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					2.7 Baltimore in perspective: benchmarking our numbers
A popular strategy used by private sector organizations to find out “how they are doing” is
benchmarking, or comparison of their own organization’s performance with that of a peer group
in their industry.

The theory behind benchmarking is that while there may be no single definitive “best” way of
producing a good or delivering a service -- thereby making it inherently difficult to measure
“performance” -- important insights and perspective can nevertheless still be gained through
comparison with groups of peers, and with individual “best-in-class” examples. Only by such
observations can any one organization’s own results be put in perspective.

Benchmarking in practice involves the organization agreeing to contribute its performance data
as the “price of admission” to a “club” where it gets to see every other member’s analogous data.
Yet obtaining the numbers is never the end of benchmarking, but instead is the starting point for
asking reasoned questions about the observed differences. With data from other individual
members and the whole group, an organization can ask key questions about its own performance,
such as: “How do we stack up against the
group average?”, “How do we look                           Benchmarking services:
against the industry leaders?”, “Are we
the same or different?”, “How different         American Society for Training and Development
are we?”, “Are we different for the right       (ASTD) online “Benchmarking Service”
reasons?”, and “Are the others doing            measurement kit, at:
something we are not, in order to get their     http://www.astd.org/virtual_community/research/mea
different results?”. Through examination        sure/bnch_svcs.html
of the group data, it is also possible to spot  ASTD’s “Benchmarking Forum” at:
and keep track of important industry            http://www.astd.org/virtual_community/research/ben
developments and trends that might go           ch/BMFmembers.html
unnoticed if the focus was exclusively on
only one organization.                          The Corporate Executive Board’s “Corporate
                                               Leadership Council,” at:
                                               http://www.corporateleadershipcouncil.com/CLC/1,1
Several non-profit and commercial
                                               283,,00.html
benchmarking organizations exist,
catering to different types of enterprise      The Masie Center’s “e-learning consortium”, at:
(see sidebar). Typically, these agencies       http://www.masie.com/masie/default.cfm?page=cons
also offer a range of additional services on   ortium
top of comparative data collection and
                                               American Productivity and Quality Center (APQC),
analysis, such as: peer networking
                                               at:
meetings, expert presenters, member-           http://www.apqc.org/portal/apqc/site?path=root
hosted site visits, member-requested group
online surveys on specialist topics,           The “Council on Competitiveness,” at:
industry alerts, and specialty research. The   http://www.compete.org/et
mix of services on offer varies, and most
                                               The “Global Benchmarking Council,” at:
charge an annual subscription fee of
$5,000 to $50,000 per member, for a total      http://www.globalbenchmarking.com
membership of between 50 and 5,000             “LearnShare,” at: http://www.learnshare.com
organizations.
                                               “The Benchmarking Exchange” (TBE), at:
Although public sector organizations have      http://www.benchnet.com/datgen.htm
often sought out “model programs” and



                                                1
“best practice” case studies, and shared their information through professional associations, they
have historically not been heavily involved with the more formal aspects of such benchmarking.
Until recently, government agencies’ prime interest was in increasing services and reaching the
populations they were mandated to serve. There was little emphasis on process efficiency
comparisons, and little data routinely available to support them. Moreover, many public services
were governed by federal and state regulations that, by design, specifically did not allow many
creative local variations. At best, these rules did not reward superior performance or cost savings
or innovative approaches, and at worst they strait-jacketed potentially innovative operations and
penalized efficiency by taking back unspent funds.

More recently, with the shift to a stronger performance-and-accountability basis for government
services, with new technological abilities to measure and track clients and outcomes through
electronic databases, and with fiscal pressures to do “more with less,” this “compliance culture” is
changing. Agencies are becoming more interested in process and outcome efficiency, and hence
in benchmarking. Baltimore has been in the vanguard of this shift, by actively seeking
information on other comparable local public
workforce systems to put its own results into
perspective.                                                    “Comparable Cities” for
                                                               benchmarking Baltimore:
The BWIB Workforce System Effectiveness                     BOSTON, MA
Committee began an early benchmarking process in            BUFFALO/ERIE COUNTY, NY
2003, by selecting a list of 16 other cities on which       CLEVELAND, OH
to collect LWIB information for a report (see               DETROIT, MI
sidebar). These LWIBs were deemed “comparable”              LOUISVILLE CITY/
to Baltimore, in terms of any of the following                JEFFERSON COUNTY, KY
criteria: (1) they are older, northeastern or               MEMPHIS, TN
midwestern urban-industrial areas, whose local              MILWAUKEE, WI
economies were formerly dominated by                        PHILADELPHIA, PA
                                                            PITTSBURGH, PA
manufacturing; or (2) they are in states surrounding,
                                                            RALEIGH, NC
or near to, Maryland, and are typically viewed as           RICHMOND, VA
close competitors for economic development; or (3)          SEATTLE/KING COUNTY, WA
they are cities known for being innovative and for          ST. LOUIS, MO
attempting interesting workforce initiatives.               TRENTON/MERCER COUNTY, NJ
                                                            WASHINGTON, DC
The online “FutureWorks”™ system now allows                 WILMINGTON, DE
retrieval of the data originally submitted by states
for all their LWIBs to the U.S. Dept. of Labor’s national “WIA Service Record Database”
(WIASRD, or “wizard”) system. Statistics for the WSEC’s chosen comparable LWIBs are taken
from this system and presented in the charts below, with the following caveats.

Comparisons are most useful if they are standardized for the different population sizes. Local
Workforce Investment Board areas are supposed to represent functional local labor market and
work commuting areas, and to be made up of whole counties. Unfortunately, because of the
grandfathering of many old JTPA Service Delivery Areas (SDAs) across the country into LWIB
areas, many individual LWIBs today still do not align with discrete geographical labor market
areas. Furthermore, not all LWIBs have submitted data on all variables for the WIASRD, and so
not all are to be found in the FutureWorks system that is built from the WIASRD. Finally, while
the Bureau of the Census “Local Area Unemployment Statistics” (LAUS) program shows civilian
labor force data for all “Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas” (PMSAs – usually groups of
counties or entire functional metropolitan areas), it does not do so for all the smaller components
of the PMSAs, known as the “Metropolitan Statistical Areas” (MSAs – usually individual


                                                 2
counties and city jurisdictions). In the case of Baltimore, the city is an MSA and is also exactly
the LWIB area. However, LAUS data are shown only for the Baltimore PMSA, which includes
Baltimore City and County. Fortunately, city-specific labor force data are available from the
Maryland Dept. of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation’s (DLLR) “Office of Labor Market Analysis
and Information”. For many of the rest of the comparative LWIB cases, however, labor force data
is available from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for only the larger PMSA of which the
LWIB’s MSA is one part. The PMSA can include both central city and suburban areas, thereby
averaging very different socio-economic settings.

For these reasons, the findings in some of these charts must be taken as broad-brush indicators of
comparative performance, rather than as definitive statistical comparisons. Nevertheless, it is still
instructive to apply the benchmarking questions listed above to statistics from this group on:

         the latest unemployment rates (Chart 2.7.1);

         the total number of clients exiting from WIA services (Chart 2.7.2);

         the share of exiters leaving from each service tier (Chart 2.7.3);

         the total number of days clients spent, on average, in the program (Chart 2.7.4);

         the number of days clients spent, on average, in each of the three service tiers; (Chart
          2.7.4);

         the credential attainment rate (Chart 2.7.5);

         the expense per exiter (at the state level) (Chart 2.7.6);

         the adult, dislocated, and older youth entered employment rates (Charts 2.7.7 through
          2.7.9);

         the adult earnings change rate; (Chart 2.7.10);

         the dislocated worker earnings replacement rate; (Chart 2.7.11);

         the older youth earnings change rate; (Chart 2.7.12);

         the adult, dislocated worker, and older and younger youth employment retention rates;
          (Chart 2.7.13);

These results are given and interpreted below, aligned according to the questions about system
achievement that this information helps us answer.


What is the unemployment backdrop against which these local workforce systems work?

Chart 2.7.1 shows the latest available unemployment rates (for November 2003) for the closest-
fitting Census-defined area for each of the above comparative LWIBs with data available. It thus
contains rates for both MSAs (LWIBs) and PMSAs (LWIBs and their nearby areas). The City of
Baltimore’s rate is 8.2%, which leads in a group of “high” comparable cases for which city-


                                                  3
specific information is available, such as DC (6.7%), and Detroit and Buffalo (at 6.5% each). The
next, “medium”, unemployment rate group of comparable cities (MSAs) includes St. Louis (5.3%
unemployment), Louisville (5.0%), Pittsburgh (4.8%), Raleigh (4.3%) and Richmond (3.6%).

The unemployment rate for the whole Baltimore PMSA (which includes both Baltimore City and
Baltimore County) is 4.7%. This is lower than rates for Seattle (6.3%), and Milwaukee and
Philadelphia PMSAs (5.2% each). It is close to rates for PMSAs like Boston (4.6%) and Trenton
(4.4%), but not as low as rates for Wilmington-Delaware (3.9%) and the Greater Washington
metro area (3.1%).


How many people did Baltimore serve, compared to the other LWIBs?

Chart 2.7.2 shows the total number of Program Year 2001 (i.e. July 2001 through June 2002)
“exiters” from WIA-funded programs (clients who have been formally been closed out). The
number of exiters has been standardized per 100,000 of the population in each case, and for this
chart, the population numbers used do apply to the actual LWIB areas, rather than to the larger
PMSAs.

Baltimore exited 498 clients per 100,000 of its population, and along with Milwaukee, DC, and
St. Louis, is in a distinct group of “high performing” LWIBs in the 498 to 624 range, on this
indicator. Behind this group is a pair of “moderate” performers, Trenton and Detroit, which
managed less than half of the level of exiters than did the first group. The remaining nine LWIBs
all operated at the sub-160 exiters level, and six of these LWIBs exited fewer than one hundred
clients per 100,000 of their populations.


What service tier did the clients reach?

Chart 2.7.3 shows the percent of all clients who exit from a given service tier in PY ’01. Of all
Baltimore’s exiting clients, 51% do so from the core stage, 33% from intensive, and 16% from
training. Baltimore’s core exit percentage of its total is the second highest in the group of 11
LWIBs that have any data on core exits -- after St. Louis with the most at 88%, and ahead of
Memphis with 31%. For exiters at the intensive stage, Baltimore’s 33% is nearer the group’s
average of 30%. With regards to exiters at the training stage, Baltimore’s 16% is lower than the
56% average for the 15 LWIBs with such data, and second lowest of the LWIBs to St. Louis with
3%. When the numbers form a complete spectrum (in this case from 0% to 100%), there are
clearly multiple different service models, strategies, and objectives at work. Yet the finding that
Baltimore is close to one end of the spectrum for share of clients exiting at training would make it
interesting to explore further why this is the case.


How long did service take?

Chart 2.7.4 shows the average number of days clients spend in each tier of service – core,
intensive, and training – along with the average days in the program in total before exit, in PY
’01. Baltimore records an average of 220 total days-in-program per client. This is similar to
Cleveland with 210 days and Milwaukee with 233. Of the fifteen LWIBs, there is an extreme pair
– Trenton and Raleigh – which have clients in their programs for over 560 days. Then there is a
second group of four – Delaware, DC, Memphis, and Seattle – which have clients in for 343 to
416 days. A third group of seven LWIBs – Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Detroit, Cleveland, Baltimore,


                                                 4
Milwaukee, and Boston – have clients on average for a total of between 160 and 264 days.
Philadelphia and St. Louis are the final pair with the lowest number of total days in the program,
at 73 and 87 respectively.

The actual distribution for this group of LWIBs ranges from a low of 73 days in program in
Philadelphia, to a high of 587 in Raleigh. Baltimore is close to the center of this group, but when
the range of days-in-program is from 10 weeks to almost two years, again it is likely there are
widely different service models and strategies at work across the group.

Clues to the different service models being used can be found in the different lengths of time
spent in the individual tiers. For example, seven of the fifteen LWIBs follow a “progressively
increasing time by tier” model, with core being the shortest, followed by a longer time in
intensive, and then an even longer time in training. This group is thus having clients spend longer
time on the “deeper” services. Also, in five of these seven LWIBs, the number of days spent in
core is negligible (at 3 days or less), compared to Baltimore’s 73 days. This brevity in core does
not seem to be just a device to feed into a longer period in only the next stage of intensive
services, but is also associated with longer times in training overall.

A second service model at work might be “predominance of the intensive tier” model. A pattern
of longer times in intensive than in either of the other two tiers is exhibited by four of the
remaining eight LWIBs (Detroit, Baltimore, Milwaukee, and Raleigh). Only four LWIBs have a
longer time in intensive than Baltimore’s 89 days.

A third service model might be “predominance of core” (shown as the longest of the three tiers in
St. Louis and Memphis).

Of the fifteen LWIBs, nine have their clients in training for longer than they have them in each of
the other two tiers. In Baltimore it is the converse, with less time spent in training than in the
other two tiers -- an average of 58 days in training, compared to 73 in core and 89 in intensive
tiers. In Trenton, Delaware, and Seattle, the number of days in training far outweighs the days in
the other two stages. In Trenton, for example, clients spend, on average, 534 days in training.
Some of these differences might merit even closer inspection: for example, while Cleveland and
Milwaukee are roughly similar to Baltimore in terms of the total number of days a client spends
in their program, both of the other two LWIBs have their clients in the intensive stage for a
shorter period (39 and 58 days, respectively) than does Baltimore (73 days). Cleveland also
records 149 days of training on average per client, compared to Baltimore’s 58. Is the longer time
in training elsewhere simply a function of greater resources being available than in Baltimore, or
are there different types of training in demand in Baltimore, that simply take less time?


What did clients get for their time spent in training?

It is useful to step back and examine how the number of training days is counted, how individual
LWIBs may differ in their protocols for recording it, and what the number of days may really
“mean”. In the FutureWorks system, the length of time spent in the training tier is the number of
days between the client’s start of training activity and exit from the program. However, not all
those calendar days may have been days on which training occurred: weekends will account for
two out of every seven days, and a client may have been attending a training activity for only two
or three days each week. Furthermore, different LWIBs may use different practices for “exiting”
a client, within the same federal guidelines. Some may exit them at the end of training, while
others may wait until the client is actually placed in employment before closing them out. In the


                                                 5
case of clients with an ITA but dropping out of a course after a couple of classes, some LWIBs
may exit them from the program straight away, while others may not hear about that event until
the course is over, or may keep the client on the books after dropout in the hope that they will re-
enrol.

Given this spectrum of possibilities, it is clear the number of training days may be at best only a
gross indicator of the emphasis placed on training. One way around the shortcomings of “training
days” is to look instead at the credentials earned, since credentials are real “output” measures,
and not “inputs” or “activity” measures like training days. The “credential” rate is calculated by
taking the number of clients who received training services and then calculating the percentage of
those attaining state-recognized educational/occupational certificates, credentials, diplomas, or
degrees, within three quarters after their exit quarter.

Chart 2.7.5 shows the “credential attainment rate” for all funding sources. The range here is from
73% at the top for Detroit, down to 6% for Trenton at the lower end. Baltimore, with 70%, is
second equal in the 13 LWIBs with these data, and is very close to Detroit, at the top with 73%.
However, Baltimore exits more clients – 505 -- than the other LWIBs in its close grouping:
Milwaukee exited 376, Seattle 427, and Detroit 435.


How much did we spend?

Chart 2.7.6 shows the total WIA expense per exiter for PY ’01. (These data are only available at
the state level, and are shown for those states that could be matched with the available
comparative LWIB cities). The distribution of expense per exiter values shows three groups of
LWIBs. At the “high” end there is a group of three states (Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia) that
spends over $12,000 per exiter. In the middle is a group of seven states spending between $5,400
and $8,300. At the other end is a third group of states spending between $2,500 and $4,300 per
exiter: Maryland is in this third group, spending just under $4,000 per exiter.

There are several caveats to add to this picture before approaching any interpretations. The
amount of money spent largely reflects the amount of money originally allocated by the federal
government to these states for carrying out their WIA activities. These federal allocations are
made by formulae largely reflecting state population size and unemployment numbers – factors
that are not under a state’s direct control. Spending less per exiter is not necessarily a “bad”
result, if the exits are in line with program goals, or are the best that can be achieved given the
individual exiter’s potential and career goals, or if the numbers indicate a greater efficiency of
service provision in achieving the same level of outcome. Finally, there can be significant
differences in how the state’s total allocation gets divided between all the LWIBs within the same
state: this is again usually by formulae over which the LWIB has no direct control. In sum, the
differences shown between these expense per exiter figures for different states, does not
necessarily mean the same differences hold for the 15 LWIBs.

Nevertheless, in spite of these caveats, it is still interesting to note that some of the states with
higher spending per exiter are also those in which the respective LWIB in that state has a higher
number of days that clients spend in training: Seattle has the fourth highest number of training
days, and is in the fourth highest spending state per exiter, and similarly Cleveland has a
relatively high number of training days and is also in one of the highest spending states. Having
more money overall obviously makes it easier to spend more money on training, and training is
typically the most expensive service tier per client. However, other cases show that mediocre
state spending levels overall do not necessarily have to mean lower training: Trenton and Boston


                                                  6
achieve relatively high numbers of training days compared to the rest of the group, but they are in
states that are only in the “middle” group of spenders. Detroit has a higher number of days in
training than does Baltimore, even though it is in a state that spends less per exiter than Maryland
does.


After clients received services and exited, did they get a job?

Charts 2.7.7 through 2.7.9 show the “entered employment rate” for adult, dislocated worker, and
youth client categories, respectively. The entered employment rate is one of the 17 federal
performance indicators for local public workforce systems 1, and is calculated by taking those
adults who were not employed at the time of registration, and then dividing the number of adults
who entered employment by the end of the first quarter after their exit, by the total number of
adults who exited during the quarter. The resulting percentage thus shows us the share of adult
clients getting a job within 13 weeks after leaving the system.

Of the 14 comparable LWIBs with data on this measure in Chart 2.7.7, Baltimore records the
highest adult entered employment rate, at 98%. Since there were a large number of “adult exiter”
clients in this calculation – 1,364 in Baltimore -- this high number is clearly not just a spurious
statistical result based on small numbers. Nor does it appear to be the result of this indicator being
an “easy” one on which to achieve high numbers: the range of achievement on this indicator is
from 98% down to 58%. Nor does it appear to have been achieved because of fortuitous labor
demand in the host environment: Baltimore had an 8.2% unemployment rate, while DC, in the
same metropolitan region and to some extent in the same geographical labor market but with a
lower unemployment rate of 6.7%, against which it should have been easier to place clients,
achieved only 58%.

Baltimore scores similarly high on the entered employment rate for dislocated workers, shown in
Chart 2.7.8. Its rate is 98%, at the top of a range down to 63% for 14 LWIBs. Baltimore’s three
nearest metropolitan neighbors in this group – DC, Trenton, and Philadelphia – achieved only
68%, 78%, and 79% respectively.

On the entered employment rate for “older youth”, shown in Chart 2.7.9, Baltimore’s rate is
lower than most of the group at 53%, in a range from 100% down to 40%. DC’s rate is higher, at
87%, but Philadelphia’s lower than Baltimore’s, at 40%. However, it should be noted that these
percentages are calculated off far lower client numbers than for the adult and dislocated workers.
Trenton achieves its 100% rate “perfect score” by finding employment for both of its youth
clients, for example. In fact four LWIBs in this group had fewer than 10 youth client exiters each,
while Baltimore had 265.


What did clients earn in their new job?

Chart 2.7.10 through 2.7.12 shows client earnings change comparisons across LWIBs. Adult
“earnings change” is another federal indicator, but with a more complicated formula than entered
employment (see sidebar). It compares pre and post earnings for only those employed in the first
quarter after exit.


    1
        “Guide for calculating core measures”, Attachment C, TEGL7/99, U.S. Dept. of Labor, Employment and
        Training Administration, Wash DC, 1999.


                                                        7
On this indicator in Chart 2.7.10, Baltimore is above the group median for the 14 LWIBs with
these data. Trenton and Cleveland are at the high end, with over $4,700 in adult earnings gain.
Baltimore’s $3,566 is in the next highest group of four LWIBs with $3,300 to $4,100 earnings
gain. Below these is a third group of LWIBs with earnings gain between $1,000 and $2,200.
Buffalo and Boston complete the spectrum at the low end with only $165 and minus $4,200
respectively. Again, some of the higher numbers were achieved on only a few clients. Raleigh
was the next highest LWIB above Baltimore, but achieved its score with only 10 clients, for
example. Trenton achieved its top rank with just 174. By contrast, Baltimore had 945 clients
entering this measure – over double the group average of 426.

                                      “Adult earnings change” is

                   Total Post-Program Earnings            _     Pre-Program Earnings
                (i.e. earnings in quarter 2 + quarter 3       (i.e. earnings in quarters 2 + 3
                              after exit)                             prior to registration)
               _____________________________________________________________________

                             Total number of adults who exit during the quarter



For dislocated workers, the “earnings replacement rate” by LWIB is shown in Chart 2.7.11.
Baltimore’s 115% is fourth of the 13 LWIBs with data, and third if we ignore Memphis’s 554%
figure which, at almost three times the value of the second, is questionable.

For “older” youth, the “earnings change” is shown in Chart 2.7.12, where the 14 LWIBs with
data fall into four groups. At the upper extreme are Trenton and DC, with $12,000 and $5,300
gain respectively (except Trenton’s was based on just two clients). Next comes a group of five
LWIBs achieving between $2,000 and $3,200 of earnings gain, including Baltimore with $2,063.
Third is a group of four LWIBs with $1,400 to $1,700, and finally comes Pittsburgh with $175
and Boston with minus $3,700.


Did clients keep their new jobs?

Chart 2.7.13 shows the “employment retention rate” for adults, for dislocated workers, and for
youth in one chart, with LWIBs ranked by their retention rates for adults. The employment
retention rate is calculated on those clients employed in the first quarter after exit. It divides the
number of these employed in the third quarter after exit, by the number of adults who exit during
the quarter.

Baltimore, at 96%, achieves the highest adult employment retention rate of all the 14 LWIBs with
data. Baltimore also has the second highest dislocated worker employment retention rate, at 97%,
behind Buffalo’s at 100% -- except Buffalo’s rate was achieved on just 15 clients, compared to
Baltimore’s 214. On the youth employment retention rate, Baltimore ranks fourth with 67%,
exceeded only by Buffalo (78%), Cleveland (73%), Detroit and Memphis (71% each). Rates on
this measure go all the way down to 38%. Baltimore’s rate is based on serving 339 youth clients,
which is double that of Detroit and almost three times the group average of 125. Buffalo,
Cleveland, and Memphis, which all had higher youth rates than Baltimore on this indicator, only
served 9, 11, and 28 youth clients, respectively.




                                                          8
So what have we learned from benchmarking, and what are the policy implications for the
   future?

   1. Benchmarking against a group of peer LWIBs can yield perspective for our own case and
      insights to other models.

   2. Baltimore is a relatively high performing area within this group of comparable LWIBs, in
      terms of its “reach”, i.e. exiters relative to population. This appears to be achieved
      through exiting a greater share of clients through core, the least-assisted service stage.

   3. Training does not appear to have the same degree of prominence among the three service
       tiers in Baltimore, as it does in many of the other comparable LWIBs, if the share of all
       exiters going from that tier and the length of time the average client spends there, can be
       taken as indicators of emphasis, or “touch”. On the more outcome-oriented training
       indicator, the credential attainment rate, there is less of a discrepancy, and Baltimore is in
       the high performing group.

   4. Maryland has a relatively low ability to receive and spend federal training dollars because
       it is relatively better off than many other states in terms of the socio-economic variables
       taken account of by the federal allocation formulae. Given this state context, the high
       “reach” Baltimore achieves is even more impressive, but it also means that
       supplementary non-federal funds would be needed to reach the absolute levels of training
       days offered by other states. Nevertheless, total spending constraints at the state level do
       not appear to be a barrier to emphasizing training relative to other tiers within the same
       budget at the LWIB level.

   5. With additional funds for training, Baltimore may be able to build out beyond its present
       model model, into a “high-reach, high-touch, high-gain” model.




                                                 9
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10
                                                                              h-                de               h,
                                                                                  -D                lp                PA
                                                                                                                                                                                                   5.2%




                                                                                      ur
                                                                                         ha
                                                                                                       hi
                                                                                                          a                  M
                                                                                                                               SA
                                                                                              m              PA
                                                                              Ri                -C                 -N
                                                                                  ch                 ha                J
                                                                                                                                                                                            4.8%




                                                                                      m                 pe                PM
                                                                       Se                on                  lH                 SA
                                                                            at                d-                  ill,
                                                                               tle              Pe
                                                                                   -B                te                 NC
                                                                                                                                                                                                   5.2%




                                                                                       el               rs                    M
                                                                                          le                bu                   SA
                                                                                             vu                 rg
                                                                                                e-                  ,V


                                               Census-defined areas
                                                                                                   Ev                    A
                                                                                                                                                                                    4.3%




                                                                                                        er
                                                                                                           et                 M
                                                                                                               t,               SA
                                                                                                                   W

     (not always synonymous with LWIB areas)
                                                                                               St
                                                                                                 .L                    A
                                                                                                                                                                          3.6%




                                                                                                      ou                  PM
                                                                       W                                  is
                                                                                                             ,M                 SA
                                                                          as
                                                                              hi                                    O
                                                                                 ng                  Tr                -IL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.3%




                                                                                      to                en                   M
                                                                                         n,                 to                 SA
                                                                                             DC                 n,
                                                                                                  -M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Chart 2.7.1 Unemployment rates across areas (Nov. '03)




                                                                                                                     NJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.3%




                                                                                                       D-                 PM
                                                                                                           VA
                                                                          W                                     -W
                                                                                                                                SA
                                                                             ilm
                                                                                  in                                  V
                                                                                                                                                                                    4.4%




                                                                                     gt                                  PM
                                                                                        on                                     SA
                                                                                             -N
                                                                                                ew
                                                                                                     ar                 DC
                                                                                                                                                                   3.1%




                                                                                                        k-
                                                                                                            D                 on
                                                                                                               E-                 ly
                                                                                                                    M
                                                                                                                       D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         6.7%




                                                                                                                          PM
                                                                                                                                SA
                                                                                                                                                                             3.9%
                                                                                            Exiters per 100,000 pop (Census 2000)
                                                                                 M




                                                                                                              100
                                                                                                                              200
                                                                                                                                     300
                                                                                                                                           400
                                                                                                                                                 500
                                                                                                                                                               600
                                                                                                                                                                           700




                                                                                                         0
                                                                                   ilw
                                                                                         au
                                                                                           ke
                                                                                                    e



                                                                                                                                                                     624
                                                                                              D
                                                                                                  C


                                                                                                                                                         528
                                                                                     St
                                                                                        .   Lo
                                                                                                 ui
                                                                                                   s
                                                            Tr
                                                                                                                                                       526

                                                                 en               Ba
                                                                   to                l  tim
                                                                        n/
                                                                           M                  or
                                                                                                 e
                                                                               er
                                                                                 ce
                                                                                                                                                   498




                                                                                      rC
                                                                                        ou
                                                                                              nt
                                                                                                y
                                                                                                                                     253


                                                                                       D
                                                                                            et
                                                                                               ro
                                                                               Ph                   it
                                                                                                                                    239




                                                                                  ila
                                                                                      d   el
                                                                                            ph
                                                                                               ia
                                                                                 C
                                                                                                                              157




                                                                                      le
                                                                                        ve




11
                                                                                             la
                                                                                                 nd
                                                                                                                          150




                                                                                 Pi
                                                                                    tts
                                                                                       bu
                                                                                              rg

                                                LWIB area
                                                                                                    h
                                                                                                                        126




                                                                                       Bo
                                                                                                                                                                                               population, PY 2001




                                                                                          s   to
     (*Adults, Dislocated Workers, and Youth)                                                    n
                                                                                 R
                                                                                                                   91




                                                                                     ic
                                                                                       hm
                                                                                             on
                                                                                                d
                                                                                                                  77




                                                                  Se               M
                                                                                    em
                                                                     a ttl             ph
                                                                           e/
                                                                              Ki          is
                                                                                                              55




                                                                                 ng
                                                                  Bu                C
                                                                     ffa              ou
                                                                                                                                                                                 Chart 2.7.2 Total "exiters" (A+D+Y)* per 100,000




                                                                          lo             nt
                                                                            /E             y
                                                                                                              54




                                                                                rie
                                                                                    C
                                                                                     ou
                                                                                        nt
                                                                                           y
                                                                                                             45




                                                                                      R
                                                                                          al
                                                                                             ei
                                                                                                g   h
                                                                                                             32
                                                                                            Percent of all exiters at each tier




                                                                                 0%
                                                                                      10%
                                                                                             20%
                                                                                                   30%
                                                                                                         40%
                                                                                                                      50%
                                                                                                                                     60%
                                                                                                                                           70%
                                                                                                                                                 80%
                                                                                                                                                       90%
                                                                                                                                                             100%
                                                          Ba
                                                                lti
                                                                      m
                                                                          or
                                                                             e
                                     Bu                         Bo
                                        f  fa                         st
                                              l   o/                     o   n
                                                    Er
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                                                                    ou
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                                 D                      C
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12
                                                          Tr
                                                                    en
                                                                      to
                                                                         n
                                                       M




     L W I Bs
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                                                              au
                                                                      ke
                                                   Ph                    e
                                                          ila
                                                                de
                                                                  lp
                                                                          hi
                                                                            a
                                                        Pi
                                                             tts
                                                                                                                                                                                    service, in different LWIBs




                                                                bu
                                                                  rg
                                                                             h
                                     Se                      R
                                          at                  al
                                                                      ei
                                             tl   e/                     g   h
                                                    Ki
                                                      ng
                                                                C
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                                                     hi
                                                        n   gt
                                                                                                                                                                    Chart 2.7.3 Percent of total exiters leaving from each tier of




                                                              on
                                                                       D
                                                                           C
                                                                                                               TRNG
                                                                                                                              CORE
                                                                                                                      INTEN
                                                                 Chart 2.7.4 Days in service tiers in different LWIBs

                         600                                                                                                                                                                                                                           587
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    565

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               534


                         500
Average number of days




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    416

                         400
                                                                                                                                                                                                  362
                                                                                                                                                                         343 343 347

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ALL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CORE
                         300                                                                                                                                                                                                 288
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   INTEN
                                                                                                                                                          265
                                                                                                                                                                                                     248                                                           TRNG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             240
                                                                                                                                           233
                                                                                                                              220
                                                                                                               210
                                                                                                  198
                         200                                                      185                                                                             189
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        172 175
                                                                 160                                                                                                                        161
                                                                                                                        149

                                                                                                                                                  120                                                                     125
                                                                                          114                                                                                           114
                                                                          101                           104
                                                  87                                                      92                       89
                         100                                                                                                                                                                               77
                                   73                                                    70                                      73                                                    71
                                                   64                    58                                                          58          58 55           59
                                             53
                                                                                                                   39                                                                                   37                                    31
                                            20                                                                       22                                      18
                                                        15
                                                             7                       1               2                                                                                                                3
                                        1                            1                                                                                                        00                                                         0
                           0




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                                                                                                                                          L W I Bs
                                                                                                                                           13
                                 Chart 2.7.6 Total WIA expense per 'exiter' (PY '01)
$20,000                                                                                                                                                 $18,796

$18,000

$16,000

$14,000                                                                                                                                       $13,381
                                                                                                                                    $12,416
$12,000

$10,000
                                                                                                                           $8,295
 $8,000                                                                                         $7,198   $7,441   $7,474
                                                                                       $7,067
                                                                              $5,873
 $6,000                                                              $5,412

                                                   $3,998   $4,325
                                          $3,896
 $4,000                          $3,206
                        $2,598
               $2,011
 $2,000

     $0
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                                                                                   14
Lo
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                        on
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                                          0%
                                                10%
                                                      20%
                                                            30%
                                                                  40%
                                                                               50%
                                                                                             60%
                                                                                                             70%
                                                                                                                           80%



              n/
                 M             ou
                    er            nt
                       ce            y




                                           0%
                          rC
                               ou
                                  nt
                                     y
                          St




                                                6%
                             .L
                                ou
                        Pi          is
                           tts
                                                            27%
                               bu
                                 rg
         Bu             C            h
                          le
                                                                        41%




             ffa             ve
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                                                                         42%




                               ou




15
                                  nt
                                     y
                                                                               47%




                             Bo
                                st
                                   on
                                                                                     52%




               LWIB
                                 D
                                  C
                          M
                                                                                           55%




                            em
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                                     is
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                            d
                                                                                                 59%




                              el
                                ph
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                                                                                                       64%




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                                                                                                               70%




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                                                                                                               70%




                             ou
                                  nt
                                     y
                           D
                                                                                                               70%
                                                                                                                                 2.7.5 Credential attainment rate, all types (PY '01)




                               et
                                  ro
                                    it
                                                                                                                     73%
                2.7.7 Adult "Entered Employment Rate" (PY '01)
                                                                                                                                                                                               98%
100%
                                                                                                                                                                                   92%
90%                                                                                                                                                                     84%
                                                                                                                                79%                80%
80%                                                                                                73%
                                                                                                              76%
                                                                                      72%
                                                 68%         68%          69%
70%                            64%
                     60%
        58%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
 0%
        C              e           n             nd            ty          ty          is          ty             it            is                hi
                                                                                                                                                       a                gh          h           e
       D            ke        to              la           un           un         ph           un           ro               ou                                     ur           ig          or
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                                                                                        LWIB
                                                                                      16
17
               Bu
                 ffa
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                            /E
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                                                          0%
                                                                10%
                                                                      20%
                                                                            30%
                                                                                  40%
                                                                                          50%
                                                                                                 60%
                                                                                                             70%
                                                                                                                        80%
                                                                                                                               90%
                                                                                                                                       100%
                                       Co
                                         un
                                                   ty




                                                           0%
                                      R
                                          al
                                             ei
                                               gh
                                Ph




                                                           0%
                                  ila
                                     de
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                                                    a




                                                                                    40%
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                                        m
                                         or
                                                   e
                                                                                                53%


                                       Bo
                                         st
                                           on
                                  Pi
                                                                                                      57%




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                                          bu
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                                                   h
                                 M
                                                                                                      57%




                                  ilw
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                                               ke




18
                            St
                              .L                    e
                                                                                                            63%




               Se                  ou
                 at                       is
                          tle                  Ci
                             /K                   ty
                                in
                                   g




     LWIB
                                                                                                                  69%




                                       Co
                                         un
                                                   ty
                                                                                                                  70%




                                       D
                                            et
                                               ro
                                                 it
                                 C
                                                                                                                         77%




                                     le
                                        v   el
                                              an
                                                   d
                                                                                                                               86%




                                               D
                                                   C
                                                                                                                                                 2.7.9 Older Youth "Entered Employment Rate" (PY '01)




            Tr
              en                   M
                                                                                                                                87%




                   to               em
                      n   /M                   ph
                            er                    i   s
                                 ce
                                                                                                                                 89%




                                      rC
                                            ou
                                                 nt
                                                    y
                                                                                                                                          100%
                             2.7.10 Adult "Earnings Change" (PY '01)
                                                                                                                                                                                       $5,063
 $5,000                                                                                                                                                                   $4,719

                                                                                                                                      $3,955 $4,093
 $4,000                                                                                                                   $3,566
                                                                                                            $3,367

 $3,000
                                                                                                   $2,186
 $2,000                                                                                  $1,783
                                                    $1,488 $1,558 $1,561
                                        $1,095
 $1,000
                              $165
         $0
           on              ty            e            ty           gh             ia         is       is        C              e        gh               it                nd             ty
         st             un            ke            un           ur            ph         ou        ph      D               or        ei            ro                                  un
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-$1,000Bo            Co                         C             sb
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              /E                        -K                                                                                                                                  er
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-$2,000 ffa                      at                                                                                                                       on
      Bu                      Se                                                                                                                      e nt
                                                                                                                                                    Tr
-$3,000

-$4,000
                                                                                             LWIB
                -$4,282
-$5,000

                                                                                    19
                            2.7.11 Dislocated Worker "Earnings Replacement Rate" (PY '01)

600%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        554%


500%


400%


300%

                                                                                                                                                                                                            191%
200%                                                                                                                                                                                     162%

                                                                                                                           106%         106%             114%         115%
                                                                                   83%         92%         96%
100%                        64%            65%                 66%

             0%
 0%
              n               ia               h                 ty                nt
                                                                                     y           it         is               nd            gh                e               e               C                nt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                y         is
            to             ph             rg                  un                               ro         ou               la            ei               ke              or             D                              ph
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                                                                                                                                                                      m                                    ou          m
       B                d            tts                                     C           D                                                                                                            rC
                    ila            Pi
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                                        S ea                 Bu                                                                                                                         to
                                                                                                                                                                                      en
                                                                                                                                                                                 Tr

                                                                                                                 LWIB




                                                                                                                  20
             2.7.12 Older Youth "Earnings Change" (PY '03)
                                                                                                                                       $12,110
$12,000

$10,000

 $8,000

 $6,000                                                                                                                   $5,301



 $4,000                                                                                                       $3,194
                                                                                           $2,947    $3,049
                                                                                  $2,439
                                                                         $2,063
                                                                $1,688
 $2,000                                $1,426 $1,445   $1,501


                         $0     $175
    $0
                                                          y




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                                                          a




                                                                                                                                          y
                                                                                             e
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                                                                                                          nd
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                                                                                  it
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                                                                                                                               C
-$2,000
                       tts
               R




                                                                                   ilw
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                                                                                                                      /
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-$4,000




                                                                                                                nt
          -$3,793




                                                                                                                 e
                                                                                                              Tr
                                                                 LWIB
                                                           21
                                             2.7.13 "Employment Retention Rate" for Adult, Dislocated Worker, and Youth (O+Y), PY '01
                                                                                                                                                                                                   100%
         100%                                                                                                                                                                                                                               97%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          96%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               95%
                                                                                                                                                                                                               94%
                                              92%                                                                                                                                                                          92%
                                                                                                                                          91%
                                                                                                                                                                                 90%
              90%                                                                           88%
                                                                                                                                                                86%
                                                          85%                                                                                                                                                 85%
                                                                                                         84%                                                                                  84%
                                                                            81%                                          81%                                 81%           81%
                                                                                                                                        80%
                                                                                                                       79%
              80%                                                     77%                77%
                                                                                                       78%                                                                                              78%
                                                         75%
                                                                                73%
                                                                                                                                  71%                                                                               71%
              70%                       68%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    67%

                                                               63%                                            63%
                                                   62%

              60%
                                                                                                 55%                                                                                  55%
                          53%
                        51%
                                                                                                                                                                    49%
              50%


              40%                 38%




              30%


              20%


              10%

                                                                                                                                                   1%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0%
               0%
                            nty                e         DC                nd              rgh            n                  it           ty                   ia                is                ty        his               gh             ore
                                            ke                        la                              sto                 tro          un                   lph             ou                un                           lei
                       ou               u                          ve                    bu        Bo                De             Co                    de            t. L                Co             mp         Ra               ltim
                     gC             lwa                        Cle                  i tts                                     er                      a               S                                  Me                         Ba
                in                Mi                                            P                                                                  hil                                rie
              /K                                                                                                           erc                 P
                                                                                                                                                                              lo   /E                                                    ADULT
         le                                                                                                              /M
     att                                                                                                             to n                                                 ffa
Se                                                                                                               n                                                     Bu                                                                DISLOC
                                                                                                              Tre
                                                                                                                              LWIB                                                                                                       YOUTH
                                                                                                                      22

				
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