Translation Bureau Benchmarking and Comparative Analysis Final

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               Translation
               Bureau
               Benchmarking
               and Comparative
Final Report
               Analysis
May 15, 2012   Final Report
Translation Bureau Benchmarking and Comparative Analysis




Contents
1. Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1.1.      Background ............................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.2.      Global Language Services Industry ......................................................................................................................... 4
1.3.      Comparative Analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 6
1.4.      Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

2. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................8

2.1       Background ...............................................................................................................................................................8
2.2       Purpose and Structure of this Document ................................................................................................................8
2.3       Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................................... 9

3. Canadian Translation and Interpretation Services Sector......................................................................................... 10

3.1       Industry Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 10
3.2       Labour Force / Business Model Characteristics ................................................................................................... 14
3.3       Services .................................................................................................................................................................... 15
3.4       Supply and Demand ............................................................................................................................................... 17
3.5       Cost and Pricing ...................................................................................................................................................... 18
3.6       Technology .............................................................................................................................................................. 18
3.7       Trends ...................................................................................................................................................................... 19
3.8       Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 21

4. Overview of Comparator Organizations .....................................................................................................................23

4.1       Services ....................................................................................................................................................................23
4.2       Operating Model ..................................................................................................................................................... 25
4.3       Price and Performance ...........................................................................................................................................26
4.4       Specialized Documents ........................................................................................................................................... 27
4.5       Technology / Linguistic Tools ............................................................................................................................... 28
4.6       Emerging Trends ................................................................................................................................................... 28

5. Comparative Analysis ................................................................................................................................................. 30

5.1       Organizational Mandate ........................................................................................................................................ 30
5.2       Organizational Funding Model ............................................................................................................................. 30
5.3       Price and Performance ........................................................................................................................................... 31
5.4       Tools and Technology .............................................................................................................................................32
Translation Bureau Benchmarking and Comparative Analysis




5.5       Information Security ..............................................................................................................................................34
5.6       Multilingual Services ..............................................................................................................................................34
5.7       Social Media ............................................................................................................................................................ 35
5.8       Summary ................................................................................................................................................................. 35

6. Key Observations.......................................................................................................................................................... 37

6.1       Canadian Translation Services Environment ....................................................................................................... 37
6.2       Funding Model ........................................................................................................................................................ 37
6.3       Tools and Technology ............................................................................................................................................ 38
6.4       Productivity ............................................................................................................................................................ 38
6.5       Quality .....................................................................................................................................................................39
6.6       Classified Documents .............................................................................................................................................39
6.7       Social Media ............................................................................................................................................................39
6.8       Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................................................39

7. Appendices ................................................................................................................................................................... 41

Appendix A – Glossary of Terms ...................................................................................................................................... 41
Appendix B – Common Linguistic Tools .........................................................................................................................43
 Translation Bureau Benchmarking and Comparative Analysis




1. Executive Summary
 1.1. Background
 The Government of Canada’s Translation Bureau (‘the Bureau’) engaged
 PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (‘PwC’) between January 16 and May 15, 2012 to conduct a
 benchmarking and comparative analysis study. The objectives of the comparative analysis study
 were to provide:
    •   Information and analysis on the capacity of the Canadian industry to meet national and
        government demand; and
    •   Benchmarks for good practices in linguistic services with other organizations of
        comparable size at the national and international level.

 PwC undertook the engagement in three stages:
    1. Established a benchmarking framework from which to conduct the comparative analysis;
    2. Conducted a review of literature pertaining to the linguistic services industry globally and
       in Canada; and
    3. Conduct comparative analysis for 5 linguistic service organizations in Canada and
       3 international organizations.
 1.2. Global Language Services Industry
 The language services industry is global in nature, with over 25,000 organizations that provide
 Language Service Providers (LSPs) in 152 countries. The international industry has the
 following characteristics:
     • The market is highly fragmented, with the top 50 LSPs generating only US $4 billion of
       the US$31 billion market.
     • The LSP market is growing at an annual rate of 7.41%, and is expected to reach
       US$38.96 billion in 2014. Most of the revenue generated remains associated with
       translation services.
     • The market is very competitive on price. Almost 80% of providers charge less than
       $0.15 / word for their services.
 The Translation Software market is estimated at approximately US$575.5 million in revenue for
 2010, and is anticipated to reach US$3 billion by 2017. Use of technology by LSPs is sporadic.
 The use of technolinguistic tools requires both an investment to build and maintain
 infrastructure as well as a significant repository of data in order for the tool to be effective. Both
 factors impede the adoption of these technologies by the small enterprises that represent the
 bulk of businesses within the industry.
 1.2.1. Canadian Translation Services Environment
 Canada is a leader in the translation market. With only 0.5% of the global population, it
 represents approximately 10% of the $31 billion global translation market. Reflecting Canada’s
 official language status, it is estimated that approximately 90% of translation in Canada is
 between French and English.



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Some key characteristics of the Canadian labour market include:
    • The average age of those working in translation is higher than the Canadian workforce as
      a whole.
    • Statistics in Canada indicate that demand in the translation sector is higher than the
      national average with lower annual attrition rates.
    • Demographics show a workforce with a higher than national average, post-secondary
      education and income.
    • Approximately 62% of the translation workforce were in salaried positions, of which
      approximately 50% were full-time positions. This compares to approximately 33% of
      self-employed translators that are working in full-time positions.
While resources are fragmented, the supply of translation organizations and independent
translators appears to be stable relative to demand. These micro-enterprises have low overhead,
and as such, are able to compete aggressively on the basis of price and speed. The primary effect
of this is in the apparent commoditization of translation services and its effect at providing
lower costs services. The emergence of a number of large, multinational organizations and their
expansion through acquisition of small or medium organizations will likely have an impact on
lessening the fragmentation of the Canadian supply and exerting further downward pressure on
prices.
There are some indications that requirements for translation and interpretation services for
other languages in Canada may emerge as Canada’s cultural diversity shifts and the degree to
which the Canadian government focuses on international trade.




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1.3. Comparative Analysis
In order to gather data to support a comparative analysis, PwC contacted five Canadian and
three international language services organizations. Table 1 provides an overview of key
observations highlighted by our analysis.
                          Table 1 - Key Observations from Comparative Analysis


   Area of         Key Observations
   Focus

                   Of the four public sector organizations, three are fully funded through an
                   appropriation for the services that they provide. The linguistic services
   Funding
                   provided are considered essential to the operation of the parent
   Model
                   organization and the language service providers are therefore not required
                   to engage in cost recovery from their clients.

                   Among many of the organizations that we interviewed, the use of
                   technolinguistic tools is optional, and at the discretion of the translator.
                   This is, in large part, because there is cultural resistance by translation
   Tools and       professionals to use these tools. They are seen as further automating and
   Technology      commoditizing a service that language professionals may feel is a creative
                   exercise.
                   Technology has the potential to significantly affect the role of the
                   translator, with focus shifting from translation to editing and revision.

                   Based on data from 2010-2011, the Bureau’s productivity ratio was
                   approximately 250 words/hour. This was on the lower-middle end of the
                   scale as compared to the organizations interviewed, which ranged from 195
                   – 333 words/hour.
   Productivity    The Bureau employs a graded scale to determine document complexity,
                   which in turns influences the time allotted for the translation of a
                   document. A key differentiation between the comparator organizations and
                   the Bureau was that complexity was not a factor for the external
                   organizations. Document length was seen as the primary driver for
                   workload and costs.

                   Quality assurance often relies upon the skill of the translator, rather than
                   being a separate function within the process. With some exceptions such as
                   certified or legal documents, quality is not considered as important to
                   clients as cost or speed. Importantly, quality is expected by clients and
   Quality
                   therefore not considered a differentiator.




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   Area of           Key Observations
   Focus

                     There is capacity within the private sector to provide translation of secure
   Classified
                     documents. The sole commercial language service provider that
   Documents
                     participated in the study can provide services for Top Secret documents.
                     This service was viewed as an investment that was necessary to secure work
                     of this nature and there was no associated additional cost.

                     The remaining organizations rely on senior translators and adherence to
                     internal security policy when managing the translation of secure
                     documents.


   Social Media      There is little evidence of the use of translation for social media.
                     Responsibility for translation rests with the content creators, which is
                     typically the organizations’ communications function.


   Operating         All the organizations leverage a hybrid model that provides contingent
   Model             capacity to meet additional demand. The exact blend of in-house vs.
                     outsourced resources varies.

1.4. Conclusion
Some predominant themes have arisen from the work that we have carried out in conducting
this study. While this is not meant to be comprehensive, the following are key themes for
consideration by the Bureau.
   1. Enhancing the Bureau’s contribution to innovation. Our studies and interviews
      exposed a lack of significant investment in the translation industry. The Bureau has an
      opportunity to examine the appropriate level of investment in activities that define and
      measure quality standards, as well as the further refinement of translation tools and
      technology.
   2. Measuring and refining the Bureau’s contribution to ensuring a continuing
      supply of quality translation professionals. The Bureau is Canada’s largest
      translation service and does play a role in developing programs that encourage Canadians
      to consider becoming a translation professional.
The Translation Bureau plays a leadership role in the Canadian linguistic service industry. It
has made significant contributions to building industry capacity in Canada as witnessed by the
use of Termium by Canadians and its efforts to attract new linguistic service professionals into
the industry. Based upon our discussions with the comparator organizations and from the
review of literature pertaining the global linguistic industry, the Bureau is not immune from the
pressures on costs to delivery its services and the prices its clients are willing to pay.




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2. Introduction
 2.1 Background
 The Government of Canada’s Translation Bureau (the Bureau) has launched an initiative known
 as “Rethinking the Bureau”. The goal of this initiative is a review of the Bureau’s business
 processes and service delivery model and is intended to secure the Bureau’s long term financial
 viability and maintain the quality of services provided to the Government of Canada.
 PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC) was engaged to conduct a benchmarking and comparative
 analysis study parallel to this review. The objectives of the comparative analysis study are to
 provide:
    •   Information and analysis on the capacity of the Canadian industry to meet national and
        government demand; and
    •   Benchmarks for good practices in linguistic services with other organizations of
        comparable size at the national and international level.
 2.2 Purpose and Structure of this Document
 This document is the final report presenting PwC’s findings for the Benchmarking and
 Comparative Analysis study. The report documents data and key findings reviewed by PwC
 through:
    •   Document Reviews including key studies and reviews provided by the Bureau and/or
        participants;
    •   Internet and/or library research focused primarily on trend and industry
        information;
    •   Third Party Information from peer organizations, recognized industry associations or
        national research bodies; and
    •   Interviews completed to date with representatives from comparable organizations.
 The document is organized into the following sections:
    •   Section 3 - Translation and Interpretation Services Sector Profile, both
        Canadian and international. This section includes a review of service offerings within the
        sector, as well as information on industry size, structure and trends within the sector;
    •   Section 4 - Overview of Comparable Organizations, including a summary of the
        interviews conducted with external organizations;
    •   Section 5 - Comparative Analysis, which addresses how the Translation Bureau
        compares with the external organizations in a number of key areas; and
    •   Section 6 - Key Observations, which draws some preliminary themes for
        consideration by the Bureau in assessing its strategic direction for the future.
 For your reference, a glossary of terms is included in Appendix A.


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2.3 Acknowledgements
PwC would like to acknowledge the time and effort of the organizations that participated in this
study for sharing information on their practices, as well as for providing their views on a
number of the areas discussed within this report. Their contribution was essential to the
completion of this study.
PwC also wishes to thank participants of the three Executive Workshops that were conducted
over the course of this study. These workshops were valuable in providing input and validation
of key points of the study. They would not have been successful without engaged participants,
including representatives from the Translation Bureau, Public Works and Government Services
Canada, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, and representatives from the comparator
organizations.




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3. Canadian Translation and
   Interpretation Services Sector
 The following section provides an overview of the current state of the translation services sector,
 both within Canada and internationally. It provides a synthesis of information available through
 studies and publicly available sources, and highlights recent trends in translation services.
 Specifically, it includes:
      •   An industry overview;
      •   A description of labour force and business model characteristics;
      •   A description of services offered;
      •   An overview of supply and demand factors;
      •   Information regarding costs and pricing;
      •   An overview of technology usage; and
      •   A summary of key trends.
 It is important to note that information specific to Canada is less readily available than
 information on the global market as a whole.
 3.1 Industry Overview
 As a result of its two official languages and the demographics of its population, Canada is a
 leader in the translation market. With only 0.5% of the global population, it nonetheless
 represents approximately 10% of the USD 31 billion global translation market 1. Reflecting
 Canada’s official language status, it is estimated that approximately 90% of translation in
 Canada is between French and English 2.
 As an employer, the Canadian language services industry is estimated to employ 15,000
 translators, interpreters, terminologists, and localization specialists in 2010 3.
 As can be seen in Figure 1, while the public sector represents a significant portion (17%) of the
 Canadian workforce, the majority (83%) are employed with the private sector firms providing
 commercial translation services 4. This suggests that there is significant capacity within the
 private sector, however a number of considerations need to be taken into account in order to
 validate this assertion:
      • During our discussions with comparator organizations, they indicated their ability to
        increase capacity to meet additional demand by reaching out to a network of
        independent contractors or by increasing staff compliment if demand could be assured.
        It is unclear whether the supply of independent contractors that is leveraged by the
        organizations is in fact, the same pool of experienced translators. While each provider
        may believe that they have access to this surge capacity, a significant increase in demand
        across the industry may absorb this capacity quickly.

 1 Source: ATA Chronicle – American Translators Association – October 2010
 2 Source: Found in Translation – Job Postings Canada
 3 Source: ATA Chronicle – American Translators Association – October 2010
 4 Source: Economic Assessment of the Canadian Language Industry, The Conference Board of Canada – March 2007




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    • The reliability and availability of these professionals would need to be examined as their
      preferences for when and how the work may not align with the needs of the clients.
    • This capacity represents a point in time. The current demographic profile of translation
      professionals suggests that further pressure on supply will prevail in the near to medium
      term as these professionals retire. In effect, their older average age may be artificially
      creating a false sense of capacity because they are closer to retirement. If the number of
      new entrants into the industry continues to fall short of the annual increase in demand,
      and the supply of independent contractors cannot make up the gap, then managing
      supply will become more difficult and time consuming.
It is also important to note that an increasing supply of independent resources will continue to
contribute to maintaining or increasing the fragmentation of the industry. This, in turn, will also
increase the urgency and focus on establishing supply arrangements or contracting vehicles that
would minimize the administrative burden to both the Translation Bureau and the various
suppliers.
                             Figure 1 - Canadian Translation Sector Workforce




Within the public sector, the Government of Canada is by far the largest employer with 71% of
the public sector translation workforce.
It is also interesting to note, as indicated in Figure 2, almost half of the Canadian workforce is
concentrated within Quebec (49%) and almost a third in Ontario (31%). This is to be expected
given the heavy focus of French and English translation within the Canadian market.




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                                    Figure 2 - Canadian Workforce Breakdown by Region




The industry is global in nature 5 , with over 25,000 organizations that provide Language Service
Providers (LSPs) in 152 countries. The international industry has the following characteristics:
     • The industry is distributed with pockets of concentration in Canada, the United States,
       Western Europe, Northern Europe, China, India and Japan. Each of these countries has
       more than 500 LSPs.
     • The market is highly fragmented, with the top 50 LSPs generating only US $4 billion of
       the US$31 billion market. Although we have as yet been unable to locate similar data for
       the Canadian market, this perspective has been supported anecdotally in PwC’s
       discussions with industry.
     • 63.4% of LSPs expect to remain independent and grow organically, which suggests that
       industry fragmentation will continue. It is interesting to note that while only 18% of
       LSPs would like to make one or more acquisitions in the near or mid-term, 50.9% are
       open to business combinations (i.e. mergers, acquisitions) that would make them
       stronger in the marketplace.
The LSP market is growing at an annual rate of 7.41%, and is expected to reach US$38.96 billion
in 2014. Although technology is changing the revenue landscape of the industry, most of the
revenue generated remains associated with translation services. Fifty-one percent (51%) of LSPs
earn more than 70% percent of their revenue from translation. The fastest growing services, in
descending order, are:
    •       translation;
    •       website globalization;
    •       software localization;
    •       on-site interpreting; and
    •       multimedia localization.


5Source:   The Language Services Market: 2011 – Common Sense Advisory – May 2011




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Figure 3 and Figure 4 illustrate the distribution of LSPs by geographic market, as well as the
distribution of market share. The majority of LSPs are located in Europe, with North America
representing almost 20%. Between the two regions, they account for almost 90% of global
market share. This is to be expected given their economic size, and the linkage between
translation demand and global trade.
                   Figure 3 - Regional Distribution of Language Service Providers (2011)




                   Figure 4 - Market Size by Region of Language Service Providers (2011)




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3.2 Labour Force / Business Model Characteristics
Within the Translation Services labour market, career opportunities arise primarily from the
need to replace professionals who are retiring and growth in demand. Some key characteristics
of the Canadian labour market include:
        • The average age of those working in translation is higher than the Canadian workforce as
          a whole. In 2006, 22% of the translation workforce was aged 55 or older as compared to
          15% for the Canadian workforce as a whole. 6
        • Statistics in Canada indicate that demand in the translation sector is higher than the
          national average with lower annual attrition rates.
        • Demographics show a workforce with a higher than national average, post-secondary
          education and income. Figure 5 highlights some key characteristics of the Canadian
          translation labour market.
        • Approximately 62% of the translation workforce were in salaried positions, of which
          approximately 50% were full-time positions. This compares to approximately 33% of
          self-employed translators that are working in full-time positions.

                       Figure 5 - Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Statistics in Canada 7

Main Labour Market Indicators                                                               All occupations
Employment, average 2007-2009                                      9,350                        3,859,200
Claimants in 2009                                                    70                          168,350
Average Annual Growth Rate 2010-2014                               1.5%                          0.9%
Annual Employment Variation 2010-2014                               150                         36,650
Annual Attrition 2010-2014                                          350                        122,850
Total Annual Needs 2010-2014                                       500                         159,500



Average Annual Employment
Income (Full-time, Full-Year)                                                               All occupations
Full-time, full year                                              47.3%                         53.2%
Average Income                                                   49,988                         45,157
0 - 19999$                                                        8.8%                           16.5%
20000 - 49999$                                                    44.3%                          52.4%
50000$ and over                                                   46.8%                          31.1%



Employment Distribution by
Highest Level of Schooling                                                                  All occupations
Less than high-school                                              0.9%                         14.1%
High-school                                                        3.2%                         21.9%
Post secondary                                                    17.9%                         43.1%
Bachelors                                                         78.1%                         20.9%




6   Source: Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters – Service Canada – December 2010
7   Source: http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/qc/job_futures/statistics/5125.shtml




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Internationally, the majority of LSPs possess very small employee bases:
       •    69.3% have 5 full-time employees or less.
       •    92.4% have 20 full-time employees or less.
       •    0.6% have more than 100 full-time employees.
Approximately 57% of LSPs have been in business 5 years or less, while only 6.4% have more
than 20 years of experience. As would be expected for a fragmented industry, and supporting
the notion that many of the LSPs are small micro-enterprises, 78.4% of LSPs are run by their
founding owner.

3.3 Services
The Canadian Translation Services industry is predominantly segmented into 3 areas 8:
       •    Translation, interpretation and terminology;
       •    Language training; and
       •    Language technologies.
Of these three areas, there is very little activity in the language technologies space. While exact
data is not available for the Canadian market specifically, Table 2 represents, at a global level,
the size and market percentage of the major services that comprise the language services sector.
As can be seen from the table, translation services represent by far the largest service by
revenue.
                                          Table 2- Market Size and Revenue by Service

                                                                                                              Total Market
                                                                                                              Opportunity
                                                                                                                  2011
Service                                                     Percent 2010               Percent 2011             (US$ M)
Translation                                                        43.3%                     45.7%                  13,370.18
On-Site Interpreting                                               13.0%                     14.4%                   4,226.32
Software Localization                                               7.1%                     6.6%                     1,917.95
Website Globalization                                               4.9%                      4.7%                   1,380.33
Multimedia Localization                                            4.0%                       3.3%                      957.91
Translation Tools & Software                                        3.6%                     4.0%                     1,169.12
Telephone Interpreting                                              3.3%                      3.4%                      994.18
International Testing / QA                                          3.1%                      2.4%                     686.96
Machine Translation Post-editing                                    2.8%                      2.3%                     680.56
Internationalization Services                                       2.7%                      2.3%                     669.90
Business Process Outsourcing                                        2.5%                      2.3%                     659.23
Voice-over / Dubbing / Narration                                    2.5%                      2.4%                     689.10
Transcreation                                                       2.4%                      1.9%                     554.69
Subtitling                                                          2.1%                     2.0%                      586.69
Interpreting Tools / Software                                       1.6%                      1.6%                     465.09
Video Interpreting                                                  1.2%                     0.9%                      260.28



8   Source: Economic Assessment of the Canadian Language Industry – Conference Board of Canada – March 2007




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Table 3 details the percentage of global LSPs that derive revenue from the specific service area
(e.g. 24.7% of LSPs derive 91-100% of their revenue from Translation service). There are a few
key observations that can be made from this data:
     • Most LSPs are generating the 70% or more of their revenue from translation services.
     • Beyond translation many other LSPs generated less than 10% of their revenue from other
       service areas.
     • Software localization (21.4% of LSPs), website globalization (15.5% of LSPs), on-site
       interpreting (27.9% of LSPs) and multimedia localization (9.1% of LSPs) are the only
       other service areas that have a material portion of LSPs generating over 10% of their
       revenue from a service outside of translation.
     • Few, if any LSPs offer a full suite of services, with many “boutique” operations providing
       unique and/or specialized services.

                                                                                                   Table 3 – Revenue Breakdown by Services Area

                                                                                                                                      Service Area




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Multimedia Localization
                                                                                                                                                                     Telephone Interpreting




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 International Testing &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Voice-Over / Dubbing /
                                                          Website Globalization
                                  Software Localization




                                                                                                        Machine Translation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Interpreting Tools &
                                                                                                                                              On-Site Interpreting




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Internationalization
                                                                                  Translation Tools &




                                                                                                                                                                                              Video Interpreting
                                                                                                                              Transcreation
                                                                                                        Post-Editing
                    Translation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Narration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Subtitling
        % of Rev.




                                                                                  Software




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Software




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Services

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 QA
0%                       5.7          36.5                    35.5                      67.0                  62.3 62.3 38.0                                             66.3                     75.2                    81.0                44.4                          55.5               59.7              61.7                    62.4

1-10%                   6.8           32.9                    38.4                       13.8                  21.3              19.4 27.3                                17.2                    12.6                      4.6              36.0                          27.6                25.1             20.3                    20.4

11-20%                  4.2           10.0                        9.6                     2.2                    3.1               2.3                4.9                     2.3                     1.2                   1.5                     6.1                       3.3                2.6               3.8                     3.0

21-30%                   3.1               3.9                     2.7                    0.5                   0.3                0.3                2.4                      1.2                   0.4                    0.1                   0.8                          1.1               1.0               0.5                      1.1

31-40%                  4.2                2.4                     1.0                    0.8                   0.3                0.3                 1.6                    1.0                     0.1                   0.1                    0.4                        0.5                0.1              0.8                      0.8

41-50%                  6.5                 1.9                   0.5                     0.4                   0.3                0.3                2.8                      1.2                  0.0                     0.3                    0.5                       0.4                 0.4               0.4                     0.5

51-60%                  6.6                1.0                    0.4                     0.4                   0.3                0.4                 1.2                    0.1                     0.1                  0.0                     0.3                       0.0                 0.1               0.1                     0.0
61-70%                   7.7              0.5                     0.5                     0.7                    0.1               0.3                 1.6                   0.3                    0.0                    0.0                      0.1                      0.0                0.0                0.1                     0.4

71-80%                12.0                0.5                      0.1                    0.5                   0.4                0.1                 1.5                    0.1                     0.1                  0.0                     0.3                        0.1                0.1              0.0                      0.0

81-90%                14.3                0.5                     0.4                     0.0                   0.3                0.3                3.2                    0.4                    0.0                    0.0                     0.3                       0.4                 0.1               0.5                     0.4

91-100%               24.7                 0.7                    0.3                     2.3                   0.4                0.1                8.7                      1.4                    0.1                   1.4                    0.3                       0.3                 0.4               0.1                      0.1

No Data                 4.3                 9.1               10.6                       11.4                   11.1             14.1                 6.8                     8.5                10.0                      11.1                10.6                        10.8                10.3               11.5                   10.8




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3.4 Supply and Demand
A significant proportion of translation services are consumed by public sector organizations
within Canada and internationally. In line with this, most translation services within Canada
and internationally are provided internally by various government agencies. Within the
Canadian market, the Translation Bureau represents the largest single supplier by volume and
size.
Specifically, for the private sector organizations providing translation services, Table 4 outlines
the top ten global translation and interpretation companies 9:
                            Table 4 - Top Ten Global Translation and Interpretation Companies


                                                             HQ            2010 Rev.
        Company                                              Country       US$M        Employees   Offices    Status

1       Mission Essential Personnel                          US            588.00      7,494       20         Private

2       HP ACG                                               FR            460.00      4,200       15         Public

3       Global Linguistic Solutions                          US            435.00      339         9          Private

4       Lionbridge Technologies                              US            405.20      4,500       40         Public

5       Transperfect/Translations.com                        US            252.44      1,268       66         Private

6       SDL                                                  UK            245.09      1,800       60         Public

7       L-3 Linguist Operations & Technical
                                                             US            167.00      1,016       1          Public
        Support

8       STAR Group                                           CH            145.00      850         43         Private

9       Euroscript International S.A.                        LU            124.13      1,350       16         Private

10      ManpowerGroup                                        US            101.11      324         11         Public




9   Source: The Language Services Market: 2011 – Common Sense Advisory – May 2011




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3.5 Cost and Pricing
Specific quantitative data on industry costs and prices has thus far been largely difficult to
obtain or unavailable. Figure 6 illustrates the distribution of cost per word for translation
services globally 10. As can be seen from this data, almost 80% of providers charge less than
$0.15 / word for their services.
                                 Figure 6 - Cost of Translation Services per word (USD)




3.6 Technology
According to a 2008 Study by the American Translators Association 11, the three most commonly
used technology tools are:
     1. Word Processing Applications (98% usage);
     2. Translation Memory (47% usage); and
     3. Terminology Management Software (27% usage).

Some key data and trends in translation technology and technolinguistic tools are:
     •   The Translation Software market represents US$575.5 million of the market in 2010 –
         revenues are anticipated to reach US$3 billion by 2017 12.
     •   Word processors notwithstanding, translation memory remains the most commonly used
         technology and will be for the foreseeable future as quality concerns around other
         technologies prevent widespread adoption. It is worth noting however that translation
         memory is still not universally adopted, leaving the industry with a high reliance on
         human labour.




10 Source: The Language Services Market: 2011 – Common Sense Advisory – May 2011
11 Source : Summary of ATA’s Latest Translation and Interpreting Compensation Survey - 2007
12 Source: Language Translation Software Market Shares and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2011-2017 – Market Research – January 2011




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        •    Machine translation, although a key productivity enhancing tool, is generally not
             considered to produce a level of quality sufficient to correctly convey a full message in
             another language, and its output must be reviewed by a qualified translator 13. As a result
             of the significant post process editing, machine translation is not widely adopted. It is
             generally used for large volume translations with an accuracy rate of 75% to 85%.
        •    Human Assisted Machine Translation (HAMT) is growing in usage. A 2009 study by
             Common Sense Advisory indicated that HAMT doubled the translation output that
             humans could do alone and was 45% cheaper.
        In general, innovation in the industry is extremely limited as fragmentation prevents
        collaboration and investment in key transformational technology. Translation service buyers
        are acting as the driving force for technology changes. Broadband and web proliferation is
        opening the market to a larger pool of translators providing on-line translation services
        assisted by machine translation. The aggregated effect is a downward pressure on translation
        prices as more suppliers enter the market 14. Appendix B provides an outline of some
        common linguistic tools.

3.7 Trends
A number of important trends and challenges are emerging within the translation industry
which are affecting how services are delivered, as well as the cost of delivering these services.
We have grouped the trends into three main components;
        • Technology;
        • Services and resources; and
        • Translation languages.


 3.7.1 Technology
It is interesting to note that many of the identified trends are all either directly or indirectly
linked to technology. Significantly, these trends continue to evolve as the applications and
technologies expand and mature. Tools such as translation memory are now significant
enablers supporting translation services and driving greater efficiencies. In addition to
improving machine translation, a number of community and on-line services are becoming
more broadly utilized. Table 5 highlights some of these key trends in the industry.




13   Source: Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council
14   Source: State of the Translation Industry - MyGengo - 2009




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                                                    Table 5 - Key Emerging Trends 15

                               •   Has been around for over 50 years.
                               •   Not considered sufficiently mature to provide the desired level of accuracy and reliability.
Machine                        •   Low cost – many free services are available (e.g. Google Translate, BabelFish).
                               •   Deemed effective for many informal situations.
Translation
                               •   Technological advances have improved quality and accuracy and machine translation is
                                   increasingly being incorporated into traditional translation processes as an enabler of
                                   increased efficiency.
                               • Technological advances have improved quality and accuracy and machine translation is
Hybrid                           increasingly being incorporated into traditional translation processes as an enabler of
translation /                    increased efficiency.
“post-editing”                 • Increased demand for “post-editing” services where translators proofread and edit
                                 automated translation results.
Community                      • Proliferation of volunteer-based translation sites – provides near-perfect translation at no
and “crowd-                      cost.
sourced”                       • Machine translation websites are leveraging their communities to improve the quality of
                                 translations via providing options for users to “contribute a better translation”.
translations
                               • Translation services are being demanded by a much larger group of customers.
                                       o Services are more accessible.
                                       o Users want different forms of content translated – emails, blogs, tweets.
The expanding
                               • Last decade has seen an explosion of informal content published and shared online –
pie                              content not well served by traditional lines of service because of its volume, informal
                                 nature, and lower commercial value.
                               • Increasing need from users to balance efficiency, easy integration and price.

3.7.2 Services and Resources
The Canadian translation sector continues to face challenges. Industry fragmentation continues
to be prevalent. It would appear that the combination of low visibility for the industry and
individual choices by translators to work independently has created challenges in the
recruitment of new resources to fill vacancies created by retiring translators. In terms of
workforce demographics, the labour market appears to be transitioning year over year from
salaried to self-employed.
Given the supply and demand for translation and linguistic services, there appears to be an
insufficient level of investment in research and development to strengthen the infrastructure
(tools, technology, and resource development) in Canada. This can be directly attributed to the
under-investment based upon the fragmented nature of the industry and the difficulty for small
“mom-and-pop shops” to invest in the necessary tools and technology.
Table 6 outlines some of the key service and resource related challenges.




15   Source: State of the Translation Industry - MyGengo - 2009




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                                                Table 6 - Key Industry Challenges

                                   • Estimated number of translators, interpreters, terminologists, and localization
                                     specialists - 15,000.
Industry
                                   • Majority of industry are small enterprises.
Fragmentation                      • A large number of small contracts.
                                   • Globalization will reduce fragmentation, but not for the near-term.
                                   • Canada's language industries are largely unknown in Canada and abroad.
Lack of visibility                 • Low level of knowledge about employment opportunities in the field.
                                   • Approximately 1,000 new translators are needed each year to meet demand and
Workforce Churn                      replace retirees.
                                   • Under-investment in research and development.
Investment in                      • Lack of economies of scale (i.e. fragmentation) does not support the financial
                                     benefits needed to support the investment required.
research and                       • Global organizations are able to make the necessary investments in tools and
development                          training.
                                   • Canada risks losing its linguistic infrastructure without investment.
Individual choices                 • Low profile of industry experiences challenges in attracting talent.
and motivation                     • Occupational profiles and education programs not widely promoted.
                                   • Predominantly influenced by the public sector as it is the major consumer of
                                     translation services.
Dynamics of supply                 • Inconsistent revenue streams and complicated management requirements
and demand                           attributed to government acquisition policies that are complex, has resulted in few
                                     private sector suppliers to supplement in-house work performed by the government
                                     and a general focus of private sector suppliers on private sector demand.

3.7.3 Translation Languages
Internationally, there has been significant growth in multilingual translation and in
localization 16. The industry is expected to grow at an annual rate of 7.4%. International trade
and the growth of global content, such as for websites and multimedia, remain strongly
correlated to high-growth industry sectors and language pairs (e.g. Chinese to English). Chinese
translators in particular are in high demand.
Specific to Canada, the country’s increased diversity is increasing the demand for languages
other than French and English 17.


3.8 Conclusion
There continues to be increase in the demand for translators despite the use of automated
translation and increased productivity 18 of existing professionals.
Both globally and in the Canadian market, demand for less common languages is increasing and
will continue to drive growth, as will demand for web and multimedia services. Suppliers face
increased time pressures from translation service buyers.
Although industry fragmentation will be the norm for years to come, industry consolidation is,
and will continue to be, significant. More mid-sized and small LSPs (i.e. revenue of US$5

16 Source: The Language Services Market: 2011 – Common Sense Advisory – May 2011
17 Source: Found in Translation – Job Postings Canada
18 Source: Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters – Service Canada – December 2010




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million per annum) are initiating consolidation activity. Globalization continues within the
industry with more and more small and medium size LSPs diversifying globally.
It is expected that industries depending on quality, service and confidentiality, such as the
public sector and regulated industries, will continue to rely on traditional translation services.
Their focus will be on streamlining the translation process and implementing enabling
technologies to increase quality and increase timing and cost efficiencies.




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4. Overview of Comparator
   Organizations
 In order to collect data on other organizations with which the Translation Bureau could be
 compared and benchmarked, representatives from a selection of Canadian and international
 language service providers were interviewed. Interviews were conducted with five Canadian and
 three international organizations. This section is intended to provide an overview of the output
 of those interviews. Table 7 provides a profile of the eight organizations that were interviewed
 as well as a profile of the Translation Bureau.
 4.1 Services
 The primary focus of the organizations interviewed is the delivery of translation services, with
 some revision, editing and localization. Interpretive services are offered within Organization #7
 and Organization #8, however in the case of the Organization #7, they are managed by an
 entirely separate group. While Organization #5 does not provide interpretive services, the group
 does manage contracts for the provision of interpreters for the organization.
 Other services offered included:
     •   Preparation and delivery of summary translations;
     •   Terminology;
     •   Translation for websites; and
     •   Issuance of opinion on third party translations.
 Only two of the organizations interviewed provide services to external parties, and of those, only
 one could truly be considered a commercial service. Organization #1 provides translation
 services within the firm, as well as to clients of the firm. Their services are not commercially
 available to other third parties.
 The volume of work ranged from 650,000 words to over 600 million words. As one would
 expect, the organizations within Canada predominately managed translation between French
 and English, whereas the international organizations were required to manage translation
 between the official languages of their respective organizations.




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                                    Table 7 - Comparable Organizations Interviewed

                                                                                                 Annual Volume   % of Work
                                                        # of
                                                                                                    of Work       Delivered
Organization          Relevance to Study              Language                Services
                                                                                                  (Millions of   by External
                                                    Professionals
                                                                                                    Words)        Suppliers
Canadian


                • Large service provider
Organization                                                        • Translation
                • Translation of financial and          ≤ 50                                          18.5          67%
#1                                                                     (English → French)
                regulatory documents


Organization                                                        • Translation (English ↔
                • Translation of legal documents        ≤ 5                                          0.65           33%
#2                                                                     French)
                • Large internal service provider
Organization                                                        • Translation (English →
                • Translation of financial and          ≤25                                           20            20%
#3                                                                     French)
                legal documents
                                                                    • Translation (English ↔
                                                                       French)
Organization
                • Large service provider                ≤75         • Text revision                   35           variable
#4
                                                                    • Localization
                                                                    • Editing
                                                                    • Translation (English ↔
                                                                       French)
                                                                    • Editing
                                                                    • Proofreading
                • Public Sector organization
Organization                                                        • Concordance check
                • Translation of financial and          ≤25                                           10            40%
#5                                                                  • Linguistic advice
                insurance documents
                                                                    • Co-ordinate foreign
                                                                       languages
                                                                    • Manage contracts for
                                                                       interpretation services
International
Organization    • Public sector organization                        • Translation
                                                        ≤50                                           6.4           20%
#6              • Translates laws and reports                       • Interpretation

                                                                    • Translation
                                                                    • Interpretation
                • Public sector organization                        • Verbatim Reporting
Organization
                • Translates laws, policy papers,       ≥500        • Editing                         113           25%
#7
                and reports                                         • Proofreading
                                                                    • Copy preparation
                                                                    • Summary records

                                                                    • Translation
                • Public sector organization                        • Summaries of documents
Organization
                • Translates laws, policy papers,      ≥1000        • Oral summaries                  686           27%
#8
                and reports                                         • Terminology services
                                                                    • Web services
Translation Bureau

                • Public sector organization                        • Translation
                                                                    • Editing
                • Translates laws, policy papers,                   • Revision
Translation     and reports                                         • Proofreading
                                                        1200                                          420           43%
Bureau                                                              • Interpretation
                • Largest provider of translation                   • Terminology
                services within Canada                              • Professional and
                                                                       Administrative Services




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4.2 Operating Model
The organizations also have a similar approach to their operating model, operating in a hybrid
model. All retain an in-house capacity, and maintain a roster of external suppliers that allow
them to increase their contingent capacity to meet additional demand or to respond to specific
requests. The exact blend of in-house vs. outsourced resources does vary between
organizations; however they are generally consistent in their overall approach to the use of
external resources:
   •   Documents that are classified, or may be considered highly sensitive are usually delivered
       through the use of in-house capacity.
   •   Whenever possible, the priority is to ensure that in-house resources are engaged in
       translation work before using external suppliers to provide capacity on demand.
Table 8 provides further detail on the criteria that the organizations use in determining when to
engage external resources. Organizations not listed in the table did not provide specific criteria
for using external resources beyond the approach outlined above.
                              Table 8 - Criteria for Use of External Resources


Organization       Criteria

                   Explicitly expressed a preference for outsourcing as much as possible as it
Organization       provided significant cost savings.
#1                 Targets the use of in-house resources for approximately one-third of its work
                   and staffed accordingly.

                   A number of factors are considered including the customer, deadline, and
Organization
                   competency or special knowledge required for the translation, however there
#4
                   is no standard policy.

                   A number of factors are considered including the availability of internal
                   capacity, complexity, length, and deadline.
                   The organization has made an effort to eliminate overtime in order to support
                   work/life balance for employees; if a translation order has a short deadline
Organization
                   that can’t be moved, the organization will rely on freelancers in order to avoid
#5
                   overtime.
                   If a piece of work requires special knowledge or expertise, it is usually done
                   in-house by employees that possess the organizational understanding to
                   complete the work.

                   Demand drives usage; external suppliers are used to deal with peak periods.
Organization
#6                 External resources are used to support translation of a specific set of reports
                   where cost reduction was explicitly requested.




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                   Maintains a target for its use of external resources. The policy is based on
                   capacity.
Organization
#7                 Policy is that internal resources were to never operate at full capacity. Internal
                   resource utilization is set at 80%, to be supplemented by temporary resources
                   as required. This allows the organization to maintain internal flex capacity.

The ability to secure additional resources is not considered a major impediment, with most
organizations feeling that they could easily accommodate at least a 10% increase in demand. In
one case, a service provider felt that they could increase capacity by over 50% because of a
strong subcontractor network. Staff complements of the organizations that were interviewed
ranged from 3 to over 1400 FTEs.
Depending on the organization, and the document that is being translated, the translated
document may be reviewed for style, accuracy and terminology. A key observation is that there
is a significant amount of variation in how each organization manages its quality assurance
function. In some cases, quality assurance often relies upon the skill of the translator, rather
than being a separate function within the process. With some exceptions such as certified or
legal documents, quality is not considered as important to clients as cost. In these instances,
quality is expected by clients and therefore it is not considered a differentiator. At the other end
of the spectrum, for legal or certified documents, quality is critical and clients are often willing
to pay a premium to ensure quality. It is also important to note that each of the organizations
does track the quality performance of its outsourced suppliers and often give priority to its
preferred suppliers based on the quality of past work.
4.3 Price and Performance
Collection of quantitative data regarding organizational costs and prices has proven to be a
challenge. Of the eight organizations interviewed, five were unable or unwilling to share their
cost and price data.
Despite this gap, there is an important observation worth noting with respect to how the
organizations manage the pricing and funding of their services. Four of the eight organizations
mandate that their translation service be used by the business units in order to translate
documents. As such, those four translation services are fully funded, and do not engage in
chargeback to the client for any translation.
The three organizations that were able to provide pricing information billed clients in the range
of approximately $0.23 - $0.65 / word, with two of the organizations being at the high end of
that rate. This was acknowledged as being above the market rate, however these are both
organizations that exclusively deal with specialized documents or documents that require
certification, hence the rationale for the higher-than-market rate
Despite the challenges collecting cost data, performance data was collected from the
organizations. This data reflects the productivity that is expected by the organization from its
translation professions. The data was normalized to reflect words/hour for an “intermediate”-
level interpreter. The productivity values range from 195 words/hour to 333 words/hour as
outlined in Table 9.




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                        Table 9 - Productivity Ratios at Comparable Organizations

                                                           Productivity Ratio (Words /
          Organization
                                                                      hour)
          Canadian
          Organization #1                                               250
          Organization #2                                               333
          Organization #3                                               267
          Organization #4                                               333
          Organization #5                                              ~195
          International
          Organization #6                                              300
          Organization #7                                              242
          Organization #8                                              N/A




4.4 Specialized Documents
Only two Canadian organizations handle classified government documents. One organization’s
facility is site cleared to Top Secret, and the cost of that facility has been amortized over a long
period of time. Both organizations employ translators that have been security cleared to the
required level, and translators working on classified documents are required to work within the
office, or at the client’s site rather than working from a home office. There is no price or cost
difference applied for the translation of these documents.
The international organizations also handle sensitive or classified security documents. One
organization’s approach is similar to that of the Canadian firm, with special facilities in which
the translation must be completed. The other two relied on their in-house employees for
sensitive documents, with documents of a particularly sensitive nature being assigned to very
senior resources with the requisite experience and context.
A common theme among all the participating organizations was that document complexity was
not a factor in either cost or productivity. Document length was considered the primary driver
for cost. As stated above, the organizations have productivity thresholds that their translators
are expected to meet. The background and experience of the individual translators is relied upon
to provide the specialized knowledge to translate more ‘complex’ documents rather than
allowing an extra time allotment for completion of the translation.




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4.5 Technology / Linguistic Tools
Adoption of technology among the organizations varies significantly. Given the cost and effort
required to build and maintain the tools, and the variance in organization size and budget, there
is an emerging theme that only the larger organizations invest in developing or acquiring
technology and tools.
Translation memory is used within a number of the organizations in order to improve
productivity and is considered successful. However, most organizations have not yet moved to
incorporate machine translation into their processes. Most do not foresee machine translation
becoming a part of their translation process in the near term, as it has not sufficiently advanced
to the point where it is can be used reliably. However, there was a general acknowledgment that
as little as five years ago, translation memory was viewed with the same perception.
All the organizations maintained or used some form of terminology repository, with “Termium”
being specifically identified as a repository that was used by at least one of the Canadian firms.
With the growth of global organizations, and the projected six-fold increase in the size of the
translation software market, it is reasonable to expect that there will be significant increase in
the uptake of technolinguistic tools within the market as a whole. This has the potential to
significantly impact the role of the translator, with the translation becoming less of a creative
process and more of an editorial endeavour where the translator spends the majority of his or
her effort revising machine translated output.
Use of these tools is currently at the discretion of the translator, however the trend is to formally
integrate them into existing process to drive consistency of translation as well as improve
translator efficiency.
4.6 Emerging Trends
The following are some of the key trends that were identified by the interviewees:
   •   The influence from large global translation firms appears to be increasing and could be
       driving prices down. In addition, these organizations have resources and infrastructure
       to invest in and maintain stable and reliable translation resources and services on a
       global scale. They are often able to deliver in a timely, cost-effective manner.
   •   Quality is assumed within the market, and is not seen as a differentiator between
       suppliers, except in limited circumstances such as certified documents, legal documents
       or documents with a high degree of visibility or sensitivity. To a large extent, the onus has
       been placed on the translator to self-monitor and deliver a high–quality document, and
       on the client to identify issues in lieu of a robust quality assurance function.
   •   There is an improvement in the quality of machine translation and translation memory.
       While not yet ubiquitous, the tools are seeing greater adoption but not at the expense of
       human resources. The profile of the translator over the next five years will be someone
       who can combine linguistic skills and computer skills. The belief is that the model is
       “translator and machine” rather than “translator or machine”.
   •   Within Canada, it is felt that competition is increasing, resulting in downward pressure
       on rates, while the level of quality is improving. Commercial service providers find




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       themselves in a position where they are delivering a higher quality product faster, but
       with lower revenue.
   •   At present, PwC did not find any provision of translation services for social media. The
       organizations interviewed indicated that the translation responsibility rests with the
       organization that was creating the content and not with the translation services group.
       This is generally the communications group of the organization.




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5. Comparative Analysis
 The purpose of this section is to review the information collected from both the Translation
 Bureau and the participating organizations in order to provide the Translation Bureau with a
 comparative analysis between its practices and those of the other organizations. This
 comparison focuses on seven key areas:
     •   Organizational Mandate;
     •   Organizational Funding Model;
     •   Price and Performance ;
     •   Tools and Technology;
     •   Information Security;
     •   Multilingual Services; and
     •   Social Media.
 5.1 Organizational Mandate
 The mandate of the Translation Bureau is to provide translation, interpretation and terminology
 services to the Parliament of Canada, and federal departments and agencies. The service is
 currently provided as an optional service on a cost recovery basis to the rest of the Government
 of Canada. Departments and agencies are not required to engage the Bureau for its services, and
 can opt to secure their own linguistic services. Today, the Translation Bureau handles
 approximately 72% of the Government of Canada’s translation services.
 Among the international comparator organizations, all three linguistic service providers had
 similar mandates to provide services within their own public sector organization. An important
 difference, however, is that use of the comparator organization’s linguistic services is mandatory
 for those organizations.
 Among the Canadian organizations, three provide services exclusively to internal clients.
 Organization #1 provides translation services within the firm, as well as to clients of the firm.
 Their services are not commercially available to other third parties. Only Organization #4
 provides translation services on a purely commercial basis, and 85% of its volume is with the
 public sector. Of the five Canadian organizations, only Organization #3 has mandated that its
 internal translation service must be used by the lines of business.
 5.2 Organizational Funding Model
 Since 1995, the Translation Bureau has been a Special Operating Agency retaining its mandate
 as the exclusive supplier of services to Parliament and the exclusive authority for terminology
 standardization, but an optional service provider for federal departments and agencies. The
 Bureau’s funding model reflects this duality of mandate. The Bureau receives budgetary
 funding for its services to Parliament as well as for Termium. For services provided to federal
 departments and agencies, the Bureau operates through cost recovery.

 Among the eight comparator organizations, four organizations, including all three international
 organizations, are fully funded and do not engage in any chargeback to the business for their


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services. Organization #5 is the only public sector organization that operates in a cost recovery
mode similar to the Translation Bureau. Organization #4, as a commercial service provider, is
not funded, and charges fully for its services. Organizations #1 and #2 operate through a
combination of internal cost recovery and billing to external clients.

5.3 Price and Performance
As stated in Section 4.3, collection of cost and pricing information from the comparator
organizations was a challenge. Productivity data was determined to be a suitable substitute in
order to provide a basis for quantitative comparison between the Translation Bureau and the
external organizations. This data reflects the productivity that is expected by the organization
from its translation professions. The data was normalized to reflect words/hour for an
“intermediate”- level interpreter. The productivity values range from 195 words / hour to 333
words / hour as outlined in Table 10. The Translation Bureau’s productivity ratio is 250 words /
hour, which places it in the lower-mid range of the comparator organizations.
                                       Table 10 - Productivity Ratios

     Organization                                     Productivity Ratio (Words / hour)
     Canadian
     Organization #1                                                    250
     Organization #2                                                    333
     Organization #3                                                    267
     Organization #4                                                    333
     Organization #5                                                    ~195
     International
     Organization #6                                                    300
     Organization #7                                                    242
     Organization #8                                                    N/A


     Translation Bureau                                                 250
In addition to the price information provided by the three comparator organizations, PwC was
able to collect an additional data point with respect to prices. Organization #5 provided the
range of prices it is charged by its suppliers. Analysis of the Translation Bureau’s pricing,
calculated using a workload-weighted average of the Bureau’s productivity ratio, as it compares
to the available data is presented in Table 11 .




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                                        Table 11 - Price Structure

   Organization                           Price ($ / hour)            Price ($ / word)

   Organization #1                               N/A                         $0.42


   Organization #2                               N/A                         $0.65


   Organization #5                               N/A                         $0.23

   Organization #5 Suppliers
   (General and                                  N/A                      $0.17 - $0.30
   financial/legal documents)
   Organization #5 Suppliers
   (Insurance and                                N/A                      $0.18 - $0.30
   securitization documents)
   Organization #5 Suppliers
                                                 N/A                      $0.17 - $0.32
   (Technical documents)
   Translation Bureau
   All translation services,
   including revision and                       $77.64                       $0.37
   proofreading

   Translation only                             $77.02                       $0.37


   Revision and Proofreading                    $91.21                       $0.44



5.4 Tools and Technology
The Translation Bureau utilizes a number of tools as it processes a translation order. These tools
have been deployed to help standardize processes and increase productivity.
In terms of process and the management of translation jobs, the Bureau’s Integrated
Information System (IIS) is used to manage the translation workflow from business intake
through to invoicing. This is similar to other organizations that also use a workflow
management system to track their jobs from intake through to delivery.
In terms of technolinguistic tools, Table 12 outlines the major tools that the Bureau has
introduced into its translation workflow.




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                     Table 12 - Use of Technolinguistic Tools at the Translation Bureau


Technolinguistic Tool Translation Bureau Usage
                              A database is maintained containing all translated documents delivered by the
Translation Memory            Translation Bureau for all clients. This enables staff to undertake a search when
                              translation requests come in to see if the material has been previously translated.
                              This addresses the fact that when managers make translation service requests they
                              are not in a position to know whether a document has previously been translated.
                              Currently, the search of the database is manual and optional and it is used when
                              documents are pre-existing and/or originate from outside the client business unit
                              that is requesting the translation service. Under this approach, 25% of documents
                              are found to have been previously wholly or partially translated. This reduces the
                              translation efforts and client billings.
                              Enhancements to the software and database are underway. The Translation
                              Bureau will be undertaking an automated search of all documents for which
                              translation is requested to identify if any parts of the documents have been
                              previously translated.
                              The Translation Bureau uses the software product titled “Portage” which has been
Machine Translation           developed and is supported by National Research Council of Canada as the toolset
(“Portage”).                  for machine based translation.
                              The Translation Bureau maintains a database of terms for which French and
Terminology                   English versions have been established and to assure consistency, should not be
repository                    freely translated. Examples of such terms include the titles of organizations,
(“Termium”)                   business units, projects and initiatives, personnel titles, committee names and
                              other terms. A database for such terms is maintained per client department as
                              well as for overall Government of Canada. The maintenance of a database of
                              established terms is a key tool in ensuring quality in translation services.
                              Currently the Translation Bureau maintains these databases through the system
                              titled “Termium”. Through Termium, content is continuously added to a database
                              by Translation Bureau translators and, through its web-tool, these terms can be
                              searched by anyone.
                              Enhancements to the Termium software are underway to enable full documents to
                              be searched, so that all established terms can be identified and searched
                              automatically. At the same time, changes to the software and support are
                              underway to enable non-translation bureau personnel to recommend additions to
                              client specific and government-wide terms.
Among the comparator organizations, the following key points were noted:
    • Use of the tools remains optional and at the discretion of the translator.
    • The tools have not been integrated into any automatic workflow as is currently planned
      by the Translation Bureau.
    • All organizations use some form of terminology repository. Organization #2 specifically
      referenced Termium as a repository that it used for its translation.
    • With the exception of Organization #2, all the organizations employed translation
      memory.




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    • Of the eight organizations interviewed, only the three international organizations use
      machine translation, with Organizations #7 and #8 using custom solutions for their
      machine translation.
    • In terms of benefits, the use of these tools is generally felt to have provided a tangible
      increase in productivity. A slightly more intangible benefit was an increase in the
      consistency of translation.
5.5 Information Security
The Translation Bureau manages the translation of documents classified up to and including
‘Top Secret’ level. This is done primarily through the use of internal language professionals. The
Bureau has also invested considerably in building specific facilities that meet the necessary
security requirements.
Of the eight participating organizations, two handle translation of Government of Canada
classified documents. Organization #4 is particularly interesting as it is a commercial service
provider that has received a facility cleared to ‘Top Secret’ and all its translators are cleared up
to at least ‘Secret’. In the interview, the CEO of the organization indicated that there is no
difference in their approach to translation of classified documents. There is no extra charge to
clients for providing this service. His organization’s perspective was that this service was
considered as essential in order to have access to this segment of the public sector market and
serves as a competitive differentiator. The cost of the facility clearance has been amortized over
a long period and is included in the overhead of the organization.
Although not all of the organizations handled Government of Canada classified documents, each
did have measures and guidelines in place for handling secure or highly sensitive documents.
These measures were consistent between organizations, and included:
    • Secure or highly sensitive documents were generally translated by in-house resources;
    • When necessary, translation was managed by senior resources, up to and including the
      head of the organization;
    • Staff possessed the requisite level of security clearance, or had signed some form of
      confidentiality clause or non-disclosure agreements. These requirements were usually
      extended to suppliers as well;
    • Restrictions on where the translation work could be performed (i.e. on-site rather than
      working from home); and
    • Where a document has an official security classification, policy around access and
      transmission of the information are followed (i.e. document encryption, no transmission
      via e-mail, work performed on a secure workstation).

5.6 Multilingual Services
Although the majority of its volume is between English and French, the Bureau does provide
services in over 100 languages and dialects, including Aboriginal languages. This service is
managed primarily through the use of external suppliers. Estimated to be less than 5%, it does
not represent a significant percentage of the Bureau’s current volume.
Among the comparator organizations, three of the organizations did not deal with multilingual
translation at all. Three of the remaining organizations only dealt with multilingual translation



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on an occasional basis and relied on external resources to provide this expertise. Only
Organization #7 and Organization #8 provided a sufficient volume of multilingual service to
retain in-house expertise. A key issue in managing the translation to and from a large number of
languages is that the number of potential language pairs can grow very quickly. Organizations
#7 and #8 managed this complexity by restricting the source language to one or two working
languages. This restriction dramatically reduces the number of potential language pairs that
must be staffed.
Although it was not one of the eight comparator organizations, an interesting Canadian example
of multilingual translation can be found with the City of Toronto. As Canada’s largest city,
Toronto has a very multi-cultural demographic. In order to support its delivery of services and
communication with an increasingly diverse population, the City of Toronto has leveraged
‘Google Translate’ to provide real-time translation of its website (http://www.toronto.ca/) into
over 51 languages.
5.7 Social Media
As stated in Section 4.6, there is little evidence of the use of translation services for social media.
The organizations interviewed indicated that the translation responsibility rests with the
organization that was creating the content and not with the translation services group. This is
generally the communications group of the organization. Organization #4, the commercial
services organization, did not view this as an area that presented a sound business case for
investment, and felt that it was an area better addressed internally within an organization due to
the speed required as well as range of potential material that would need translation. While not
purely in the area of social media, Organization #8 did provide some support for website
translation, however in their view, the limiting factor on timely delivery was the speed of the
webmaster rather than the translation.
Discussion on social media during Executive Workshop #2 suggested that translation for social
media as a service that was closer in nature to interpretation or adaptation rather than pure
translation. This was due to the preference for speed while capturing the essence of the message
rather than providing a purely faithful and accurate translation of text.
5.8 Summary
This section summarizes the above data into a single table, as presented in Table 13.
It is important to note that the information presented can be considered from two perspectives.
The first perspective is to highlight how the Bureau compares to other organizations. The second
perspective is to provide some context to the comparator data so that readers of this report can
understand the differences between organizations and the difficulties in making a direct
comparison between the organizations. As such, consideration of both the similarities and the
differences between organizations should be taken into account when reviewing Table 13.




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                                                                    Table 13 - Summary of Comparative Analysis

                                                                         Productivity
                                                         Funding                                                                                                                                  Social
Organization                 Mandate                                       (words /     Tools and Technology               Information Security                  Multilingual Services
                                                          Model                                                                                                                                   Media
                                                                            hour)
               • Provide service internally to                                                                                                                 Spanish translation provided
                                                       Internal                                                     • Staff cleared to at least appropriate                                    Not managed
                 organization as well as to firm                                        • Translation memory                                                   through contracts and
Organization                                           chargeback;          250                                       level.                                                                   through
                 clients.                                                               • Terminology                                                          translation services in
#1                                                     External client                                              • Highly sensitive documents managed                                       translation
               • Internal service is optional for      billing                          • Usage is optional.                                                   international network of
                                                                                                                                                                                               services.
                                                                                                                      by head of translation.                  member firms.
                 business units.
                                                       Internal                                                                                                                                Not managed
               • Provide service internally to
Organization                                           chargeback;          333         • Terminology               • Highly sensitive documents retained      Multilingual services not       through
                 organization as well as to firm
#2                                                     External client                  • Usage is optional.          for in-house translation.                provided.                       translation
                 client.
                                                       billing                                                                                                                                 services.
               • Provide service internally to                                                                                                                                                 Not managed
                                                                                        • Translation memory
Organization     organization.                         Fully funded         267                                     • Highly sensitive documents retained      Multilingual services not       through
                                                                                        • Terminology
#3             • Internal service is mandatory for     internally                                                     for in-house translation.                provided.                       translation
                                                                                        • Usage is optional.                                                                                   services.
                 business units.
                                                                                                                    • All staff cleared to at least Secret
                                                                                        • Translation memory
Organization                                           External client      333                                     • Top Secret facility clearance            Multilingual services not       Service not
               • Commercial service provider.                                           • Terminology
#4                                                     billing                                                      • Classified work performed in             provided.                       provided.
                                                                                        • Usage is optional.
                                                                                                                      dedicated facility or at client site.
                                                                                                                    • Staff have security clearance to
                                                                                                                                                               Languages dependent on
                                                                                                                      appropriate level.                                                       Not managed
                                                                                        • Translation memory                                                   organizational business plan.
Organization   • Provide optional service internally   Internal             ~195                                    • Secure documents not exchanged via                                       through
                                                                                        • Terminology
#5               to business units.                    chargeback                                                     e-mail                                                                   translation
                                                                                        • Usage is optional.                                                   Managed through contract
                                                                                                                    • Work on classified documents no                                          services.
                                                                                                                                                               suppliers.
                                                                                                                      permitted from home.
                                                                                        •                                                                      Occasional service provided
               • Provide service internally to                                              Translation memory      • All resources sign a confidentiality                                     Not managed
                                                                                                                                                               for foreign correspondence.
Organization     organization.                         Fully funded         300         •   Terminology               clause.                                                                  through
#6             • Internal service is mandatory for     internally                       •   Machine translation     • Highly sensitive documents managed       Managed through contract
                                                                                                                                                                                               translation
                 business units.                                                        •   Usage is optional.        by head of translation.                                                  services.
                                                                                                                                                               suppliers.
                                                                                        •   Translation memory      • All resources are expected to preserve   6 official languages.
               • Provide service internally to                                                                                                                                                 Not managed
                                                                                                                      and safeguard documents as part of       Language pairs managed
Organization     organization.                         Fully funded         242         •   Terminology                                                                                        through
                                                                                                                      code of conduct.                         through the use of French
#7             • Internal service is mandatory for     internally                       •   Machine translation                                                                                translation
                                                                                                                    • Highly sensitive documents managed       and English as primary
                 business units.                                                        •   Usage is optional.                                                                                 services.
                                                                                                                      by senior translators and revisers.      working language.
                                                                                                                    • Staff security clearance
               • Provide service internally to                                          •   Translation memory                                                 23 official languages.          Not managed
                                                                                                                    • Secure facility with no external
Organization     organization.                         Fully funded         N/A         •   Terminology                                                        Language pairs managed          through
                                                                                                                      electronic access.
#8             • Internal service is mandatory for     internally                       •   Machine translation                                                through the use of English as   translation
                                                                                                                    • No outsourcing of classified or          primary working language.       services.
                 business units.                                                        •   Usage is optional.
                                                                                                                      restricted document.
                                                       Internal                         •   Translation memory
               • Provide optional service to                                                                        • Staff security clearance
                                                       chargeback                       •   Terminology
Translation      Government of Canada                                       250                                     • Top Secret facility clearance            Managed through in-house
Bureau
                                                       with some                        •   Machine translation                                                staff and contract suppliers.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       --
                 departments, agencies, Crown
                                                       budgetary                                                    • Classified work performed in
                 Corporations.                                                          •   Tools integrated into
                                                       funding                                                        dedicated facility.
                                                                                            workflow.




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6. Key Observations
 The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Translation Bureau with key findings from
 the interviews with the comparator organizations and the results of PwC’s research of
 publications and documents by other organizations. This section identifies some preliminary
 themes for consideration by the Bureau in assessing its strategic direction for the future.
 6.1 Canadian Translation Services Environment
 While respecting the Bureau’s current mandate, further examination of its delivery model will
 be influenced by availability, quality and supply of third party providers. Translation Services
 for French-to-English and English-to-French continues to dominate the overall demand.
 While resources are fragmented, the supply of translation organizations and independent
 translators appears to be stable relative to demand. These micro-enterprises have low overhead,
 and as such, are able to compete aggressively on the basis of price and speed. The primary effect
 of this is in the apparent commoditization of translation services and its effect at providing
 lower costs services. The emergence of a number of large, multinational organizations and their
 expansion through acquisition of small or medium organizations will likely have an impact on
 lessening the fragmentation of the Canadian supply and exerting further downward pressure on
 prices. This presents an opportunity for the Bureau to examine and consider how to take
 advantage of its relationship with these suppliers and examine higher value services in the areas
 of quality standards and tools that could be used to support the industry and its clients.
 There are some indications that requirements for translation and interpretation services for
 other languages in Canada may emerge as Canada’s cultural diversity shifts and the degree to
 which the Canadian government focuses on international trade. While further analysis will be
 required to determine the significance of this emerging demand, the Bureau may wish to
 consider its capacity and current mandate to address this potential demand.
 6.2 Funding Model
 In reviewing the information provided by the comparator organizations, an important
 commonality was noted among a number of the public sector organizations. Of the four public
 sector organizations, three are fully funded through an appropriation for the services that they
 provide. The linguistic services provided are considered essential to the operation of the parent
 organization and the language service providers are therefore not required to engage in cost
 recovery from their clients.
 In light of the Translation Bureau’s legislative mandate to “collaborate with and act for all
 departments, boards, agencies and commissions … in all matters relating to the making and
 revising of translations”, and the importance that is placed on similar services in the comparator
 organizations, consideration should be given to reviewing how the Translation Bureau is funded
 to deliver on its mandate.




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6.3 Tools and Technology
As indicated above, there has been an improvement in the quality of machine translation and
translation memory. These tools, however, have yet to be fully adopted by the industry. There
are a number of reasons that can be seen as driving this trend:
   •   Among many of the organizations that we interviewed, the use of technolinguistic tools is
       optional, and at the discretion of the translator. This is, in large part, because there is
       cultural resistance by translation professionals to use these tools. They are seen as further
       automating and commoditizing a service that language professionals may feel is a
       creative exercise.
   •   The use of technolinguistic tools requires both an investment to build and maintain
       infrastructure as well as a significant repository of data in order for the tool to be
       effective. Both factors impede the adoption of these technologies by the small enterprises
       that represent the bulk of businesses within the industry.
   •   The translation software industry is expected to grow exponentially over the next few
       years. The emergence of global translation organizations with resources to invest in and
       maintain the required infrastructure will impact the development and adoption of
       technolinguistic tools. While the degree to which either of these two phenomena will take
       hold, it is reasonable to assume that the majority of this growth and adoption will be
       driven by these large firms as they attempt to reduce costs and increase market share.
The Bureau may have an opportunity to examine and determine how to support the
development and adoption of these emerging technologies to further support its clients and the
larger translation and interpretation services marketplace in Canada.
6.4 Productivity
While PwC was not able to obtain sufficient cost data from comparator organizations for a direct
unit cost comparison with the Translation Bureau, we were able to review productivity measures
that each organizations has for its language professionals. Based on its data from 2010-2011,
the Bureau’s productivity ratio was approximately 250 words/hour. This was on the lower-
middle end of the scale as compared to the organizations interviewed, which ranged from 195 –
333 words/hour.
As indicated in our current state assessment of the Translation Bureau, the Bureau employs a
graded scale to determine document complexity, which in turns influences the time allotted for
the translation of a document. A key differentiation between the comparator organizations and
the Bureau was that complexity was not a factor for the external organizations. Document length
was seen as the primary driver for workload and costs. The translators have a productivity
threshold that they are expected to meet, and the background of the individual translators is
relied upon to provide the specialized knowledge to translate more ‘complex’ documents rather
than allowing an extra time allotment.




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6.5 Quality
Quality assurance often relies upon the skill of the translator, rather than being a separate
function within the process. With some exceptions such as certified or legal documents, quality
is not considered as important to clients as cost or speed. Importantly, quality is expected by
clients and therefore not considered a differentiator. However, it is important to note that
within the sector, it is harder for the smaller organizations to implement and support the
overhead associated with a true quality assurance function. This, as well as the overall
management of quality, will be an important consideration for the Bureau as it considers its
future sourcing strategy.
6.6 Classified Documents
Preliminary review suggests that there is some capacity within the private sector to provide
translation of secure documents. The sole commercial language service provider that
participated in the study can provide services for Secret and Top Secret documents. This service
was viewed as an investment that was necessary to secure work of this nature. During further
discussion at Executive Workshop #2, an independent language consultant indicated that she
has ‘Secret’ site clearance for her home office, and through the use of inexpensive, commercial
tools, is able to send and receive secure documents. It was indicated that there is both capacity
and appetite within the market, from both large and small service providers to deliver
translation of secure documents. The primary barrier to service providers taking the necessary
steps to comply with the relevant information security policies was sufficient demand to support
the business case for the investment.
6.7 Social Media
The research suggests an expanding market for translation service utilizing social media tools.
For the organizations interviewed, translation of social media was being handled by the
organizations’ communications function and not handled by translation services. Most indicated
that the translation responsibility rested with the organization that was creating the content.
The one organization that provides external services did not view this as an area that presented
a sound business case, and also felt that it was an area better addressed internally within an
organization due to the speed required as well as range of potential material that would need
translation.
6.8 Conclusion
Three predominant themes have arisen from the work that we have carried out in conducting
this study. While this is not meant to be comprehensive, the following summarizes key themes
for consideration by the Bureau.
   1. Refining the Bureau’s service delivery model for its current client base.
      There is an opportunity to more clearly segment its current client base (House of
      Commons, Senate, specific government departments and agencies) and perhaps refine
      services and service level agreements that have higher value for their clients. Managing
      the relationship with the private sector will need to consider the existing dynamics of
      procurement with Federal Government departments and the Translation Bureau itself.
      We are aware of the current efforts to streamline and improve the processes




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Translation Bureau Benchmarking and Comparative Analysis



   2. Enhancing the Bureau’s contribution to innovation. Our studies and interviews
      exposed a lack of significant investment in the translation industry. The Bureau has an
      opportunity to examine the appropriate level of investment in activities that define and
      measure quality standards, as well as the further refinement of translation tools and
      technology.
   3. Measuring and refining the Bureau’s contribution to ensuring a continuing
      supply of quality translation professionals. The Bureau is Canada’s largest
      translation service and does play a role in developing programs that encourage Canadians
      to consider becoming a translation professional.




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 Translation Bureau Benchmarking and Comparative Analysis




7. Appendices
      Appendix A – Glossary of Terms
              Term                                              Brief Description
                                   Rewriting a text in another language, taking into account the tone, style and
 Translation
                                   terminology used by the author.
 Translation of bilingual          Translating a document part of which is in one language and part of which is in
 documents                         another language (e.g. English and French).
 Translation of changes            Translating changes made to a text that has already been translated.
                                   Translating a document in a way that makes it easier for the target audience to
 Adaptation
                                   understand.
 Sight translation                 Translating a document orally, either in person or by telephone.
                                   Improving an original text by correcting the grammar or style or by suggesting
 Editing
                                   solutions to make the text easier to read and understand.
                                   Carefully comparing a translation with the original text and correcting the
 Revision
                                   content and style of the translation.
 Editing of bilingual              Editing a document part of which is in one language and part of which is in
 documents                         another language.
                                   Checking whether a translation is accurate and follows the rules of the language
 Quality assessment
                                   in which it is written.
 Technical or scientific           Closely comparing the technical and scientific information in a translation and
 accuracy check                    the original to make sure it matches.
                                   Reading a text, identifying any errors or typos, and indicating any changes to be
 Proofreading
                                   made.
                                   Translating a document, then having the translation revised by another
 Translation and revision
                                   professional.
 Editing and translation           Editing an original document, then translating it.
 Editing and translation of        Editing a document part of which is in one language and part of which is in
 bilingual documents               another language, then translating it into each of the two languages.

 On-site translator                Assigning a translator to work on site with a client

 Dedicated translator              Assigning one person to translate the texts of a specific client.
                                   Offering the services of a language professional who can be reached on short
 Standby
                                   notice at any time during a specified period.
 Project management                Helping a client plan, organize, direct, control and monitor a project.
 Special administrative            Handling a request made up of many files, combining many complex files into a
 services                          single file, searching for documents that have already been translated, etc.
                                   Analysing a client's language-service needs (translation, revision,
 Consulting services               interpretation, etc.) and giving advice to the client on how to plan, manage and
                                   deliver these services.
 Writing assistance                Helping a client write a text.




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             Term                                             Brief Description
                                  Providing expert advice on translation problems and language issues
Language advice
                                  (grammar, style, punctuation, terminology, etc.).
                                  Facilitation of oral or visual communication, either simultaneously or
Interpretation                    consecutively, between speakers

On-site Interpreting              Assigning an interpreter to work on site with a client
                                  Adapting a product or service to a different language, or to a specific
Localization
                                  region or country that may have different cultural and linguistic characteristics
Translation Tools & Software      Development of tools and technologies to support the delivery of translation
                                  services
Telephone Interpreting            Facilitation of interpretation through the use of a telephone as medium for
                                  communication.
International Testing / QA        Testing and quality assurance in support of a globalization effort for a product
                                  or service
Machine Translation Post-         Editing of the output of a machine translation by a human translator
editing
Internationalization Services     Preparing a product or service through identification, extraction and
/ Globalization                   preparation of elements of requiring linguistic and cultural adaptation in order
                                  to minimize subsequent localization workload.
Business Process                  Contracting of the operations for a specific business functions to a service
Outsourcing                       provider
Voice-over / Dubbing /            Voice-over translation of audio to adapt the material for a local audience
Narration
Transcreation                     Adapting a message from one language to another, while maintaining its intent,
                                  style, tone and context.
Subtitling                        Textual versions of audio for on-screen display
Interpreting Tools / Software     Development of tools and technologies to support the delivery of interpretive
                                  services
Video Interpreting                Facilitation of interpretation through the use of a video relay service as medium
                                  for communication, particularly for deaf, hard-of-hearing or speech-impaired
                                  participants.




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       Appendix B – Common Linguistic Tools
Tool                          Brief Description
                              The open-source Translation Management System (TMS) helps automate the critical
Open-source Translation
                              tasks associated with the creation, translation, review, storage and management of
Management System
                              business content and materials. Through an open modular design, organizations can
(TMS)                         depend on the customizability of a powerful, on-demand TMS tool backed by key
                              industry players
                              CrowdSight provides the platform to manage the translation process for dynamic
                              content by leveraging the appropriate group of stakeholders. Through this open-
CrowdSight
                              source application, companies can work with clients to define a “crowd”, group or
                              community and set up a translation and review collaboration process that leverages
                              the necessary constituents in the translation supply chain
                              InSight is a dynamic reporting dashboard that provides real-time intelligence on Key
                              Performance Indicators (KPI) to help clients map their localization spending to their
InSight
                              business objectives. Employing easy-to-read graphs and charts, the InSight platform
                              provides vital reports on translation that tracks and measures performance, volume
                              and spend across all languages and products
                              GlobalLink provides an intuitive platform to streamline every facet of the localization
GlobalLink                    process. The suite is comprised of modular applications that can function
                              independently or as part of an integrated end-to-end solution. GlobalLink is the
                              solution for documentation, software and web content requirements
                              ABREVE compares disparate data, tracks large volumes of consistencies within
ABREVE
                              content, and identifies inconsistencies across files, providing with metrics all along
                              the way
                              Alchemy TM solutions increase translation accuracy and precision while reducing
Alchemy’s Visual
                              localization schedules by recycling up to 70% of previous translation work. Visual
Translation Memory
                              TM solutions help streamline QA and Engineering processes, automating builds and
                              testing and providing the quick and intuitive environment for fixing localization bugs
                              Translation Workspace is an open, Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)-based translation
                              productivity platform. With Translation Workspace, clients, translators and agencies
                              gain on-demand access to the industry’s most advanced language asset management
Translation Workspace
                              tools without the cost and infrastructure of traditional on-premise translation
                              systems. Translation Workspace is available through GeoWorkz.com, the
                              eCommerce portal for technology applications
                              GeoFluent is real-time translation technology that instantly translates content and
                              communications such as Web pages, documents, customer support, user generated
GeoFluent                     content, instant messages, blogs and e-mail. This dynamic, real-time multilingual
                              communication platform can be customized using each client organization’s existing
                              content and configured for specific business processes to increase translation quality
                              and availability
                              Freeway provides a host of productivity-enriching features that help organizations
Freeway
                              cost effectively deliver global content, provide real-time project visibility and ongoing
                              enterprise reporting with the minimum amount of administrative burden




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