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9.58 MB - Arctic Research Consortium of the United States

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9.58 MB - Arctic Research Consortium of the United States Powered By Docstoc
					Dr. Volker Rachold
Alfred Wegener Institute
M.S. and PhD, Geochemistry
(Goettingen, 1991, 1994)

Research Interests:
• Coastal and Offshore Permafrost
• Nutrient and Carbon Cycles
• Sedimentation Processes
• River Geochemistry Arctic Land-
Ocean Interactions
                      The Role of Coastal
                         Processes in the
                           Arctic System




                                    Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                 Washington DC
                                    13-14 May 2004
                                  Processes

                              •   Sediment transport by
                                  waves, currents and ice
                              •   Permafrost degradation


                                                •   Erosion and
Environmental
                     •   Hydrodynamic               accretion              Coastal
                         system
   forcing                                      •   Thaw                  responses
                     •   Atmospheric                consolidation
                         system


                              •   GHG
                              •   Organic carbon
                                                                             Impacts
                              •   Bathymetry and
                                  morphology                        •   Human systems
                                                                    •   Biology and ecosystems
                                  Feedback
                                                                                     Arctic Forum
        Volker Rachold, AWI                                                          Washington DC
                                                                                     13-14 May 2004
         Coastal Dynamics as a function of environmental
           forcing and coastal geology and morphology




                                                           Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                                        Washington DC
                                                           13-14 May 2004
   Terrigenous Organic Carbon Input to the Arctic Ocean




                                                          Rachold, Eicken,
                                                          Gordeev, Grigoriev,
                                                          Hubberten, Lisitzin,
                                                          Shevchenko and
                                                          Schirrmeister (2003)




                                                                Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                                             Washington DC
                                                                13-14 May 2004
Current Status of the Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD) Coastal Segmentation and Classification

                                                     (prototype GIS with completed segmentation
                                                           is anticipated by October 2004)


                                                           Coastal Subdivisions by Arctic Shelf Seas

                                                                        Sector              Shoreline
                                                                                         length* (km)
                                                           CS         Chukchi Sea                5,203
                                                           ES        East Siberian               3,500
                                                                          Sea
                                                           LS          Laptev Sea                 7,931
                                                           KS           Kara Sea                10,790
                                                           BS         Barents Sea                 6,176
                                                           GSCA        Greenland                 4,378
                                                                     Sea/Canadian
                                                                      Archipelago
                                                           CBS         Canadian                  3,787
                                                                     Beaufort Sea
                                                           USBS       US Beaufort                 1,958
                                                                          Sea

                                                                         total                 43,723

                                                                            *based on World Vector
                                                                            Shorelines, excluding islands


                                                                                           Arctic Forum
              Volker Rachold, AWI                                                          Washington DC
                                                                                           13-14 May 2004
                                         ACD Coastal Classification Template

field                             entry options

primary_contact_person            provide name and email
regional_sea                      Chukchi Sea=CS, East Siberian Sea=ESS, Laptev Sea=LS, Kara Sea=KS, Barents Sea=BS, Greenland Sea/Canadian
                                  Archipelago=GSCA, Beaufort Sea=BS
onshore (direction landward from the sea)


onshore_form                      delta=d, lowland(<10m)=l, upland(10-500m)=u, highland(>500m)=h, wetland=w

backshore (upper part of the active beach above the normal reach of the tides (high water), but affected by large waves occurring during a high
water)
backshore_form                    cliff=c, slope=s, flat=f, ridged/terraced=r, anthropogenic=a, complicated=x
backshore_elevation               in meters
backshore_material_1              lithified=l, unlithified=u
backshore_material_2              mud-dominated=m, sand-dominated=s, gravel-dominated=g, diamict=d, organic=o, mixtures= e.g mg, sg
backshore_comment                 text to be added if backshore_form=r or backshore_form=x
shore (strip of ground bordering the sea which is alternately exposed, or covered by tides and/or waves)

shore_form                        beach=b, shore terrace*=t, cliff=c, complicated=x
beach_form                        fringing=f, barrier=b, spit=s (to be filled if shore_form=b)
shore_material_1                  lithified=l, unlithified=u
shore_material_2                  mud-dominated=m, sand-dominated=s, gravel-dominated=g, diamict=d, organic=o, mixtures= e.g mg, sg
shore_comment                     text to be added if shore_form = x
offshore

depth_closure**                   in meters (if available)
distance_2m_isobath               in meters (if available)
distance_5m_isobath               in meters (if available)
distance_10m_isobath              in meters (if available)
distance_100m_isobath             in meters (if available)
offshore_material                 mud-dominated=m, sand-dominated=s, gravel-dominated=g, diamict=d, organic=o, mixtures= e.g mg, sg




               Jerry Brown, Volker Rachold and                                                                                         Arctic Forum
                                                                                                                             Arctic Science Summit Week
                    Volker Rachold, AWI                                                                                                 Island
                                                                                                                             Reykjavik,Washington DC
                       the ACD Group                                                                                         April 200413-14 May 2004
                                          ACD Coastal Classification Template (2)

field                              entry options

general

ground_ice_1                       low(2-20)=l, medium(20-50)=m, high(>50)=h
ground_ice_2                       in % total volume of shoreline (best guess!)
ground_ice_comment                 text to be added if ground ice template was filled out
change_rate                        in meter/year (erosion=minus, accumulation=plus)
change_rate_interval               in years (years of observation, e.g. 1956-1999)
dynamic_process                    erosive=e, stable=s, accumulative=a (interpretation, only to be filled out if change rate is not available)
dry_bulk_density                   in t/m3 (if no data available use: clay=1.3, silt=1.5, sand=2, or mixtures, e.g. silty sand=1.8)
organic_C                          in weight % (best guess!)
soil_organic_C                     in kg/m2 (if available)
environmental

(not included here, will be available as separate GIS layer)
data_sources                       text (provide the sources or references(citation) of used information, i.e. published, unpublished observations or
                                   reports)
comments                           text (space for additional comments)




                                                                                                                                            Arctic Forum
                     Volker Rachold, AWI                                                                                                    Washington DC
                                                                                                                                            13-14 May 2004
                      Jorgenson and
                      Brown (in press)



                             Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI          Washington DC
                             13-14 May 2004
                      Jorgenson and Brown (in press)


                                             Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                          Washington DC
                                             13-14 May 2004
                      Jorgenson and Brown (in press)


                                             Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                          Washington DC
                                             13-14 May 2004
                      Jorgenson and Brown (in press)


                                             Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                          Washington DC
                                             13-14 May 2004
              Sampling for organic geochemical
                analyses in the Laptev Sea




                                                 Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                              Washington DC
                                                 13-14 May 2004
Net coastal change in the Canadian Beaufort Sea from 1972 to 2000 overlain
 on a Landsat image mosaic 1998-1999 (provided by Environment Canada).




                                                                    Solomon (in press)

                                                                        Arctic Forum
     Volker Rachold, AWI                                                Washington DC
                                                                        13-14 May 2004
                                            V-5 profile

                     6
                     5                                               1987                    Amount of shoreline retreat
H, m - asl. heigth




                     4                                               2000                    between 1987 and 2000 at
                     3                                               high tide level         Varandei settlement (Barents Sea)
                     2
                     1
                     0
                     -1 0   20         40         60          80     100               120
                                     L, m - distance from the base




                                                                                                                 Ogorodov (in press)


                                                                                                                         Arctic Forum
                                 Volker Rachold, AWI                                                                     Washington DC
                                                                                                                         13-14 May 2004
Analyses of Environmental Data:
         Storm counts                 3             2

                   4




           5                                                        1




                                          7
           6



                                              Atkinson (in press)


                                                                    Arctic Forum
                Volker Rachold, AWI                                 Washington DC
                                                                    13-14 May 2004
                                  Cliff edge retreat rate versus the total wave energy
                        3.5                                                                                                                         Monitoring of coastal retreat rates at
                         3
                                                                                              R2 = 0.7
                                                                                                                                                     the key site Marre Sale (Kara Sea)
 Retreat rate, m/year




                        2.5

                         2

                        1.5

                         1

                        0.5                                                                                                                         Temporal changes in the retreat rate of cliff edge
                                                                                                                                                    3.5
                         0
                              0           20       40        60       80           100   120           140        160                                3
                                                                                     2
                                                             Total wave energy, m days
                                                                                                                                                    2.5




                                                                                                                             Retreat rate, m/year
    Coastal retreat rate versus the number of days with storms                                                                                       2

                        3.5
                                                                                                                                                    1.5

                         3                                                                                                                           1
                                                                               2
                                                                              R = 0.4
                        2.5                                                                                                                         0.5
Retreat rate, m/year




                         2                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                                                     1978     1983         1988      1993       1998           2003
                        1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Years

                         1
                                                                                                                                                                     Vasiliev, Kanevskiy, Cherkashov
                        0.5
                                                                                                                                                                        and Vanshtein (in press)
                         0
                              0       2        4         6        8      10        12    14       16         18         20

                                                               Number of storm's days


                                                                                                                                                                                                Arctic Forum
                                                        Volker Rachold, AWI                                                                                                                     Washington DC
                                                                                                                                                                                                13-14 May 2004
                      Model of the sub-sea permafrost
                      table relief at the Marre Sale
                      key site (Kara Sea)




                      Rekant, Cherkashov, Vanshtein
                         and Krynitsky (in press)


                                                      Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                                   Washington DC
                                                      13-14 May 2004
    Transition of Onshore to Offshore Permafrost in the
                    Arctic Coastal Zone




            Concept of a Coastal Drilling Program in the Western Laptev Sea –
                  German-Russian Expedition COAST 1 (Rachold, 2003)


                                                                                Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                                                             Washington DC
                                                                                13-14 May 2004
Coastal Permafrost Drilling Profile at „Mammontovy Klyk“ (Western Laptev Sea) –
         Pilot Study by M.N. Grigoriev, April 2003




                                                                            Arctic Forum
     Volker Rachold, AWI                                                    Washington DC
                                                                            13-14 May 2004
                                                                           Schematic map of relic
                                                                             offshore ice bearing
                                                                           permafrost thickness on
                                                                               the East Siberian
                                                                           Arctic Shelf (Simulation
                                                                             for geothermal heat
                                                                              flux of 45 mW/m2)




                                                                           Romanovskii, Hubberten,
                                                                           Gavrilov, Eliseeva and
                                                                           Tipenko (in press)

Ice bearing permafrost thickness [m]
1- discontinuous, 100 and less   6- 100-600 in rifts with open taliks
2- 100-200                       7- open taliks following large tectonic
3- 200- 300                      fractures
4- 300-400                       8-coastal permafrost thickness
5- 400-600                       9- Arctic Shelf boundary

                                                                                       Arctic Forum
            Volker Rachold, AWI                                                        Washington DC
                                                                                       13-14 May 2004
ACD Products                                                 http://www.awi-potsdam.de/www-pot/geo/acd.html)
                                     Circum-Arctic Coastal
                                        Photo Collection




                                     Metadata Information
                                         for key sites

                                       Bibliography of
                                      Russian Literature


                                                                                          Arctic Forum
               Volker Rachold, AWI                                                        Washington DC
                                                                                          13-14 May 2004
ACD Publications          Berichte                                             413
                          zur Polar- und Meeresforschung
                                                                               2002
                                                          Reports
                                     on Polar and Marine Research

                          Arctic Coastal Dynamics
                          Report of an International Workshop
                          Potsdam (Germany) 26-30 November 2001



                          Edited by Volker Rachold, Jerry Brown and
                          Steve Solomon


                          Berichte                                          443
                          zur Polar- und Meeresforschung
                                                                            2003
                                                          Reports
                                     on Polar and Marine Research

                          Arctic Coastal Dynamics
                          Report of the 3rd International Workshop
                          Oslo (Norway), 2-5 December 2002



                          Edited by Volker Rachold, Jerry Brown,
                          Steve Solomon and Johan Ludvig Sollid


                          Berichte                                         in press
                          zur Polar- und Meeresforschung
                                                                           2004
                                                          Reports
                                     on Polar and Marine Research

                          Arctic Coastal Dynamics
                          Report of the 4th International Workshop
                          St. Petersburg (Russia), 10-13 November 2003



                          Edited by Volker Rachold and Georgy Cherkashov




                                                                           Arctic Forum
    Volker Rachold, AWI                                                    Washington DC
                                                                           13-14 May 2004
ACD Publications (2)

Arctic Coastal Dynamics –
Special Issue of GeoMarine Letters

V. Rachold, F. Are, J. Brown, G. Cherkashov, M. N. Grigoriev, H.-W. Hubberten, J.L. Sollid
       and S. Solomon - Preface and overview of the IASC/IPA-Project Arctic Coastal
       Dynamics (ACD)
F. E. Are, M. N. Grigoriev, H.-W. Hubberten and V. Rachold - Using thermoterrace
       dimensions to calculate the coastal erosion rate
D. E. Atkinson - Environmental forcing of the circum-Polar coastal regime
D. Drozdov and F. Rivkin - A Geo-Information System (GIS) to display and analyze coastal
       dynamics of the Russian Arctic
T. Jorgenson and J. Brown - The U.S. Beaufort Sea coast: regional classification and
       estimation of sediment and carbon inputs from erosion
G.K. Manson, S.M. Solomon, D.L. Forbes, D.E. Atkinson, and M. Craymer - Spatial Variability
       Of Factors Influencing Coastal Change In The Western Canadian Arctic
S. L. Nikiforov, Yu. A. Pavlidis, V. Rachold, N. A. Aibulatov, M. N. Grigoryev, F. M. Rivkin,
       N.V.Ivanova and M.M.Koreisha - Morphogenetic classification of Arctic coasts
S. A. Ogorodov - Coastal dynamics in the Pechora Sea under human impact
S. A. Ogorodov, A. M. Kamalov, G. K. Zubakin and Yu. P. Gudoshnikov - The role of sea ice in
       coastal and bottom dynamics in the Pechora Sea
V. Ostroumov, V. Rachold and Sorokovikov - Coastal erosion sediment and organic carbon
       input to the East Siberian Sea
N. Romanovkii, H.-W. Hubberten, A. Gavrilov, V. Tumskoy and V. Romanovsky -Recent
       Offshore Permafrost State and Processes of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf
A. Sharov - Studying changes of ice coasts in the Russian Arctic
A. Vasiliev, M. Kanevskiy, G Cherkashov and B. Vanshtein -Permafrost and coastal dynamics
       at the Barents and Kara Sea key sites
S. Solomon - Spatial and temporal variability of shoreline change in the Beaufort-
       Mackenzie region, Northwest Territories, Canada
B. Vanshtein, G. Cherkashov, P. Rekant and P. Krinitsky - Permafrost characteristics and
       dynamics of the southern part of Kara Sea coastal zone                                   coming soon...

                                                                                                                 Arctic Forum
                        Volker Rachold, AWI                                                                      Washington DC
                                                                                                                 13-14 May 2004
       Integration of Geophysical and Biological Studies

                                  Human Interactions (Anthropogenic Stressors)
                                  Risk Assessment
                                  Sustainable Development




              Biological and Ecological Assessments
              Marine and Coastal Biodiversity




Geological Coastline Characterization
Sediment and Organic Carbon Input
Environmental Forcing



                                                                           Arctic Forum
            Volker Rachold, AWI                                            Washington DC
                                                                           13-14 May 2004
                        Arctic Coastal Biodiversity Assessment

                                                      ACD Coastal Data
                     Ecoregional Analysis




                                                                                   Anthropogenic Stressors
 Landscape Pattern




                                Species Habitat Models


                                              Restoration Areas


                                                  Local Special Features



                                           Model Results
Source: Cogan 2001



                                                                           Arctic Forum
                     Volker Rachold, AWI                                   Washington DC
                                                                           13-14 May 2004
Near-future Activities




• Arctic Coastal Biodiversity (ACBio) –
  Development of a Science and Implementation Plan
  for a new IASC project
• 5th Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD) Workshop –
  Montreal (Canada), 13-16 October 2004
• 2004 AGU Fall Meeting –
  Special Session on Arctic Permafrost Coasts
• International Conference on Arctic Planning (ICARP II) -
  Copenhagen (Denmark), Autumn 2005
  Coastal Working Group Theme


                                                             Arctic Forum
                 Volker Rachold, AWI                         Washington DC
                                                             13-14 May 2004
                                                                        Arctic Forum
Volker Rachold, AWI                                                     Washington DC
                                                                        13-14 May 2004




                      Acknowledgements
         Financial support by the following organizations is highly appreciated:
         • International Arctic Sciences Committee (IASC)
         • International Permafrost Association (IPA)
         • Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT):
           Canada-Germany agreement
         • INTAS (International Association for the promotion of co-operation with
           scientists from the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union):
           project numbers INTAS Open Call 2001-2329 and INTAS Open Call 2001-2332
         • International Arctic Research Center (IARC): grant “Analysis of Coastal
           Meteorological and Oceanographic Forcing in the Arctic Basin”
         • German Ministry for Education and Research / Russian Ministry for Research
           and Technology: grant: “Permafrost Dynamics in the Laptev Sea”

				
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