Cloned Agent based data computed in Homogeneous sensor networks

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					                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                         Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2012

 Cloned Agent based data computed in Homogeneous
                  sensor networks
             S.Karthikeyan                                          S.Jayashri
             Research scholar, Sathyabama university                Adhiparasakthi engineering college
             Chennai-600119,                                        Melmaruvathur – 603319, Kanchipuram
             Tamil Nadu.                                            District,
             India.                                                 Tamil Nadu,India.

Abstract- The innovation in the world of Wireless communication           adaptability of the network. The sensor nodes have a finite
led to progressive use of tiny and multifunctional sensor nodes.          sensing and communication range. It can combine the
These nodes, being small in size can sense the environment,               information from multiple sources.
compute data and communicate to a large range. The energy
constraint is one of the major limitations in sensor nodes, hence
                                                                          Network nodes are equipped with wireless transmitters and
given major focus. The usage of manifold mobile agents proposed           receivers using antennas that may be omni directional
by mobile agent based framework, offers flexible and robust data          (isotropic radiation), highly directional (point-to-point),
collection within WSNs. This also provides diverse solutions to           possibly steerable, or some combination [3]. Limited and un
energy constraint problems in WSN. This paper proposes multi-             rechargeable battery and limited network communication
agent system based data gathering from the WSN. The mobile                bandwidth are the most challenging issues in sensor networks.
agent created in the sink is cloned n-1 times, where n is the             Energy consumed in sensor networks is mainly for the purpose
number of clusters. The cloned mobile agents travel to their              of data transmission, signal processing, and hardware
corresponding cluster in a parallel fashion and compute the data          operation [2]. The different states of the node like
for which the event occurs. Finally the computed results are
transferred to the sink which sends an alert for the occurred
                                                                          transmission, reception, listening and sleeping itself drain
event to the mobile device. The mobile agent computes and                 battery power. The reception and transmission encompasses
transfers only the result minimizing energy consumption. The              all the processing activities of the network [3].
approach of transferring only the event occurred data also                Many research efforts aim at improving the energy efficiency
conserves node energy. This paper proposes that the sink                  from different aspects by pioneering energy-efficient
monitors any application and when an event is sensed, it is               processing techniques that reduces power consumption of all
notified to the user via message and call.                                the operations of the sensor networks. Cross-layer
Keywords: Mobile agent, Wireless sensor networks, energy                  optimization is widely considered as an efficient technique to
consumption, lifetime.                                                    ameliorate this concern. The 3 system knobs that can be used
                                                                          for cross-layer approach are voltage scaling, rate adoption and
         I        INTRODUCTION
                                                                          tunable compression [4].
                                                                          Applications of sensor networks are wide ranging and can
    The WSNs are intended to detect events, receive data from
                                                                          vary significantly in application requirements, modes of
the environment and compute the received data and finally
                                                                          deployment (e.g., ad hoc versus instrumented environment),
transmit the sensed information to interested users. The
                                                                          sensing modality, or means of power supply (e.g., battery
information sensed and transmitted by the nodes describes the
                                                                          versus wall-socket) [1]. It is mainly used in applications whose
condition of its surroundings in which the network is
                                                                          intention is to collect process and transport large volumes of
deployed. The information may include the temperature,
                                                                          complex information from the environment. Duty-cycling is a
pressure, humidity, heat, light, electricity etc of the
                                                                          technique used to reduce energy consumption and extend
environment. The WSN also routes sensor data, at times
                                                                          network lifetime. Nodes may enter a sleep state when their
aggregated and summarized, to users who have requested it or
                                                                          presence is not necessary to maintain the functionality of the
are expected to utilize the information [1]. The users interact
                                                                          system, e.g., when no event occurs in the sensor’s vicinity or
with the sink node, which gathers and holds the result. Thus
                                                                          when no message is routed through the sensor [5].
information processing and routing are two fundamental
                                                                          Efficient energy consumption is the critical design challenge
operations in sensor networks.
                                                                          that can be addressed to some extent during hardware design.
The sensor network possesses many challenging features.
                                                                          For instance, protecting data contents could be tuned to special
They are composed of self-organized nodes with controlling
                                                                          needs of sensor networks: relatively weak mechanisms could
capabilities, cooperating and interacting intelligently with
                                                                          be implemented directly in hardware so that data are encoded
other nodes in the network. There are limitations in energy
                                                                          and decoded fast and almost no communication overhead rises
consumption for transmission, computation and reception of
                                                                          [6]. Energy scavenging capability, cost and size are three
data. The multi-hop routing increases energy efficiency. Dense
                                                                          important metrics that indicate the measure of a node’s
deployment of the nodes helps in improving signal-to-noise
                                                                          “obtrusiveness” [7].
ratio, frequently changing topologies which get better

                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                        Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2012

II.   EXSISTING TECHNOLOGY IN MOBILE AGENT                               agent host otherwise called a mobile agent platform or server
                                                                         is a remote computer where the agent is dispatched to execute.
                                                                         The mobile agent transfers from home computer to ‘n’ number
     A novel architecture is introduced using mobile agents to
                                                                         of hosts in the network and executes on several machines.
meet the new challenges of the current Distributed sensor
                                                                         When a mobile agent is dispatched, the entire code of the
Networks (DSN's), such as large data volume, low
                                                                         mobile agent and the execution state of the mobile agent is
communication bandwidth, and unreliable environment [8]. In
                                                                         transferred to the host [15]. The host provides the appropriate
traditional network based on client server architecture, all the
                                                                         execution environment for the mobile agent to execute on it,
data collected by leaf nodes are transmitted to the processing
                                                                         also permitting the use of its resources (CPU, memory etc.).
element. But in MA based distributed sensor network, the
                                                                         On completing its task on a particular host the mobile agent
computation is distributed into the participating leaf nodes.
                                                                         drifts to another computer. Instead of restating its execution in
Thus, this approach reduces the consumption of power used
                                                                         the migrated node, the mobile agents are capable of resuming
for communication and usage of bandwidth significantly.
                                                                         their execution from where they left off in the previous host
In Mobile Agent based Distributed sensor Networks
                                                                         with the aid of the state information which is also transferred
(MADSN), the network is divided into many subtasks. For
                                                                         as the agents migrate. This continues until the mobile agent
each subtask, its mobile agent carries the execution code for
                                                                         returns to its home machine after completing execution on the
computing the data. The mobile agent finds the optimal path
                                                                         last machine in its itinerary [16, 17].
for the agents routing which influences the overall
performance      of    MADSN         implementation     because
communication cost and detection accuracy depend on the
order and the number of nodes to be visited [9]. In a MADSN,
mobile agents migrate among sensor nodes to collect data and
execute an overlap function of partial integration, whose
results are accumulated into a final version upon the arrival of
all mobile agents. MAs act in the interest of an entity,
migrating between different network locations, executing tasks
locally and continuing their execution at the point where they
stopped before migrating [10]. MAs have the ability and
intelligence to cooperate and communicate. The advantages of
MA fall into three different categories [11], among others:                           Figure 1. Life cycle of cloned mobile Agent
• Bandwidth and delay savings because computation is moved
to the data.                                                             The steps for working of a mobile agent:
• Flexibility because agents do not require the availability of          1. The mobile agent is created in a computer called Home
specific code.                                                           Machine.
• Suitability for mobile computing because agents do not                 2. The mobile agent is then dispatched to the Host Machine A
require continuous network connections.                                  for execution.
The MA offers many benefits to the application where it is               3. The agent performs its task on Host Machine A.
equipped. It reduces traffic and latency of the sensor network,          4. After completing its task, the agent is replicated into two
reacts immediately to the changes in the executing                       copies. One copy is dispatched to Host Machine B and the
environment or application. Also executes the tasks                      other is dispatched to Host Machine C.
independently in a distributed and asynchronous manner [12].             5. The cloned copies perform their task on their respective
The mobile agents offer resource efficiency in wireless sensor           hosts shown in Figure 1.
networks. The critical problem in WSNs is power                          6. After execution, Host Machine B and C send the mobile
consumption of data transmission collected through the sensor            agent back to the Home Machine.
nodes. The multi agent system is composed of multiple agents             7. The Home Machine extracts the data brought by the agents.
interacting and communicating intelligently. Intelligence may            8. The agents are then disposed [18].
include some methodic, functional, procedural or algorithmic
search, find and processing approach [13]. Multi agent system            IV.    PROPOSED WORK
provides computational capabilities across a network of
interconnected agents.                                                   Energy conservation is considered to be significant while
                                                                         designing the Wireless Sensor Network. The sensor nodes are
III. TASK OF MOBILE AGENTS IN A NETWORK                                  deployed in an area where they are uniformly distributed.
                                                                         These nodes are divided into 3 clusters with each cluster
   A mobile agent consists of the program code and the                   enclosing more than 70 nodes. Since there are more nodes in a
program execution state (the current values of variables, next           cluster, there will be more data sensed by these nodes, which
instruction to be executed, etc.) [14]. The home machine is the          needs to be transmitted to the cluster head. Usage of single
computer where the mobile agent actually resides. The mobile             cluster head will not be sufficient to collect the sensed
                                                                         information from all these nodes.

                                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                       (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                       Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2012

Hence in this proposed work cluster (as portrayed in figure 2)          The sink dispatches all the 3 mobile agents to their
consists of two cluster heads as Sub cluster heads (SCH0 and            corresponding cluster in a parallel manner. Each agent
SCH1).                                                                  computes the data collected from its Master section head and
                                                                        saves the process output. Then the MA transmits the saved
                                                                        data to the sink. The saved data contains the table of nodes and
                                                                        its clusters. The result gives list of the nodes whose parameter
                                                                        value is higher than the set value and its corresponding
                                                                        clusters. Finally all the MAs are disposed in the sink.
                                                                        Based on this output, the sink gives an alert to a mobile
                                                                        device. As represented in figure 3 the Global System for
                                                                        Mobile communication (GSM) modem is used as an interface
                                                                        to the sink for the transmission of both SMS and call to the
                                                                        mobile device which alerts the mobile device user. GSM
                                                                        modem acts as a communication path device. GSM Subscriber
                                                                        Identity Module (SIM) card is inserted into the GSM modem
                                                                        and the modem is connected to the computer that acts as sink
                                                                        via a serial port. From the receiver point the mobile device
                                                                        itself acts as a GSM modem. SMS itself will be sufficient for
                                                                        alerting the user on an event. But still a call is provided to
        Figure 2. cluster with Master Section Head                      intimate the user that there is SMS received for that mobile
                                                                        device. This extra check is present to ensure that the user gets
The sub cluster head is elected based on the residual energy of         intimation on the fault immediately so that the user can
sensor nodes. Based on the signal strength, the nodes in the            respond without delay. This proposed work is suitable for any
cluster will identify their Sub cluster head to broadcast their         homogeneous network application.
information. The transmitted information is gathered in both
the sub cluster heads. The sub cluster heads transmit the data              V.       SIMULATION RESULTS
to the Master Section Head, which is managed by an event
driven mechanism. In this mechanism, the data is transferred               In this simulation, there are three clusters as shown in
from sub cluster head when an event occurs. The event arises            figure 4. Each cluster is partitioned into 2 sub groups named as
when the sensed data is higher than the set value of that               slave nodes group. These Sub groups are headed by Master
parameter, which is the predefined value based on the                   Node which is the sub cluster head.
application. The mobile agents collect the data from a master
section head instead of collecting it from two sub cluster
The energy consumption of the network is high in order to
transmit data from cluster head to the sink through multi hop
or single hop routing. To reduce this energy consumption of
the network, mobile agent based architecture is opted. The
mobile agent is created in the sink and then cloned into
multiple agents, there by forming a multi-agent system. The
MA is cloned n-1 times, where n is the number of clusters. In
this paper n represents 3 clusters.

            Figure 3. GSM modem Transmission
                                                                                            Figure 4. Cluster partition

                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                  (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                  Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2012

The sub cluster head transmits the data for which the event has
occurred to the master section head shown as Main Head data
storage node.

                                                                                                        Figure 8. Agent Platform

        Figure 5. Event occurred in First Master section head.
                                                                                 The created and the cloned mobile agents are transmitted from
                                                                                 the main container to the respective clusters. The containers
                                                                                 holding each mobile agent is shown in figure 8. The mobile
                                                                                 agents compute the event occurred data from the main section
                                                                                 head. The main container is in the sink where the computed
                                                                                 data is stored.

         Figure 6. Event occurred in third Master section head.

The program is executed for all the clusters and the results
showing the event occurred nodes has been displayed in the
above tables. The event occurred data is stored in the master
section head. Figures5 and Figures6 show the node id and its
corresponding cluster id. The results are stored in Oracle

                                                                                             Figure 9. Mobile Agent is moved to Container-1.

             Figure 7. Mobile Agent creations and cloning

The mobile agent is created in the main container and it is
cloned twice. The Main container contains the actual created
Mobile Agent and the cloned mobile agents represented as
mobileagent_1 and mobileagent_2 as shown in the figure 7.
The Agent name, parameters and clone information are                             Figure 10. Mobile Agent return back to Main-Container after completion of
provided during agent creation.                                                                       computation in Container-1.

                                                                                                                ISSN 1947-5500
                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                             Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2012

A GUI (Graphical User Interface) is created to display the                  REFERENCES
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It is not possible to recharge or replace the limited battery
power of the sensor nodes. Therefore this entails that the
nodes should resort to minimal power consumption in order to
increase the overall lifetime of the network. In WSN, the data
transmission from the entire cluster to the sink consumes more
energy. The usage of multiple mobile agents consumes less
energy by computing the data in all the clusters in a parallel
manner and transmitting only the results to the sink. The
mobile agents transmit the data of only the event occurred
node which again minimizes the energy consumption.

                                                                                                             ISSN 1947-5500

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