UNESCO Benchmarking

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					Reassessing international benchmarks
   for tertiary education systems
                    Albert Motivans
               UNESCO Institute for Statistics
            Benchmarking Education Systems for Results
                     21-23 June 2010, Singapore

   UNESCO
                     INSTITUTE for
                     STATISTICS
The growing importance of benchmarks
     International benchmarking and
      comparisons across countries are now the
      lingua franca in education policy and public
      debates
     Greater attention has also led to higher
      stakes and more attention to the quality of
      indicators, for example in the case of
      tertiary education

       UNESCO
                  INSTITUTE for
                  STATISTICS
   Expanding tertiary systems
Tertiary enrolment grew by more than four-fold between 1975 and 2008
                                 160


                                 140                                                                            Sub-Saharan
                                                                                           ISCED97              Africa
                                                        ISCED76
                                                                                                                Arab States
                                 120
  Tertiary students (millions)




                                                                                                                South and West
                                 100
                                                                                                             2007
                                                                                                                Asia

                                                     1985                          1995
                                    1975                                                                        East Asia and the
                                  80
                                     0.8M            1.1M                          1.7M                      2.8M
                                                                                                                Pacific

                                                                                                                Latin America
                                                                                                                and the
                                  60                                                                            Caribbean
                                                                                                                Central Asia

                                  40
                                  Mobile tertiary students – those who study abroad, more than tripled
                                                                                                Central and
                                                                                                                Eastern Europe

                                  20                                                                            North America
                                                                                                                and Western
                                                                                                                Europe


                                         UNESCO
                                       1970


                                              1975


                                                     1980


                                                                1985


                                                                            1990


                                                                                    1995


                                                                                            2000


                                                                                                      2005
                                                            INSTITUTE for
                                                            STATISTICS                     Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
                                                                                  Gross graduation ratio (%)




                                                                    0
                                                                        10
                                                                             20
                                                                                    30
                                                                                           40
                                                                                                 50
                                                                                                       60
                                                                                                               70
                                                                                                                                                   80
                                                                                                                                                        90
                                                       Australia
                                                    New Zealand
                                           Republic of Korea
                                                           Japan
                                                   Macao, China
                                                        Thailand
                                          Hong Kong (China)
                                                     Philippines
                                                        Malaysia




                                          UNESCO
                                                                                                                     East Asia and the Pacific
                                                           China
                                                       Myanmar
                                          Brunei Darussalam

                                                      Indonesia
                                                      Cambodia
                                                            Lao


                                                           Cuba
                                                        Panama
                                                           Brazil
                                                         Mexico




         STATISTICS
                                                           Chile
                                                                                                                                                             5A first degree




         INSTITUTE for
                                                       Colombia
                                                      Argentina
                                                      El Salvador
                                                         Guyana
                                                          Aruba
                                                      Guatemala
                                                                                                                     Latin America and the Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                             ISCED 5B




                                                         Finland
                                                         Iceland
                                                       Denmark
                                                         Norway
                                                         Ireland
                                                    Netherlands
                                                            Italy
                                                        Sweden
                                              United Kingdom

                                                           Spain
                                                           Israel
                                                         Canada
                                                          France
  United States of America
                                                       Germany
                                                   Liechtenstein
                                                                                                                    North American and Western Europe




                                                    Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                               Gross graduation ratio of first-time qualifications of ISCED 5A and 5B programmes




                                                        Belgium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Who produces the most tertiary graduates?




                                                         Austria
                                                         Greece
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics




                                                         Cyprus
                                                        Andorra
                              How mobile are tertiary students?
                                     Mobile students as a percentage of tertiary enrolment, 1999 and 2008


                                                                     2008    1999
                              6

                                                                                                                    4.9
Outbound mobility ratio (%)




                              5                                                                         4.6

                              4


                              3                                                            2.8

                                   World =1.9
                              2
                                                                    1.6             1.7
                                                1.3       1.4
                              1      0.9

                              0
                                    Latin   South and    North    Central   East Asia      Arab       Central      Sub-
                                   America  West Asia   America     and      and the      States       Asia       Saharan
                                   and the                and     Eastern    Pacific                               Africa
                                  Caribbean             Western   Europe
                                                        Europe

                                                                                     Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
Recent critiques of international
benchmarks for tertiary systems
   Interpretation/use of indicators
    •   Analysis of indicators is not contextualised
    •   Focus on relative measures hides absolute figures
    •   Problems with rankings
   Indicator methodology
    •   ISCED classifications of tertiary education programmes are
        too heterogenous
    •   Limitations of population-based graduation rates
    •   Coverage of part-time students, foreign students is unclear
                        Clifford Adelman (2009), The spaces between numbers
                        Hauptman and Fritschler (2009) The use and misuse of international
                        data in higher education
         UNESCO
                        INSTITUTE for
                        STATISTICS
Where do international indicators come from?
International framework for        Survey          Scope             Content
   education statistics
                                   UNESCO           +/- 150          Basic data:
 National programmes are          Institute for    countries        pupils,
   mapped according to the         Statistics                        teachers,
   International Standard                                            finances
   Classification of Education     World            16 countries     More policy
   (ISCED97)                       Education        China, India,    variables – can
 Data are provided to             Indicators       Indonesia,       compare to
   UNESCO, OECD and Eurostat       (WEI)            Malaysia, Sri    OECD
   via three instruments and a                      Lanka,Thailand   countries, but
                                                                     also to decide
   common indicator                                                  on own
   methodology                                                       indicators
 WEI is a special programme
                                   UNESCO-         42 countries      System-level
   which bridges UIS and OECD      OECD-           Japan, Rep. of    data and policy
   methodologies.                  EUROSTAT        Korea             design

        UNESCO
                       INSTITUTE for
                       STATISTICS
Challenges of ensuring comparability
across diverse tertiary systems




     UNESCO
              INSTITUTE for
              STATISTICS
Revising the international standard (ISCED97)

   Global consultation on ISCED2011 now underway
    (www.uis.unesco.org)
   Changing contexts
    •   Strong expansion and differentiation in education
    •   Convergence in approaches to organise tertiary education
        provision (e.g., Bologna process in Europe)
   Shortcomings in the existing ISCED97 classification
    •   Completion and attainment not defined
    •   Difficult to apply standard to calculate graduation rates
    •   Unclear instructions for special cases (e.g., o-levels, bridging
        programmes, adult education)

        UNESCO
                        INSTITUTE for
                        STATISTICS
Improved classification of tertiary programmes

    Five post-secondary levels, Four tertiary levels
    Distinguishes BA and MA and equivalent programmes
     •   Reflects European Bologna process
    Simplifies dimensions within levels
    Improves hierarchy in tertiary levels
     •   No implicit hierarchy of vocational/academic
    Qualifications added as a criterion for completion and
     attainment


         UNESCO
                       INSTITUTE for
                       STATISTICS
Addressing the critics
   Promote interpretation and use of data
      •   Recognise contextual factors
      •   Use both relative/absolute perspectives
      •   Use wide range of indicators
   Improve tools
      •   Refine ISCED classification categories (ISCED2011)
      •   Stronger compliance to reporting standards (e.g.,
          peer reviews)
      •   Seek alternative indicators
   Transparency is essential


     UNESCO
                     INSTITUTE for
                     STATISTICS
Agenda for international benchmarking
    More focus on regional priorities and working
     directly with countries (WEI approach)
    More flexible platforms for regional data collection
    More focus on gaps in data and indicators needed to
     inform key policy issues, including:
     •   Education quality
     •   Financing education
     •   Human resource development
    Data use and analysis – regional reporting


         UNESCO
                     INSTITUTE for
                     STATISTICS

				
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posted:10/9/2012
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