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Conservation planner Spring issue RSPB

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Conservation planner Spring issue RSPB Powered By Docstoc
					                                                CONSERVATION
a million
voices for
                                               PLANNER
nature                                                                           SPRING 2009 ISSUE 30




Making the most of now
While the current economic uncertainty is a time of worry         recovers. We have a chance to create not just places
for everyone in planning and the industries and sectors that      in which people want to live and work, but also places
rely on it, we should also use this as a period of reflection     high in environmental quality that contain habitats and
to rethink the way we ‘do’ development.                           features that birds and other biodiversity want to use too.

Now is the time to refresh the way we design homes and            So often these days development forces nature out.
buildings to ensure they are friendly to the environment and      Now is the time to start thinking about how we invite
also help to alleviate the long-term impacts of climate change,   it back in.
rather than to continue to ‘do as we have always done’.
                                                                  Enjoy the issue.
Green infrastructure is as crucial to our towns and cities
as hard infrastructure, such as roads and flood defences.         Carl Simms, Editor
Now should be a time to prepare for when the economy              carl.simms@rspb.org.uk



IN THIS ISSUE New regional governance Bill leaves a lot to be desired •
Below-par decision by Scottish Government • A wildlife-friendly energy
future for the Severn is within reach • Crunch time for the Humber Estuary
New regional governance
Bill leaves a lot to be desired
The Government recently published          offers an important opportunity to       Boards. Under the Local Government
the Local Democracy, Economic              reconcile economic, social and           Act (2000), local authorities already
Development and Construction Bill          environmental objectives. However,       have a duty to promote the
(LDEDC), which will reform local and       the emphasis on economic                 environmental, economic and social
regional governance in England. At         development in the Bill puts the whole   well-being of their area. There is a risk
present, we do not believe the reforms     “place shaping agenda” off balance.      that focusing on
will lead to improved outcomes for         The priorities for the region are not    a statutory economic assessment will
wildlife and the practical delivery        shaped according to its environmental    prevent local authorities assessing and
of sustainable development.                and social needs, but mainly by the      responding to the wider needs of their
                                           goal to achieve economic development.    communities and the environment.
With increased devolution from
government, regional institutions and      The Government adopts a weak             Overall, the proposals of the SNR
strategies have a vital role to play in    approach on matters that are key to      demonstrate the Government’s lack of
achieving sustainable development. In      sustainable development, such as         willingness and commitment to move
its independent review of sustainable      minimum requirements for effective       away from ‘business as usual’ and
development in the English regions         stakeholder engagement and               mainstream sustainable development,
(2005), the Sustainable Development        management, and robust scrutiny          into all areas of policies and decisions
Commission identified a range of           arrangements to assess the               at all levels.
factors that hindered the integrated       performance of regional authorities
delivery of climate, environmental         in relation to sustainable development   For further details of the RSPB’s response
and social commitments alongside           and environmental outcomes. Yet it       to the SNR, please contact Annabel
economic outcomes. It called for           is willing to legislate on a new         Lambert, Policy Officer (Sustainable
urgent reforms of the leadership,          economic assessment duty for local       Development and the Regions) at
decision-making and delivery processes     authorities and Economic Prosperity      annabel.lambert@rspb.org.uk
at both national and regional levels.
                                           fotoVoyager (iStockphoto.com)




The Government took little notice
of the recommendations when it
launched the review of sub-national
economic development and
regeneration in July 2007, commonly
called the Sub-National Review (SNR).
Rather than seeking to address
conflicts that undermine the delivery
of sustainable development, the
review aims to streamline and improve
the effectiveness and efficiency of
sub-national structures to harness
their economic potential.

In December 2008, the Government
issued the LDEDC Bill. The current
proposals do not provide structural
changes and mechanisms necessary
to put social and environmental
concerns at the core of the national
and regional decision-making process.

For a start, the Bill makes no reference
to the principles of the UK Sustainable
Development Strategy and the need to
develop within environmental limits.

The integration of the Regional Spatial
Strategy and Regional Economic
Strategy into a single regional strategy
Below-par decision by
Scottish Government
Following a controversial public local inquiry (PLI), the       accepted there would be major adverse effects on the
Scottish Government has granted outline planning consent        environment. The Scottish Government has done many good
for a golf resort with 1,500 houses and a 450-bedroom           things for the environment, including proposing an ambitious
hotel by the coast at Menie Estate, near Aberdeen. The          climate change Bill, and refusing consent for the Lewis Wind
application, by Trump International Golf Links Scotland, was    Power proposal. However, this decision does not fit well with
called in by Ministers for their own determination under        the Government’s ambitions for a ‘greener’ Scotland.
Section 46 of the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act
1997, as they considered that the case                          For further information, please visit
raised matters of national importance. The local planning       www.rspb.org.uk/meniegolf
authority, Aberdeenshire Council, voted through its
subcommittees, firstly to consent, then to refuse, the

                                                                 Ian Francis (RSPB)
application. After call-in, the full Council decided to back
the proposals, citing social and economic benefits of
national importance, despite the applications being
contrary to many development plan policies and an
outstanding objection by Scottish Natural Heritage, a
statutory consultee.

The Applicant conceded that part of one golf course, sited
on the Foveran Links Site of Special Scientific Interest
(SSSI), would destroy important dune habitats whose
‘near-eradication represents a very severe impact within
the SSSI’, and it was on this aspect that much of the
opposition centred. Other reasons for objection included
house-building in the countryside, landscape issues,
coastal development and sustainability principles.

This is the first time that ‘call-in’ powers have been
exercised at such a late stage and following a planning
authority’s passing of a resolution. The speed at which a
final determination was made was also unusual – an early
date was found for the PLI, at which there were three
reporters, and less than six months later, a consent, with
conditions, had been issued and a Section 75 planning
agreement was in place.

The RSPB is surprised and very disappointed by Ministers’                                                  Sand dunes on the
decision to approve the application, particularly since they                                                    Menie Estate




New urban green space
management advice poster
The RSPB has produced a new addition        supervisors, labourers and contractors.   sheets to follow will cover areas not
to its suite of advisory posters.           Butterfly Conservation and Plantlife      currently addressed.
Managing urban green space for              contributed to the text, providing
wildlife provides an overview of the        advice on key species benefiting from     For a free copy, contact us, quoting
generic management requirements for         favourable green space management.        stock code 223-016. Call 01234 211522,
key habitat types found in urban areas.                                               e-mail publications@rspb.org.uk or
                                            Our existing advisory sheets on           write to The RSPB, Unit 17, St Martin’s
The poster is aimed at land managers,       woodland and scrub support this           Business Centre, St Martin’s Way,
parks and maintenance staff,                poster, while other urban advice          Bedford, MK42 0LF.
A wildlife-friendly energy future
for the Severn is within reach
The threat posed by climate change             The RSPB welcomed the commitment           resources away from investment in
demands a revolution in the way we             to fund and re-consider these              technology that could be sustainable
generate and use energy. The RSPB              technologies. However, we believe that     and transferable to other estuaries. The
believes this must take place without          these projects should be shortlisted. It   study’s initial analysis predicts that this
damaging the natural environment.              makes little sense for the Government      familiar project would destroy 80% of
With over 100 species of fish and vast         to exclude what could be some of the       the mudflats on which many over-
marshes and mudflats used by 69,000            least environmentally damaging             wintering birds depend, and would also
birds each winter, the Severn Estuary          options from their assessment of           result in the destruction of most of the
is a precious resource and something           environmental impacts.                     protected fish populations. If
to value for the future. It is right to                                                   environmental damage had been of
consider how to tap into the potential         Innovative schemes such as the             genuine concern to the study, it is
of the estuary for renewable energy,           ‘tidal reef’ and ‘tidal fence’ could       difficult to conceive how the
but it is essential, given its international   potentially generate up to 5% of the       Cardiff–Weston barrage could have
importance, to minimise damage to it.          UK’s renewable electricity needs,          made the shortlist.
                                               while safeguarding the Severn’s
In January, the Government announced           extraordinary ecosystem. The reef,         The focus of the Severn study should
a shortlist of five options to generate        for example, considers the needs of        shift to innovative technologies that
clean electricity from the estuary’s           birds, migratory fish and navigation       maximise clean energy generation,
13.7 metre tidal range. The list was the       from the outset, and identifies            while minimising damage to our
subject of a three-month consultation          engineering solutions that can             natural environment. Schemes like
and includes two smaller barrages, two         accommodate them. It sits halfway          the ‘tidal reef’ demonstrate that
land-attached ‘lagoon’ proposals and           between a barrage and a tidal              environmental considerations can,
the larger Cardiff–Weston barrage (see         stream turbine, and does not depend        and should, be addressed from the
Table 1). Once the shortlist is approved,      on an upstream lake that would             outset of major infrastructure projects.
these options will be subject to further       submerge mudflats upon which birds         An additional benefit to this approach
detailed analysis including a full             depend. The reef offers a potentially      is the potential to put UK engineering
Strategic Environmental Assessment             viable alternative to the familiar         at the forefront of tidal power
(SEA), before a decision is made on            Cardiff–Weston barrage, at less cost       technologies. We want the solution
whether to proceed with a preferred            and with higher electricity output –       for the Severn to stimulate the roll-out
project in Spring 2010. Alongside the          claims that were recently verified in      of environmentally sustainable
announcement, the Government                   an RSPB-commissioned report by             technologies elsewhere.
pledged £500,000 to develop                    WS Atkins Engineering Consultants.
innovative and potentially less                                                           For further information go to:
damaging tidal-power projects, the             Including the old-fashioned                www.rspb.org.uk/severnbarrage
designs of which are still embryonic.          Cardiff–Weston barrage risks sucking


Table 1: The Severn Tidal Power Feasibility Study short-listed and innovative schemes


                                                                                % UK                    Estimated %
   Option                           Cost                  Output TWh/yr
                                                                                electricity             inter-tidal habitat loss

   Shoot barrage                    £3.2 bn               2.7                   <1                     20

   Beachley barrage                 £2.3 bn               1.6                   <<1                    14

   Fleming lagoon                   £4.0 bn               2.3                   <1                     26

   Bridgewater Bay lagoon           £3.8 bn               2.6                   <1                     22

   Cardiff–Weston barrage           £20.9 bn              16.8                  5                      80

   Tidal reef                       £19.3 bn              13–20                 5–7                    25–32

   Tidal fence                      £6.7 bn               3.3                   1                      10
Creating ‘Nature After Minerals’
– the RSPB award-winning web tool
The Royal Town Planning Institute           The project has now expanded to          grasslands and woods. These can thrive
(RTPI) has awarded the RSPB Minerals        a full programme of activities in        on former minerals sites, and provide
Restoration Potential Project a national    partnership with Natural England         wonderful recreation and education
planning award for its innovative use       and with the support of the Quarry       opportunities for local communities.
of information technology to inform         Products Association. Through the
the planning process.                       ‘Nature After Minerals Programme’, the   We are delighted that our work has
                                            RSPB and Natural England aim             been recognised in this way and will
Government targets for biodiversity         to help minerals planners and            continue to look for opportunities to
and priority habitat creation can be        operators make informed decisions        work together through a partnership
met through the extensive network of        about strategic habitat restoration      approach. We will pool expertise and
mineral sites alone. These are the          to maximise the benefits for both        information to help the industry
findings of the RSPB project that set       wildlife and local communities.          contribute to Biodiversity Action Plan
out to provide a resource for anyone                                                 (BAP) targets, as well as the suite of
interested in ensuring biodiversity         Much of our network of protected         wider benefits to society such as
has a place amidst competing demands        sites has arisen following mineral       recreation, amenity, education, soil
for land. This novel approach of sharing    extraction activities. Over 700 SSSIs    protection and geodiversity.
best practice and technical advice, case    exist due to mineral operations and
studies and GIS support has resulted in     many RSPB reserves were once             For more information about the
the project winning the ‘e-government’      minerals sites. These have produced      opportunities for wildlife on minerals
category at the recent RTPI Planning        fantastic opportunities for habitat      sites, visit the Nature After Minerals
Awards at the Hilton Hotel, London.         creation such as wetlands, heathlands,   website, www.afterminerals.com

                                                                                      Mark Hamblin (rspb-images.com)



A blueprint for
responsible renewables
The RSPB is calling for the energy industry, with Government backing, to
invest in renewable energy in harmony with nature – rapidly and on a broad
scale, before a climate crisis takes hold. The RSPB’s call to action is contained
in a new report, Power for the Planet, which outlines critical gaps in policy
and investment that are holding up the sustainable deployment of renewables.

Our proposals for moving to a low-carbon economy start with energy saving.
Action to reduce energy waste from existing buildings, new homes, businesses,
power stations and vehicles must underpin any green energy revolution.

Renewable energy projects need to roll out quickly if we are to meet the UK’s
targets to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% by 2050. A change is
required in the way our energy sector is regulated and managed in order to
unlock the UK’s potential. The energy watchdog Ofgem needs new duties to
tackle climate change and make the power sector environmentally sustainable;
any extensions to or refurbishments of the national grid should be done with
climate and the environment in mind. Planning should combine appropriate
national, regional and local renewable energy targets with good spatial
planning and a commitment to community benefits.

Finally, none of this can happen without the right signals from the Government
about the future of the UK’s energy industry. The Government must set the
direction of travel towards massive renewables investment and ensure the
right environmental safeguards are in place.

For a printed copy of the report, please contact Kim Barratt at
kim.barratt@rspb.org.uk You can also find the full report online at:
www.rspb.org.uk/renewablesrevolution
Toome wetland complex:
a managed approach
A proposal by the Northern Ireland        site, and the indications that the site                         Department of Agriculture and
Roads Service to construct a dual         has yet to reach its carrying capacity.                         Rural Development, Northern
carriageway close to a Special            The SPA features will be maintained,                            Ireland Environment Agency, the
Protection Area (SPA) has generated       with no significant decrease in                                 RSPB, Lough Neagh and Lower
interest and scrutiny by the RSPB and     population against national trends                              Bann Advisory Committee and
other environmental organisations.        caused by the proposed road scheme.                             local farmers

Situated in the centre of Northern        To minimise impact on the wetland
                                                                                                      •   field size adjustment to increase
                                                                                                          field area and subsequent
Ireland, Lough Beg and Lough Neagh        complex, a range of measures                                    attractiveness to swans
are designated as an SPA and Ramsar
site, along with their surrounding
                                          were incorporated in the scheme,
                                          including minimisation of habitat loss,
                                                                                                      •   reduction of sheep grazing in
                                                                                                          important fields from mid-November
swamp, fen, wet grassland and wet         sympathetic landscaping, reduction                              to mid-March
woodland. The SPA features include
wintering whooper swans and Bewick’s
                                          of human interference, relocation of
                                          overbridges to less sensitive areas,
                                                                                                      •   an academic study of the variability
                                                                                                          of field usage by the swans.
swans, and the site supports nationally   sympathetic embankment design
important numbers of breeding             to minimise disturbance on existing                         Whilst a major road scheme and
common terns. Lough Neagh and             ground water levels and incorporation                       wetland habitat complex may seem
Lough Beg regularly support over          of measures to reduce light and                             incompatible, it is envisaged that the
20,000 wintering waterfowl.               noise spillage.                                             proposal will act as a catalyst for a
                                                                                                      holistic approach to managing the
The proposed dual carriageway is          In addition, other measures to protect                      complex at Toome, leading to
between Lough Neagh and Lough Beg,        and enhance the complex include:                            enhancement of the site, as well as
west of the village of Toome, where the                                                               safeguarding it as an important habitat
existing A6 road currently passes. The
A6 forms part of the Key Transport
                                          • monitoring distribution priorswan
                                            population
                                                       of the whooper
                                                                          to, during
                                                                                                      for migratory swans.

Corridor between the cities of Belfast                         and for 3 years post-construction      Article courtesy of Scott Wilson. For
and Londonderry. A dual carriageway
would mean improved safety and
                                          •                    establishing a Working Group
                                                               including all those with an interest
                                                                                                      further information, please contact
                                                                                                      Gareth Coughlin on 028 9070 5111 or
reduced journey times for both                                 in the area – Roads Service,           gareth.coughlin@scottwilson.com
strategic and local road users.
                                           David Wootton (rspb-images.com)




The preferred route, whilst outside
the SPA, would lie adjacent to wetland                                                                           Lough Beg RSPB nature reserve
habitat regularly used for grazing by
an Icelandic overwintering population
of whooper swans. Concerns were
raised over habitat loss and
disturbance caused by the proximity
of such a major road scheme.

As whooper swans are a candidate
feature of the SPA, an Appropriate
Assessment under the Habitats
Regulations was undertaken by
environment consultants Scott Wilson.
This included a series of winter
surveys of baseline flock numbers,
composition, movements and
distribution within the wetland
complex. Scott Wilson’s assessment
concluded that there was unlikely
to be a significant impact on the SPA,
particularly when viewed in the
context of the observed trend of
increasing numbers and usage of the
Crunch time for the
Humber Estuary
It is a crucial time on the banks of the internationally         need to provide a solution that will ensure the impacts of
important Humber Estuary. An area known as the South             development on the estuary’s wildlife are fully mitigated
Humber Gateway, which lies between East Halton Skitter           in order to enable further port-related and other industrial
and Grimsby, is under huge pressure from industrial and          developments in the South Humber Gateway.
port-related development. The Humber hosts the UK’s
largest port complex and is a key area for thousands             For further information on Humber Estuary issues,
of waterfowl, such as curlews and golden plovers, that           please contact Harriet Dennison, Conservation Officer,
spend the winter or stop to rest there during migration.         at harriet.dennison@rspb.org.uk
The sheer numbers of wintering and passage waterfowl are
key features of both national and international designations
on the estuary.
                                                                                                                   Competing demands on the
In recent times, the pressure for development and potential                                                          Humber Estuary – heavy
for adverse effects on the estuary’s valuable wildlife have                                                           industry and saltmarsh
reached a critical point. A creative and co-operative solution
is required to address the cumulative impacts.
                                                                  Chris Gomersall (rspb-images.com)




The value of the Humber to the environment and economy
must not be underestimated. It is essential that a strategic
approach is taken to protect the estuary’s precious wildlife
whilst facilitating sustainable economic development in an
integrated way.

Various stakeholders, including Natural England, are
coming together through the ‘Humber Industry and Nature
Conservation Association’ to find a strategic way forward.
How this will be achieved is still to be decided, but it will




Delivering housing and protecting birds
Work by Breckland District Council         woodlarks, nightjars and stone-curlews,                    The Council has taken measures to
shows it is possible to create housing     species for which the SPA is designated.                   ensure that impacts will be avoided
and protect rare birds. The council        Disturbance to breeding birds is of                        while, at the same time, providing
is located in the Brecks, a unique         particular concern, and further research                   housing according to the East of
landscape shaped by its dry climate,       was carried out. Visitor surveys revealed                  England plan. The assessment
sandy soils and patterns of agriculture    the likely level of use of the SPA by                      provides the council with robust
that make it special for wildlife. Its     residents from the new houses.                             evidence to support the plan through
international importance is recognised     Sophisticated modelling, using the                         its examination. A key part of
by designations as a Special               impact of recent development in the                        achieving this was due to close
Protection Area (SPA) and Special Area     Brecks on stone-curlew populations,                        involvement of the RSPB and Natural
of Conservation. The council is            has helped to understand the risks.                        England throughout the plan
designated as a Growth Point and the                                                                  preparation and assessment process,
East of England plan requires it to        To ensure the SPA will be protected, the                   which ensured that any relevant issues
build 17,000 houses, with 6,000 in         council amended its Core Strategy in                       were identified in a timely manner.
Thetford, a town closely bordered by       line with the recommendations of the
the SPA on all sides.                      assessment. New development within                         The experience at Breckland District
                                           1,500 metres of the SPA will be restricted                 Council demonstrates that it is
The council has attached great             to the re-use of buildings and sites where                 possible to deliver development and
importance to the SPA in preparing its     existing development completely screens                    also provide effective protection. This
Core Strategy. Its Habitats Regulations    the proposal from the SPA. A similar                       has not been straightforward, and the
Assessment identified risks that the       buffer will be used for stone-curlew                       progress is a testament to the efforts
plan would have significant impacts on     sites just outside the SPA boundary.                       of the council and its planners.
Renewables ‘alert’ maps
for North West England
                                                       An evidence-based report to underpin
Government renewable energy                            a partial review of the renewables                                 Pennine Moors.
targets are being reflected in plans and               section of the North West Regional
strategies developed at regional and                   Spatial Strategy (RSS) provided an                                 The aim of the guides is to identify
local levels.                                          opportunity to include such bird                                   areas of the North West that support
                                                       sensitive areas. As a result, the RSPB                             important populations of bird species
One approach to identifying the best                   has produced four Spatial Planning                                 (plus deep peat areas) and are sensitive
areas to site renewable developments                   Guides for onshore windfarms and                                   to windfarm developments and
is to map constraints, so that areas of                biomass crop production. These guides                              biomass energy crops. A series of ‘alert’
opportunity can be identified. In any                  illustrate important bird areas and,                               maps have been produced (based on
such mapping process, designated sites,                through inclusion of a web-link and                                existing data sources), which have
such as Special Protection Areas (SPAs)                text in the report, we have the                                    been developed to trigger detailed
and Special Areas of Conservation                      mechanism to encourage planners,                                   consultations between developers,
(SACs), should be mapped. Less                         other decision makers and developers                               local authorities, statutory agencies and
obvious is the importance of including                 to use it. The documents are supported                             other agencies, including the RSPB.
critical flyways and feeding areas for                 by Natural England and the data for
‘important populations’ of ‘sensitive                  Cumbria are included in the Cumbria                                The guides are available from
bird species’ (for example, wintering                  Biodiversity Evidence Base.                                        www.rspb.org.uk/northwestrenewables
geese and swans), which lie outside                                                                                       Further information is also available from
of these protected sites but are                       Areas of deep peat (one metre deep                                 Tim Youngs at tim.youngs@rspb.org.uk
functionally linked to them and may                    or more) have also been mapped to
be critical to the species’ survival. Such             illustrate where this occurs and where                             For information on the RSPB’s work on
areas may also trigger the protective                  there may be associated areas of high                              renewables go to: www.rspb.org.uk/
measures of the Conservation (Natural                  nature conservation interest that are                              ourwork/policy/windfarms/index.asp
Habitat & c.) Regulations 1994 (the                    undesignated, such as the West
Habitats Regulations). In some cases,
these areas may merit designation as
                                                        Chris Gomersall (rspb-images.com)




SPAs, either in their own right or as
extensions to existing SPAs.

The planning system does not
always readily address these areas,
and developers and local authorities
may not be aware that, in some
circumstances, the Habitat Regulations
may extend to areas that are
functionally linked to SPAs and SACs.
                                                                                                                                                        Pink-footed geese


As a charity, the RSPB depends on the goodwill and financial support of its members and people like you.
Please visit www.rspb.org.uk/supporting or call 01767 680551 to find out how to join.


UK Headquarters                         Midlands Regional Office                            South East England Regional Office
The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire          46 The Green, South Bar, Banbury,                   2nd Floor, Frederick House,
SG19 2DL Tel: 01767 680551              Oxfordshire OX16 9AB Tel: 01295 253330              42 Frederick Place, Brighton BN1 4EA
Fax: 01767 692365                       Fax: 01295 265734                                   Tel: 01273 775333 Fax: 01273 220236

Northern Ireland Headquarters           Eastern England Regional Office                     South West England Regional Office
Belvoir Park Forest, Belfast BT8 7QT    Stalham House, 65 Thorpe Road,                      1st Floor, Keble House, Southernhay
Tel: 028 9049 1547 Fax: 028 9049 1547   Norwich NR1 1UD Tel: 01603 661662                   Gardens, Exeter, Devon EX1 1NT            The RSPB speaks out for birds and
                                        Fax: 01603 660088                                   Tel: 01392 432691 Fax: 01392 453750
Scotland Headquarters                                                                                                                 wildlife, tackling the problems that
Dunedin House, 25 Ravelston Terrace,    Northern England Regional Offices                   East Scotland Regional Office             threaten our environment. Nature
Edinburgh EH4 3TP Tel: 0131 311 6500    1 Sirius House, Amethyst Road, Newcastle            10 Albyn Terrace, Aberdeen AB10 1YP
                                                                                                                                      is amazing – help us keep it that way.
Fax: 0131 311 6569                      Business Park, Newcastle upon Tyne                  Tel: 01224 624824 Fax: 01224 626234
                                        NE4 7YL Tel: 0191 256 8200                                                                    We belong to BirdLife International,
Wales Headquarters                      Fax: 0191 212 0622                                  North Scotland Regional Office            the global partnership of bird
Sutherland House, Castlebridge,                                                             Etive House, Beechwood Park,
Cowbridge Road East, Cardiff CF11 9AB   Westleigh Mews, Wakefield Road,                     Inverness IV2 3BW Tel: 01463 715000
                                                                                                                                      conservation organisations.
Tel: 029 2035 3000 Fax: 029 2035 3017   Denby Dale, Huddersfield HD8 8QD                    Fax: 01463 715315                         The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
                                        Tel: 01484 861148 Fax: 01484 862018                                                           (RSPB) is a registered charity: England and
North Wales Office                                                                          South and West Scotland Regional Office
Maes y Ffynnon, Penrhosgarnedd,                                                             10 Park Quadrant, Glasgow G3 6BS          Wales no. 207076, Scotland no. SC037654.
Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2DW                                                                    Tel: 0141 331 0993 Fax: 0141 331 9080     Cover illustration: urban greenspace by
Tel: 01248 363800 Fax: 01248 363809                                                                                                   Richard Allen 275-0126-08-09

				
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