationship between the two entities.
From the pattern of the graph, I predicted that there will be decreasing amount of energy if there is a lower
lumen power light bulb and experimented using the bulbs of a lumen of 205 produced 36.7 milli-Amps.
The outcome of my hypothesis was correct. I concluded that as the lumen power of the light bulb increases,
proportionally more solar energy is produced. In the future, if we use more solar panels, we will save money
and protect the environment.


Project Number: MPH037                                          Grade: 8
Title: Homemade instruments with different frequencies
Abstract: If sizes of homemade instruments are increased, the frequency of the instruments will also increase.
Create instruments using water in goblets and soda bottles. Hit the side of the bottles and roll your finger on rim of
the goblet to make sound. Also, flatten the end of the straw and use scissors to make small, angular cuts on each
side. Make one instrument from each group produce the sound of a “B” then use tuner 12 (download from internet) to
determine the frequency. Compare notes made from the different instruments to determine the affect of size on
frequency.


Project Number: MPH038                                        Grade: 8
Title: Effects of Temperature on Magnets
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find out how temperature affects a magnet’s strength. The
hypothesis was that warmer temperatures will decrease a magnet’s strength. It was found that a magnet’s strength
decreases in warmer temperatures. People who build motors would find this useful because it tells them that the
magnet’s strength will change in different temperatures.


Project Number: MPH039                                          Grade: 8
Title: Curving Velocity?
Abstract: Did you know that a soccer ball’s speed is higher when kicked straight than if it were to be curved? A
professional soccer player’s average free kick (usually curved) goes 60 mph. Can you imagine if it were not to be
curved? From the information I have gathered, it would most likely be able to reach speeds of 75 mph! That’s about
the speed of a car on the Kansas Turnpike! That means if you were the goalkeeper, the speed’s would be like a
speeding car coming right towards you.


Project Number: MPH040                                           Grade: 8
Title: Picture Perfect
Abstract:


Project Number: MPH041                                            Grade: 7
Title: Fading of Fabric Under Light
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to find the light (LEDs, fluorescent, incandescent or halogen) with the
least fading effect on fabrics. Boxes were constructed with light, and a strip of each fabric (wool, cotton, satin, silk,
polyester, canvas, and linen) at the bottom. Black dye was evenly applied to the fabrics. Strips were compared with
a grayscale. Data collected shows that LEDs had the least fading effect on all fabrics except silk, and incandescent
and halogen lights had the greatest effect on all fabrics except silk. It is concluded that LEDs are the best light for
preserving fabrics’ color.


Project Number: MPH042                                           Grade: 8
Title: The Effect of Caliber on Target
Abstract: My project can help many people. Maybe it can help you. I shoot guns for my project. I built the targets.
Shoot the guns and got my results. My thought was that the .17 caliber would do the best but it did the worst. They
were quite surprising to me and probably you too. The winner was the .30-06 by a long shot. It completely blew the
target apart. The order of the most destruction to the targets were the .243, .308, .17, and the .22 caliber.




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                           Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MPH043                                              Grade: 8
Title: Luminous Lasers
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to analyze the interaction of lasers with light filters. Red, green, and blue
lasers were directed at red, green, and blue filters. The filtered light was then directed on a solar panel connected to
a multimeter. It was found that green filters inhibit blue laser light with the greatest value. This project can be applied
to various fields in science and technology.


Project Number: MPH044                                       Grade: 8
Title: Magnets and Temperature
Abstract: Magnets were exposed to different temperatures, representing hot, room-temperature, and cold.
Magnets were used to pick up paper clips. Number of paper clips picked by each magnet was measured. The room-
temperature magnets attracted the most paper clips.


Project Number: MPH045                                           Grade: 7
Title: Shocking Foods
Abstract: Fruits and vegetables have been known to produce varying amounts of electricity. I tested for electrical
activity in a lemon, lime, pineapple, and a potato. I tested which fruit/vegetable had the highest voltage. Surprisingly,
the potato measured the highest amount of volts. I tested three more; banana, apple, and tomato and found the
banana was comparable to the potato in voltage. From my research, I found that potatoes and bananas were very
high in manganese, magnesium, and potassium and that potassium and magnesium are good electrical conductors.


Project Number: MPH046                                           Grade: 8
Title: Recycled Airplanes
Abstract: Many people enjoy making and flying paper airplanes, but everyone seems to be using regular paper.
What would happen if one were to use different paper? Recycled paper such as newspaper or paper from a
phonebook would seem to affect the flight of an airplane, but it would only seem like that. Our group would like to test
this to see if it actually does affect the flight.


Project Number: MPH047                                             Grade: 8
Title: Which Wood Win?
Abstract:


Project Number: MPH048                                              Grade: 7
Title: The Effects of Dimples on Golf Balls
Abstract: Reserach shows that dimples on a golf ball help to increase lift and reduce drag, resulting in longer
distances. For my project, I used three different Titleist golf balls to see if the ball with the most dimples would fly the
farthest. I created a golf machine out of wood that would hit a golf ball consistently with the greatest distance of 14
meters. The results showed that the ProV1 golf ball went the farthest even though the DT Solo had the most
dimples. If the swing speed was higher at impact, greater distances might have provided different results.


Project Number: MPH049                                      Grade: 7
Title: Insulation, Ice, and Time
Abstract: Ice cubes were massed and placed an uninsulated cooler, a foam-insulated cooler, and a thermal
insulated cooler. Melted water was massed after 10 hours. Thermal insulated cooler contained the least amount of
melted water and was the best insulator.


Project Number: MPH050                                                Grade: 7
Title: Temperature Affect on Height that Golf Ball Bounces
Abstract: My experiment is testing how temperatures affects the height a golf ball bounces. The purpose of this is
to determine if temperature affects the height a golf ball bounces and if more expensive golf balls bounce higher at
different temperatures than less expensive golf balls. I hypothesized that as the temperature increases the more
expensive golf balls will bounce higher. I dropped 3 golf balls of 4 different brands at 4 different temperatures. I am
still collecting data so if you wish to see my results, I will have it available on the day of the fair.




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                          Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MPH051                                            Grade: 8
Title: Frozen Solid
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to determine if warmer water froze faster than colder water. Temperature
was measures over a 45 minute period of time. The temperature of the cooling water was recorded at regular
intervals of five seconds. I also used a different starting temperature for the water being tested in each experiment.
After the data from the tests was collected, I had to extend the data so that, instead of the tests having above-
freezing ending temperatures, they would end at the freezing point. In the end, I saw hotter water actually froze
faster than colder water. Hotter water did freeze faster than colder water.


Project Number: MPH052                                          Grade: 7
Title: Don't Burst My Bubble!
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MPH053                                            Grade: 8
Title: Electricity by Waves
Abstract: The purpose of this experiemnt is to assess whether or not water waves may be a way to collect an
alternative type of energy. A homemade turbine will be built for the test. The turbine will be placed within a container
of water and then waves will be produced to see if energy from the wave can be transfered mechanically. This
experiment will be useful to scientists who are actively looking for alternitive energy solutions.


Project Number: MPH054                                           Grade: 7
Title: Best Insulating Layer of Fabric
Abstract: The purpose was to find the best insulating, cold weather fabric, testing sheepskin, fleece, fake-fur, and
wool. It was hypothesized that sheepskin insulates best due to its thickness, allowing it to trap more heat. Five test
tubes were filled with 37 degrees Celsius water and covered with sewn-fabric tubes, inner moisture-wicking, middle
insulating, and outer weather-resistant layers. The control had no middle layer. Temperature was measured regularly
for 45 minutes and three trials. Ultimately, the experiment supported the hypothesis that sheepskin would insulate
best. Results were inconclusive because a synthetic fabric, insulated second best. This experiment benefits future
generations who will need to search for recyclable/recycled materials.


Project Number: MPH055                                             Grade: 8
Title: Golf: Got Distance?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to find the golf ball that travels the farthest when hit. I researched golf
ball covers; they are made out of urethane and ionomer. A dropping mechanism was built to test golf balls dropped at
four, six, and eight feet from a sheet of plywood. The golf balls tested with urethane covers were Bridgestone,
Callaway, Srixon, Taylormade, and Titleist, and with ionomer covers were Nike, Noodle, Slazenger, Top-Flite, and
Wilson. The results showed that my hypothesis, Taylormade and Slazenger golf balls would bounce higher than the
others, was proven correct, thus equaling greater distance.


Project Number: MPH056                                             Grade: 8
Title: Hot or Cold
Abstract:
The purpose of my experiment was to determine if water weighs more while it is boiling or if water weighs more when
it is frozen. First, I put water in bags and separated them into three different weights. I froze the water and waited
twenty hours. I took them out of the freezer and weighed and recorded my data. I boiled 453.5 grams of water. I
removed it when it was boiling and weighed and recorded the data. I did two more trials with different weights. In
conclusion, boiling water weighed more than regular water and ice weighed more too.


Project Number: MPH057                                          Grade: 7
Title: Maximizing Solor Energy
Abstract: Environmentalists promote energy saving devices such as solar lights, but are they efficient? This
experiment measures the efficiency of fixed and sun tracking panels on walk lights. Solar lights were positioned
under a 100 watt light source. The light source was extinguished and light emission was recorded. (Fixed). Next, a
solar light was positioned on a rotating disk and exposed to the light for 50 minutes every 20 degrees (Non-fixed). I
hypothesized that the non-fixed solar panels would capture twice the amount of power than fixed. The results
supported my hypothesis since the tracking group consistently produced a longer charge.


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                            Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade


Project Number: MPH058                                             Grade: 8
Title: Temperature on Solar Cells
Abstract: Solar cells are devices that turn energy from the sun into power. Many researchers have shown that heat
can negatively affect the power output of a solar cell. I tested this theory by putting the solar cell under a high power
lamp and recording the voltage output of it for every 2.8 degrees it rose until it reached 60 degrees Celsius. I did this
9 times, three times at room temperature, in the refrigerator, and in the freezer. I discovered that the solar cell
performed best in cold temperatures due to the fact that the flow of electrons is resisted by the heat of high
temperatures. In conclusion, solar cells would be best suited for cold, clear climates.


Project Number: MPH059                                       Grade: 8
Title: Measuring Electrical Current Output
Abstract: The purpose of this experiemt is to assess whether wind energy can be 100% converted mechanically and
then chemically. The experiemtor will use a homemade wind turbine in conjuction with an electrical fan. The voltage
of the wind turbine will be observed and compared to the amount of energy needed for the fan. The complete
abstract will be available at the science competition.


Project Number: MPH060                                            Grade: 8
Title: Turn That Down!
Abstract: The effectiveness of different types of earplugs for reducing machine-generated noise was explored in this
experiment. Each year, there are nearly 1 million people that are exposed to loud sound levels from machine noise
that can cause hearing damage. First, decibel level readings were taken and averaged without the earplugs as a
control group. Eight types of earplugs were tested 3 times each (27 trials in all) using a simulated head, engine noise
file (played at a controlled decibel level each time), and a decibel meter placed inside the simulated head to record
decibel levels. The noise reduction rates (NRR) of the foam earplugs were much lower than the NRR of the silicone
earplugs. In conclusion, the silicone earplugs performed the best because they conformed to the shape of the ear
canal to block more noise.


Project Number: MPH061                                             Grade: 8
Title: Effects of Temperature and Elasticity
Abstract: "How does the elasticity of a rubber band change with temperature when submerged in water?" The
purpose is to investigate how the flexibility of a rubber band varies with temperature in water. After gathering all
materials, fill a beaker with boiling water and submerge a weight, tied to a rubber band. Then measure how far it
stretched in five-minute intervals. Repeat this twice. As temperature decreased, it became more flexible. When it
reached around 25 Celsius, it stopped. In all three tests, it stretched 0.4 centimeter. By doing this experiment, I've
learned temperature doesn't have a big effect on elasticity.


Project Number: MPH062                                           Grade: 7
Title: Baseball Bats and a Ball's Distance
Abstract: An apparatus was constructed. Using this apparatus, baseballs were hit with bats of different masses.
The balls hit by the bat with the greater mass traveled the greater distances.


Project Number: MPH063                                            Grade: 7
Title: Buoyancy of Eggs!
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to test the buoyancy of eggs. My hypothesis was that I would need at
least 40 mL of salt in the cold water. For the warm water, I think I will need 20 mL or less of salt. I tested 5 eggs in
each temperature of water. Once I saw that the egg floated, I recorded the amount of salt that I had added. My
hypothesis was incorrect. Both temperatures took much less salt than I expected to make the egg float. In addition,
the cold water took less salt than the warm water.


Project Number: MPH064                                               Grade: 8
Title: The Angles of Light
Abstract: The purpose of my project is to determine whether the viscosity of liquid mediums affect the way light
refracts. To construct this project I will have to do the following; Fill the eight containers with eight different liquid
mediums and point the laser through them. I will then measure the angle that the laser pointer refracts. I think that
the viscosity of a liquid medium will affect the refraction of light. I think that the liquid that will refract the most is the


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                           Intermediate – Physics (MPH) – 7th & 8th Grade

syrup because it is the thickest medium, and the one to refract the least will be the container that has no liquid
medium. My hypothesis was determined by the idea of Snell’s law.


Project Number: MPH065                                               Grade: 7
Title: Sound through Liquids
Abstract: A few years ago, there was a whale and sonar controversy. Many scientists agreed that the high-pitched
sonar on submarines was damaging the whales’ ability to function properly. In this experiment, I tested to see if
frequency changed underwater. By connecting to certain software, I was able to record the frequency of a sound in
normal and salt water. My results showed that frequency increases almost four times in salt water. Sonar is a very
high-pitched noise in general, so it likely did create fatal injuries among the whales.


Project Number: MPH066                                           Grade: 8
Title: Juice Electricity
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to figure out which fruit juice produces the most voltage. The procedure
involves the following 1) Measure juice into two cups and put into potato clock; 2) Add metal strips to each cup; 3) Set
multimeter and check voltage; 4) Record results. For my results, orange juice produced the most voltage of all the
juices.In conclusion, my hypothesis was not supported since lime juice did not produce the greatest amount of
voltage. An application to this experiment is providing an alternative energy source for third world countries.


Project Number: MPH067                                              Grade: 7
Title: Maglev!
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MPH068                                           Grade: 7
Title: Getting Wet and Staying Warm
Abstract: Jars filled with hot water were wrapped in different fabrics: wool and cotton. The temperatures of the
water were measured before and after the investigation. The jars wrapped with wool retained more heat.


Project Number: MPH069                                               Grade: 7
Title: Let There Be Light
Abstract: For my project, I have chosen “Will a parallel or a series circuit make a light bulb brighter?”. I have learned
how to make a parallel and a series circuit and why each one is as bright as it is. The purpose of this experiment was
to see if a light bulb was brighter wired in parallel or in series. For series circuit, you connect a wire from the clip, to
the negative side of one battery. Then you run a wire from the positive side of that battery to the switch. And finally,
you run a wire from the switch, back to the light bulb. For a parallel circuit, first you run a wire from the positive side of
one battery to the negative of the other. Then you run a wire from the other positive to the light bulb. After that, you
run a wire from the light bulb to the negative side of the other battery. And finally from the negative side to the light
bulb and from the light bulb back to the positive. The results of this experiment were that the parallel circuit was
brighter because each light bulb had one wire going to its own battery so each got 3.0 volts. But in the series circuit,
the light bulbs only had one wire, so they had to split the volts; therefore each light bulb got 1.5 volts. In conclusion,
this project did agree with my hypothesis: The parallel circuit would be brighter than the series circuit.


Project Number: MPH070                                             Grade: 8
Title: Tennis Ball Mortar
Abstract: Due to unforeseen weather conditions, I was not able to fire the mortar in the time allotted. I will continue
to test the mortar and this data will be available at the fair. However, I was able to find a simulator online which
calculates distance and trajectory. I experimented with this site and found that a 10° firing angle is the best to reach
my goal of 100 meters. My hypothesis, which was that a 10° angle would fire a tennis ball 100 meters, was correct
using the simulator, but I will continue to test to refine my conclusion. Again, conclusive information is not available at
this time but will be at the science fair.




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                            Intermediate – TEAM (MTM) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MTM001                                           Grade: 7
Title: (Don't) Go With the Flow
Abstract: We created a test method for measuring the efficiency of five different types of materials in homemade
tight weaved burlap bags to see what materials worked best to stop flood waters. We hoped to determine if there
was an easier to use media that would make the bags lighter for the emergency workers, be lower cost, and more
effectively stop the flood waters. Our results proved that there were more efficient materials for packing in flood
control bags that stop water better and weigh less. This positive outcome could affect future emergency plans and
procedures.


Project Number: MTM002                                          Grade: 7
Title: 1 Hamster, 2 Hamster 3 Colorful Mazes
Abstract: Our experiment tests if hamsters can be trained to go through a certain color maze. Red, blue, and yellow
construction paper will be used. Since the hamsters are color blind we are seeing if they can see shades of gray. We
decided that the color they needed to know was blue. After they went through the blue one we gave them a raisin.
Then we are we are going to put the mazes together and see if they go through the blue. We don’t think they will
figure it out.


Project Number: MTM003                                            Grade: 7
Title: A Beacon From Atlantis
Abstract: My hypothesis is the candle will burn underwater. The purpose of our project was to see if a candle could
burn underwater. We tried this by experimenting with different candles and different amounts of water. First we filled
bowls with amounts of water. Then we lit the candles and put them in the water. Then we put a jar over one of the
candles and it burned for a few seconds and sucked up the water. We found out that it worked as long as the flame
didn’t touch the water. The jar filled with water as the candle burnt.


Project Number: MTM004                                           Grade: 8
Title: Are Bigger Blades Better?
Abstract: In our experiment we are trying to find a less polluting way to create the most energy by using
a wind turbine. Our hypothesis was that the larger the blades, the more energy would be produced. We tested this
experiment by using four different blade sizes. In the end results showed that the 9 cm blades worked the best, but
the 12 cm blades produced the second least amount of energy. Our hypothesis was partially true.


Project Number: MTM005                                          Grade: 8
Title: Baby's First Words
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MTM006                                         Grade: 8
Title: Band Width
Abstract: The hypothesis, stated that the thicker the band, the more accurate it will be. When tested, the hypothesis
was proven. When tested, the bands were shot from different distances and found that the thicker bands, .32cm ,was
more accurate then the thinner bands, which were .25. If more rubber bands are made thicker bands will fly farther
before losing a lot of accuracy.


Project Number: MTM007                                          Grade: 7
Title: Can the rhythm change the beat?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to test whether or not different forms of music can affect a persons heart
rate and blood pressure. We will play ten minutes of classical music. We will test heart rate and blood pressure
before and after the test. We will then follow the same procedure for heavy metal music. Our tests are still being
conducted.


Project Number: MTM008                                           Grade: 7
Title: Can You Taste The Difference?
Abstract: This project tries to determine if 12 year olds can taste the difference between regular and low fat foods.
To determine this we had five people taste regular and low fat versions of the same foods and they were asked if they
can tell the difference between them. We used cottage cheese, pudding and yogurt. The results were that, for the


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                            Intermediate – TEAM (MTM) – 7th & 8th Grade

cottage cheese all subjects could tell the difference, pudding nobody could tell, and for the yogurt 3 could tell and 2
could not. We concluded that depending on the foods, 12 year olds can taste the difference.


Project Number: MTM009                                          Grade: 8
Title: Can you Taste What I'm Smellin?
Abstract: We did our project on the way smell affects taste. We decided to do this project because we both love
food and want to find ways to make it more appealing in odor. We tested 26 people using 5 different foods. The first
time, they were blind folded with their nose plugged, and the second time, they were just blind folded. The results we
obtained proved that smell does affect the way you taste foods.


Project Number: MTM010                                           Grade: 8
Title: Childproof?
Abstract: My partner and I did our science fair project on childproof containers. We tested kindergartners from a
local school in our district. While we were testing we came to find that childproof containers actually are childproof.
In our research we tested 33 students and there were a total of 16 kids that did not open the containers with a total of
165 trials. The common container which can lead to serious problems. So as you can see our tests actually did lead
to a good conclusion.


Project Number: MTM011                                            Grade: 8
Title: Child's Play
Abstract: Medications help us feel better when we are sick, but they can be dangerous when not used right. Every
year, many children become ill and even die from accidental poisoning by taking medications meant for adults. The
invention of childproof containers helped to greatly decrease these unfortunrate events. But are childproof containers
really childproof? In this experiment, the effectiveness of childproof containers will be put to the test by a small group
of five year old kindergarteners. They will be given a set time limit to open containers with different lids. Will they be
able to do it?


Project Number: MTM012                                         Grade: 7
Title: Does Caffeine Make You Nervous?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine if caffeine helps or hinders hand/eye precision. Methods
included ten human subjects, (5 boys and 5 girls) drinking a 354.88ml can of Mountain Dew, waiting 15 minutes, and
then repeating the “hand/eye game”. The experimental results were measured by observing how efficiently the
subjects performed the task. The median, mode, and mean were calculated. The results of the experiment are that
the test subjects performed the “hand/eye game” better after caffeine. The results indicate that the hypothesis should
be rejected because the test subjects performed the “hand/eye game” better after caffeine.


Project Number: MTM013                                             Grade: 8
Title: Does Color Affect What Birds Eat?
Abstract: The purpose of the experiment was to study if birds use sight regularly when they are feeding. The first
step in our project was to buy the bird seed, feeders and dye. Next we dyed the bird seed by mixing the dye and bird
seed with a wooden spoon. We didn’t use much water when mixing the dye and seed. We then set up the three bird
feeders close to each other at three different locations. After that we recorded how much food was lost for five days.
Finally, we got together and made our conclusions. In conclusion, it is clear that the color of bird seed affects how
much of it they eat. At the two houses that got conclusive data, the birds chose natural over both red and green. At
house A, the difference between how much food was eaten at the feeders was great. The natural birdseed got a lot
more eaten than the other colors. At house B, the natural bird seed still got eaten the most, but it was a lot closer.
The difference was only around 1.5 cm compared to 15 cm at house A. As you can see, the color of birdseed does
affect how much of it they eat.


Project Number: MTM014                                           Grade: 7
Title: Don't wash your coins in this!
Abstract: This project basically is testing which coin: a penny, a nickel, a dime or a quarter will tarnish in certain
liquids. I used water, milk, various sodas, coffee, and lemon juice. I placed the coins in the liquids and observed
them over ten days. My results will be available once the project is completed.




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                            Intermediate – TEAM (MTM) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MTM015                                             Grade: 7
Title: Fire Fly's Give Clue to Conserving Energy
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to see if it's possible to create an energy-conserving bulb using
bioluminescence. Procedure: Measure footcandles of firefly using a luminometer from a distance of: 1mm, 2mm,
98.4375mm, and 100mm. Using light bulb; measure from distance of: 127mm, 203mm, 406mm, 762mm, and
1499mm. Create formula using data. Calculate amount of fireflies that = brightness of light bulb; calculate cost of
manufacturing bioluminescence light bulb. Data: 1 light bulb from distance of 1mm = 2313.1092 footcandles = sum of
1157 fireflies emiting light. Conclusion: The estimated cost to generate the bulb’s chemical reaction would be
$496.21.


Project Number: MTM016                                          Grade: 7
Title: Fire-Oxygen=?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to discover how diminishing oxygen affects the appearance of a flame.
 To conduct this experiment, we put a candle into a hurricane vase. We then placed a glass cutting-board overtop of
the vase to diminish the oxygen. The experiment results were measured by gathering data, then putting data into a
logbook. The results of the experiment were: when you place something over a flame, it will slowly put out the flame
by lack of oxygen. The results indicate that the hypothesis should be accepted.


Project Number: MTM017                                            Grade: 8
Title: Generating Electricity
Abstract: Our goal is to build electric generators out of different materials and using different gauges of wire to
determine which one is the fastest and most efficient way of generating electricity.


Project Number: MTM018                                            Grade: 7
Title: Healthy Snack Attack
Abstract: The purpose of our project is to find out what snack would be healthier to eat. We are researching the
nutrition facts of various kinds of treats. We will be using snow caps, m&m's, sour patch kids and other various
candies to see which is the healthiest.


Project Number: MTM019                                           Grade: 7
Title: How Much Fizz
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MTM020                                            Grade: 8
Title: Hydro Fracturing Fluid & Rosemaryinus officinalis
Abstract: The purpose is to test if Marcellus Shale Hydraulic Fracturing fluid will affect rosemary plants over a seven
day period. On day 1 we simulated a drilling fluid spill by pouring fluid on 12 rosemary plants and kept 12 rosemary
plants controlled. We found that the plants that were treated with fluid were just as healthy as controlled plants. In
conclusion, Marcellus Shale Hydraulic Fracturing fluid does not impact the health of rosemary plants over a seven
day period.


Project Number: MTM021                                          Grade: 8
Title: Metal Detector
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find out which home made metal detector worked the best. We
used three different types of metal. Then we rated the results on a scale of 0-100% with one hundred percent
meaning the metal was detected clearly through the metal detector. The results were that the nail was detected the
best. The spoon was the second best. The paperclip was the worst of all three tests it was hardly notice able. We
accepted our hypothesis because a radio and a calculator will act as a metal detector.

Project Number: MTM022                                           Grade: 8
Title: Newton Ninjas
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.




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                           Intermediate – TEAM (MTM) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MTM023                                          Grade: 8
Title: Patella, Patella!
Abstract: Our project serves the purpose of modeling the knee to find how the angles of the knee affect the strain on
the patella tendon. We’ve decided to do this project because we wanted, as athletes, to understand why our knees
hurt so much. Our hypothesis of our project was that as the angle increased the stain would decrease. This therefore
states that as the knee bends more and more, the strain of the patella tendon would increase more and more. We
hope that this project can conclude solid evidence that can help many researches for knee-problems in the future.

Project Number: MTM024                                           Grade: 7
Title: Plants and Pop Unite!
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine what type of liquid is more beneficial to water plants
with. We bought three similar plants and they sat in the same spot throughout the five weeks. Each plant was
labeled Water, Diet Coke, or Milk. They were watered every Friday. The fourth week, The Milk plant died. The fifth
week, the Diet Coke plant died. The water plant is still alive. Therefore, we can conclude that the water is better for
the plants than Diet Coke or Milk.


Project Number: MTM025                                          Grade: 8
Title: Pollution On Wheels
Abstract: At first our hypothesis was that the street Duss Ave. would have the most air pollution due to the fact that
out of the streets we were testing Duss Ave. was the busiest out of all them. During testing a few problems arose due
to weather raining out cards and we had to place new cards out again. But finally we were able to still get through the
experiments. In the end though Duss Ave had the least amount of air pollution out of all the results compared to the
streets of Chestnut St. and Ridge Road Ext.


Project Number: MTM026                                             Grade: 7
Title: Renewable Energy
Abstract: How can you run a toy with minimum amount of charge time? Let us tell you what we think. If we use a
solar cell to charge two batteries non-stop, then it will increase playtime. The steps we took, and the future steps we
will take include; researching the voltage and amperes for the solar cell. We also researched different kinds of
batteries and their cost. Next, we bought our materials. Afterwards, we made our circuit. Further experimentation is
being conducted.


Project Number: MTM027                                             Grade: 7
Title: Rosy Recall
Abstract: In our project, we will be experimenting on the effects of rose scent on memory. We will use a group of
7th graders as test subjects. Each student will be given a number/letter sequence to memorize in one minute. Then
they will sit quietly for 15 minutes. They will then attempt to repeat the number/letter sequence to us. We will record
the percentage remembered. We will then do the same test but rose perfume will be spritzed into the air. We will
record the data and compare them.


Project Number: MTM028                                          Grade: 8
Title: Sleep Vs. Energy Drinks
Abstract: Everyone knows that human beings need sleep. More and more, people have been trying to replace it.
Namely with energy drinks. The questions we had was, does it work and is it safe? The first thing we did was test to
see what the effects of sleep deprivation on us would be, physically, medically and mentally. We then went through
the sleep deprivation process again, while consuming energy drinks. The conclusions we came to where that
consuming energy drinks can make up for sleep in some areas but can also bring on serious deficiencies in other key
areas.


Project Number: MTM029                                           Grade: 8
Title: Smokin' Chips!
Abstract: Our project consisted of greasy chips, a dingy metal bin, lighters that kept running out of fuel, a drippy
faucet, and a stubborn stop watch. I know you are probably thinking that this could not be a worse beginning, but you
didn’t give us the chance to explain. We burned chips in the metal bin to test how long each chip burned using the
stop watch. We knew that the longer the chip burned meant the more grease the chip contained. By continuing this
with five different brands of chips we were able to time each brand five times.




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                            Intermediate – TEAM (MTM) – 7th & 8th Grade

Project Number: MTM030                                          Grade: 7
Title: Spikes vs. Shoes
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to find out if you can run faster in shoes or in spikes. To conduct this
experiment we will need a log book, stop watch, spray paint, tape measure, 20 yard distance, 4 cones, and 5 test
subjects with baseball spikes and tennis shoes. The experimental results were measured with a stop watch. The
results of our experiment were spikes helped the subjects run faster than they did in shoes. The results indicate that
our hypothesis was correct which stated that a human being would run faster in spikes than in shoes.



Project Number: MTM031                                           Grade: 7
Title: Squirt's Adventure
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MTM032                                          Grade: 7
Title: Teen & Drug Use Survey
Abstract: We created the Teen Drug Survey that contained 20 questions about drugs and drug use. Teens, ages
12-19, voluntarily answered the questions anonymously. We collected and compiled the data into data tables. We
compared all of the data to determine what age group is most likely to be influenced to use drugs. The project is
continuing. We are going to use the results to help our school bring teens more specific education about drugs.


Project Number: MTM033                                             Grade: 7
Title: That Makes Sense!
Abstract: The purpose of our experiment is to determine whether sight affects taste. To test our theory we decided
to use a group of second grade students. We will dye water red, purple, and green, with McCormick food coloring.
Our control group will be tasting the water with blindfolds on and the experimental group will not be blindfolded. Each
student will be asked to taste a sample of each of the colored waters and describe what they taste. In theory, we
think that the blindfolded children will taste the water and the non-blindfolded children will think that the water has
flavor.


Project Number: MTM034                                               Grade: 7
Title: The Algae Effect
Abstract: The purpose of our project is to determine whether algae thrive better in natural lake water, tap water, or
in Alga-grow freshwater medium and at what pH level. To conduct this experiment we poured 25 milliliters of alga-
grow and 5 milliliters of Euglena into container A. In containers B and C (both at a pH level of 10), we placed 25
milliliters of Lake Erie (in container C) and 25 milliliters of tap water (in container B). Experimental results were
measured by gathering the data, placing it into our log book, and then placing the information into charts.
The results of the experiment show that our hypothesis should be rejected. The algae thrived better in high acidity
levels in all containers; the algae adapted to its environment and made it more acidic.


Project Number: MTM035                                               Grade: 8
Title: The Effect of Glider Design on Flight Characteristics
Abstract: Our Experiment was the effect of the glider design on flight characteristics. The purpose was to see if the
size of the glide's stabilizer would affect flight characteristics. Our hypothesis was the glider with the largest sized
stabilizer would fly the farthest. We used four gliders with different sized stabilizers. We created a launcher similar to
a sling shot to launch the gliders. We timed each launch and measured how far each glider flew for six weeks. We
found out the glider with the smallest stabilizer flew the farthest overall each week. Our week results were not what
we expected.


Project Number: MTM036                                           Grade: 7
Title: The Elements of Water
Abstract: Please visit the student’s exhibit for abstract.


Project Number: MTM037                                             Grade: 8
Title: The Higher You Go!
Abstract: We chose to do this project because we wanted to prove which foot position provided the highest ollie for
all fellow skateboarders. We believe that the third foot position, which is three inches behind the bolts, will give you

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                         Page 91
                            Intermediate – TEAM (MTM) – 7th & 8th Grade

the highest ollie. The third position is the most common among skateboarders. It is the closest to the fulcrum, or
middle of the board. In our results, we have shown that the third foot position does give you the highest ollie.


Project Number: MTM038                                            Grade: 8
Title: The Perfect Baseball
Abstract: Baseball is the true American sport. In this experiment we tried to change the experience of this sport by
trying to alter a baseball from the inside. We believed that by doing this we could create a beter or more perfect
baseball. We used eight different kinds of baseballs four of them were altered on the inside and the rest were indoor,
regular, batting, or practice balls. Then we created a catapult to fling the balls and we also dropped the balls off of a
ladder to see how high they would bounce. the results to these tests were that the balls flew about 22 feet and
bounced from 17 to 21 inches high. Although we figured out that the regular baseball is already the best we still had
fun and learned about the wonderful game and what they use to play it.


Project Number: MTM039                                          Grade: 7
Title: UV Lovin' D. Caryophyllus
Abstract: Our science experiment’s purpose was to determine if we could make color flowers that fluoresce under
black light. We took 237 ml water, added 5 ml color highlighter fluid, cut the stem of a white carnation in the water
mixture placed in a glass. We tested five colors. We let the flowers sit in the mixture for 48 hours. We checked for
color and fluoresce, using a black light, every 24 hours. We recorded our results. We repeated the procedure with
59 ml water. Our hypotheses were not exactly correct. We discovered the green highlighter worked the best for our
experiment.


Project Number: MTM040                                            Grade: 8
Title: What's the Size of Your Fizzle?
Abstract: We conducted an experiment where we had to drop an Alka-seltzer tablet in three different sizes into
water and time it to see how long it takes each size to dissolve. We tested three different sizes of tablets, full, halves,
and quarters. The surprise was that one of the shortest results was by a full tablet, but they also had the longest time.
The halves were about 10 seconds shorter than the average time for the whole tablet. The quarters had many of the
shortest times which we had expected.


Project Number: MTM041                                          Grade: 8
Title: Wood Flammability
Abstract: Our project is about the following. Our experiment is about what is better to protect wood for fire, paint or
stain. We used dial rods for the wood. We painted and stained the dial rods. For the control we used plain dial rods.
We used a blowtorch to light the wood on fire. Then when the wood was on fire we timed have long the flames lasted.
We found the paint burns the longest and the control the plain wood burned the least amount of time. That means for
fire protection do not paint or stain your wood.


Project Number: MTM042                                           Grade: 7
Title: You Grew What in Water?
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to find out which type of water will affect the root growth of a
hydroponically grown bean plant. To conduct this experiment we gathered three different types of water, placed a
bean seed in each cup of water, and observed. The experimental results were measured by measuring each plants
roots daily. The results of the experiment were that the tap water grew the roots of a hydroponically grown bean plant
the longest. The results indicate that our hypothesis should be rejected because our results show that the tap water
grew the roots the longest.


Project Number: MTM043                                            Grade: 8
Title: Going Natural?
Abstract: The purpose is to help people know whether pharmaceutical antibiotics or natural remedies work better to
kill bacteria. The hypothesis was that pharmaceutical antibiotics would work better because they are more widely
used and are clinically proven. First, the materials were collected. Then, the experiment was begun following these
steps. It started by rehydrating the bacteria. The petri dishes were then labeled and the agar prepared by melting it in
a hot water bath and pouring it into the Petri dishes. The natural remedy discs were prepared by dabbing a blank
disc with Oil of Oregano. This was repeated with Tea Tree Oil. Next, 15 dishes were inoculated with Staphylococcus
Epidermidis. The dried discs were placed in the center of each Petri dish and covered with lids. This was repeated
with the pharmaceutical antibiotics. Then, the Petri dishes were placed under the heat lamp to let the bacteria grow

PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                          Page 92
                            Intermediate – TEAM (MTM) – 7th & 8th Grade

for one day. The following day the first observations were taken. The measurements were made by taking a metric
ruler and measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition of all the Petri dishes; left side, right side, and across. The
data was then recorded and pictures taken. This continued for 5 days. The final data was recorded and an average
was taken. The results showed that the hypothesis was incorrect. The natural remedies killed more bacteria than the
pharmaceutical antibiotics. Out of the two natural remedies, Oil of Oregano prevented and killed the most bacteria.



Project Number: MTM044                                            Grade: 8
Title: Ice Ice Baby
Abstract: The purpose of the experiment is to make sure people know of the possibility of bacteria in restaurants’ ice
chutes. The hypothesis stated that because fast food restaurant ice machines are used more often by consumers,
than the constant flushing of ice will make it cleaner than a rarely used home ice machine. The procedure consists of
going to the restaurants and discreetly swabbing the ice chutes, and then rubbing the swabs in a Petri dish with agar.
The dishes are placed under a heat lamp for 3 days within the temperature span of 37°C (or about 98.6°F). After the
bacteria are left to grow for 3 days, it is observed under a microscope and the data was recorded. The results showed
that restaurant 1A had the most bacterial growth, which was opposite of the hypothesis. If this project over again,
different restaurants would be tested and the bacteria would be given a longer time to grow.




PRSEF Student Abstracts                                                                                         Page 93
                     Intermediate – TEAM (MTM) – 7th & 8th Grade




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PRSEF Student Abstracts                                             Page 94

				
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