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                Sapphire Textile Mills Ltd.
                                  Unit 06,
Flow chart of Warping Department Hierarchy:

                           Warping In charge

                          Assistant Supervisor


                            Assistant Warper


                              Flour Cleaner
Responsibilities in warping department:

Responsibilities of Warping Incharge:
      Planning of set.
      Provide the warper’s beam to sizing department in time.
      Monitoring the whole process
      To check report of machine performance regarding maintenance.
      To have complete knowledge of yarn source.

Responsibilities of Supervisor:
      To give the warping plan to the warper.
      To perform all the activities of warping Incharge in his absence.
      To help the warping incharge in all the warping activities.

Responsibilities of Warper:
      Correct Panel Feeding according to running set.
      To have keen observation on broken end, and mend it correctly.
      To check the shade variation if any, with the help of UV light.

Responsibilities of Assistant Warper:
      To help the warper in smooth running of set.

Responsibilities of Helper:
      To take the bags to the creel portion from yarn Godown.
      To fix the cone on creel, during creel loading
      To unload the creel and put out the paper cones into the separate bag.

Responsibilities of Floor Cleaner:
      To clean the floor from fluff and dust.

       Warping is the process in which we prepare a set of warper’s beam for the sizing
 machine. In warping following operations are carried out:
      To wound the required length on warper’s beam.
      Manufacturing of a warp beam with required characteristics.
      Formation of parallel sheet of yarns wound on to beam.
      To convert smaller package into larger package.
      To prepare warper beam with required number of ends.

Types of warping:

 1) Direct Warping (High speed warping).
 2) Indirect Warping (Sectional warping).

Direct Warping


   Head Stock Portion of Direct Warping:

       This is the section of warping machine in which warp sheet is wound on the warping
       beam. Its main components are
       Expanding Comb/Warping comb:
       It makes the entire warp thread parallel divides the yarns equally throughout the warp
       width and control the width of the warp sheet. The warping comb consists of no of steel
       pins which are grouped by segments. The no of segments depends upon the creel
       capacity. Different expandable combs which are available in STM 6 are:
       Segment 45, 54, 63 and 72 with needle pitch of 2 to 3 mm.
       Minimum ends run through the expandable combs are 560.
       Maximum ends run through the expandable combs are 1296.
       the pins are made of hard stainless steel, to avoid any type of wear and tear.
       Each comb consists of 9 dents.
       Why we not using below 560 ends. Because it produces a jherri in the warp beam and
       the no. of breakages will increase. Which will creates problem in sizing.

       The Comb moves up and down during warping process.
       Comb’s up and down movement is to reduce the wear and tear of needles.
       Each comb is associated with 3 motors
   Motor M2223: for its traverse motion
   Motor M2224: for its centre alignment
   Motor M2225: for its expansion and contraction which is attached the comb

Guide Roller:
    To help the yarn to be parallel and to guide the warp sheet from comb to warper beam it
   has the movement due to the drag of yarn sheet and has a brake on the right side that is
   hydraulically controlled.
Blow Pipe:
       It is operated with the help of pneumatic system
            Its function is to remove the fluff from the expanding comb. It also helps in
             straightening of yarn.
         If two or more yarns are overlapping each other than in the start of m/c it moves up
          and yarns are separated. The number of holes in the blow rod is 49 which blow air
          after the interval of every 8 sec.


         Warper beam is of fixed length of 2400mm.
         Warp yarn is winded on the warper beam.
         It is positively driven.
      There is direct beam drive system in direct warping beam in driven directly from motor
      through gears as the beam diameter increases the warping speed and the tension on
      the yarn increases, to overcome this problem the surface speed of the drum and beam
      are made constant to keep the warping speed and yarn tension smooth and constant all
      the times. The brake is very effective and stops the machine instantly which is
      hydraulically controlled

      Wind Screen:
     It is operated with the help of pneumatic system
     It is to protect the operator from fluff. This covers the area of comb, guide roller and
      warping beam. During running state of the machine screen closes automatically and
      insuring protection for the operator.
     The pressing drum made of wooden hard paper.
     Its helps in compact winding on the warper beam.
     It applies force on the warper beam surface to maintain the density of the sheet
     It is negatively driven. And has a break on the right side that is hydraulically controlled.
     The function of this roller is to make the compact and smooth beam. It applies force on
      warper beam.
     The circumference of pressing drum is 1.57 meters of dia 50 cm.
      Pressing drum have an encoder at its left side with count the revolution of the wounded
      It has the maximum value of 600daN and minimum of 200daN.normally 300daN is used
       depending upon the requirement.

      Creel capacity
   There are 68 or 60 vertical rods .each of which contains 9 spindles to accommodate the
   cones. It has the capacity of
   Machine no.1 60*9*2=1080.
   Machine 2&3 68*9*2=1224
   Vertical pitch
   It is the Vertical distance b/w 2 spindles of the same rod on the creel .it were 24cm.
   Horizontal pitch
   It is the Horizontal distance b/w 2 spindles on different rods .it were 24cm.
   Distance b/w two fixed rods
   It was 24cm
   Distance b/w two movable rods
   It was also 24cm.

Creel portion of the machine consists of following parts.
      Spindles are yarn package holding surfaces.
      In each column of creel there are 9 spindles.
Tension rods:
    There are two types of rods
           Fixed tension rods
           Movable tension rods
   Fixed tension rods:
   No. of fixed tension rod is equal to the no of rods on each wing .these rods are stationary
   throughout the process.
   Movable tension rods:
   No. of movable tension rod is equal to the no of rods on each wing they can move
   forward(toward head stock) and backward(away from headstock).they move forward when
   the yarn is broken and move backward when the creel is changed.
   For the movement of the rods and also to control the movement is of rods there are two
   motors one on each wing .as the yarn breaks the rod moves forward . After repairing the
   Yarn as the m /c is restarted the rods moves towards there original position.
      The original distance b/w the rods as feed on to the panel
      Separate motor for each wing to control the tension in the yarn

Balloon Breaking Rods:
       There are two balloon breaking rods present in front of yarn package, to avoid
       ballooning of yarn, during unwinding from package to avoid unnecessary tension on the
Opto-Stop Sensor:
       Electromagnetic sensor is present to sense the vibration of yarn. When yarn breaks on
       machine, it sends electrical signals to machine, and machine stops.
              Source of light is infra red light
              Yarn passing through the sensor produces
              Air also blow from two consecutive Opto sensor rod after every six seconds to
               clean the fluff and dust
Yarn Cutter:
       There are two cutters, which have the height equal to that of the creel. Its purpose is
       just to cut the yarn of the cones as the set has finished. But in STM 6 only it works on
       machine 3 while on other machines cutters are not working
Motor and chain arrangement:
      For the movement of the creel there are two motors on the top of each wing
      This arrangement is used to change the creel. it is sense by the sensor to read the
      required rod.

                      CREEL ANGLE OF DIRECT WARPING

      In direct warping creel is of v-type. And the angle subtended by one wing of the creel to
      the center of the warping m/c is called creel ANGLE; creel angle of all the three warping
      m/c is same.
      To calculate the creel angle of warping, at specific point on the both wings of the creel
      distance is noted and at that point distance b/w the two wings is also noted. And by
      applying trigonometric ratios creel angle is calculated.
      Observations and Calculations:



SINΘ = (C/2÷ B)
Θ =SIN-1 445/1605)

Downtime of warping
4.1.1. Types of Stoppages
       There are three types of stoppages which can occur on warping machine.
       — Cleaning stoppages
       — Production stoppages
       — Breakdown stoppages Cleaning Stoppages
       These include cleaning of AC duct line and cleaning of warp stop sensor. The time
       analysis is shown here below.
       i. Cleaning of A.C Duct Line – Warping machine is stopped for cleaning the A.C duct
       line above the creel because when coarser count is run on warping machine, more
       fluff blows in the warping shed. Some of this fluff get stuck with the inner and outer
       part of the duct and finally falls down on the yarn and causes problems in the
       subsequent processes.
       Average time taken for cleaning the outer duct line of A.C. is 30 minutes
       ii. Cleaning of Warp Stop Sensors – Cleaning of the warp stop sensors is also
       Important because if the fluff is trapped in the sensor, it would cause the sensor to
       work improperly. In case of breakage the sensor won’t detect it and a warp end short
       would be produced in the beam. Time taken is 17 min
Production Stoppages
       These stoppages are of two types

       1. Fixed stoppages
    2. Variable stoppages
    1. Fixed Stoppages – These are the type of stoppages which are independent of the
    type of material, yarn quality and yarn count. The fixed stoppages that can occur on the
    warping machine are
    i. Warp Ends Cutting Time is .60 sec
    ii. Panel Setting Time is 1.5 min
    iii. Doffing Time is 2.00 min
    iv. Creel Move Time is 6 min
    2. Variable Stoppages – These are the type of stoppages that changes with the change
    of material and yarn specifications. The variable stoppages that can occur on warping
    machine are as follows:
    These stoppages depends upon count and ends
    i. Sensor filling time is 6 – 8 min
    ii. Comb filling time is 6 – 9 min
    iii. Warp break repairing time is 57 sec

    Quality=20x16+70d/107x63 73”
   Quality ends= 7716
   Length=5270m
   Ends per beam=643
Creel loading:
   First of all creel loading is done and cones are put up on the spindle of creel.
   Time for creel loading = 60min.
Creel change:
   Creel change time = 6min
   Comb filling:
Comb filling time = 6.56min
   Beam Doffing:
   When the required length is wound on the beam the previous yarns are cut and new
    beam is loaded

Beam #           Beam               Total          Other            Average
                 change             stoppages      stoppages        Time to
                 time(min)                                          repair break
                                                                    on a
1                2.3                4              19.5             45
2                2.1                4              0                53
3                2.57               3              0                65
4                3.10               5              3.10             56
5                2.8                0              .52              58
6                2.10               2              0                1.4
7                2.43               2              0                1.3
8                2.34               10             0                1.8
9                12.44              16             .5               .52

Downtime due to breakages = 75 min
Creel loading time 60 min
Other stops = 22 min
Total operated time = 195 min
Total down time = 75 +60 + 22 = 157 min
Running time = 195 – 157 = 38 min
Efficiency = 38/195 *100
Hydraulic mechanism:
  Hydraulic mechanism is mostly used in breaking system where machinery is running at very
  high speeds. And hydraulic mechanism also used to lift heavy loads.

  Hydraulic mechanism in warping controls the hydraulics at serrated cones to stop the
  warper beam.
  It also controls the hydraulic break at guide rollers.
  There is a hydraulic mechanism in the head stock portion of the warping that comprises of
  the parts as follows;
      Hydraulic pump with motor
      Hydraulic reservoirs
      Solenoid valves
      Pressure lines
  If we see then 5 pressure lines are on the right side and 5 are on the left side. Two of each
  side is for the left and right brakes of the beam one line to push forward solution and other
  to push it back. One for the guide roller's brake. One for the drum brake. Remaining 4 is for
  the pressing drum assembly movement

  The motor on the right back of the head stock is used to pump the hydraulic oil .the
  pressurized oil goes to the solenoid valves then to the pressure lines then to place where
  job has to perform then come back through the pressure lines to the reservoir then to the
  Hydraulic mechanism performs the following jobs:

         It is used to apply the brakes on the warper’s beam .directly brake is not applied to
          the beam.
         It is used to apply brake on the guide roller.
         It is used to apply the brake on the pressing drum.
         It is also used to push back and forward the drum assembly.
Main pressure of the hydraulic mechanism is =110-130 bar
Capacity = 17 litre / min
Pressure on brake =75 bar
Pressure on guide roller =50 bar
Oil number 47 SHELL Pakistan ltd.
Function of hydraulic system and detail working and description of all parts:
Position   Description
00A        Load Accumulator
01A        Motor and Pump
02A        Discharge Press Roller Pressure
03A        Charge Press Roller Pressure
04A        Pressure Sensor Press Roller
05A        Pressure Reducing Valve Beam Brake
06A        Pressure Reducing Valve Press and Guide Roller Brake
07A        Pressure Reducing Valve Guide Roller Brake
08A        Beam Braking
09A        Guide Roller Braking
10A        Pres Roller Braking
11A        Emergency Off
12A        Kick Back
13a        Beam Lower=Press On
13b        Beam Rise=Press Roller Backward
14A        Pressure Limiting Valve Beam Lowering
15A        Shut Off Valve Beam Lowering
16A        Indirect Press ON
17A        Pressure Load Cell With Contacts/Load
           Accumulator/Emergency Stop
18A        Throttle non Return Valve
19A        Oil Filter
20A        Throttle Non Return Valve
21A        Throttle Non Return Valve
22A        Hydraulic Block
23A        Manometer
24A        Connection Cabinet Valve
25A        Flexible Tube Accumulator 12M
26A        Flexible Tube Accumulator 3M
33A        Drain Cock
37A        Option Dyeing Beam
39A        Adjustable Pressure Limiting Valve
40A        Oil Level Meter
M1         Measuring Point Main Pressure
M2         Measuring Point Beam Brake Pressure
M3         Measuring Point Guide Roller Brake Pressure
M4         Measuring Point Guide And Press Roller Brake Pressure
M5         Measuring Point Flexible Tube 3M(Accumulator Kick Back)
M6         Measuring Point Flexible Tube 12M(Main Accumulator)
Effect of Temperature and Humidity
  The temperature and relative humidity of the warping section should be proper and within
  the standards to improve the efficiency production of the warping process by decreasing
  the breakages in the yarn. Standard temperature and humidity values are given as follows:
  Standard temperature = (25-29) centigrade while in warping STM it was 33 centigrade
  Standard humidity = (60-70) % while in warping STM it was 40%

  With the increase of temperature from the standard values, breakages in yarn increases and
  also the workers efficiency decreases. So ultimately in this way warping process efficiency
  and production decreases. The temperature should be in standard limits for better
  efficiency and production.
  If the relative humidity decreases and goes below 55%, or increases and goes above 80%
  than the yarn breakages increases. So ultimately in this way warping process efficiency and
  production decreases. So the relative humidity should be in standard limits for better
  efficiency and production.
  Why temperature and relative humidity of the warping section is not proper in STM 6
  Because of energy conservation concept and to give Full stress on yarn in warping due to
  low humidity and high temperature, so that the yarn max possible breakages can be trace
  out. So that the yarn not make problem in further process
          Yarn passage line diagram of direct warping

                   Tension rods

                                                        Comb &
                                                        Blow rod
                     Tensioner &
                     Opto sensor                                   Guide roller

                                                               Warper beam

                         Pressing roller
Our Observations:

  Total no. of warping machines = 3
  Maximum speed of machines = 1200 m/min
    Total motors in warping m/c = 11
  Comb moving motors = 3
  Warper beam motors = 3
  Hydraulic pump motor = 1
  Creel movement motors = 2
  tension rod assembly = 2
  Running Speed = (600-1000) m/min
  Inching speed= 20 m/min

  Machine # 1:
          Made = Switzerland
         Model = 2000
  Creel Capacity = 1080
  Working width = 2400 mm
  Machine # 2:
          Made = Switzerland
         Model = 2003
  Creel Capacity = 1224
  Working width = 2400 mm
  Machine # 3:
          Made = Switzerland
         Model = 2005
  Creel Capacity = 1224
  Working width = 2400 mm
Warping Specifications:

     No of holes on blow rod=49 after every 8 sec
     Reaction time of yarn stop motion=5/100s
     Ac frequency=50-60hz
     No of motors on warping=11
     Types of belt use on pulley=104 v-type
     Air pressure= 5bar

     Operating speed of machines = (20-1200) m/min
     Running speed = (700-900) m/min
     Width of beam= 2400mm fixed
     Flendges diameter=1000mm fixed
     Pressure applied by pressing drum=(200-600)daN
     Distance between two spindles or pitch=238mm
     Distance between balloon breaking rod and guide rod=140mm
     Distance between sensor point and tension bar=35mm
     Distance between spindle rod and balloon breaking rod=280mm
     Distance between rods= 2400mm
     Distance between b/w spindle rod and tensioner 6000mm
     Distance between headstock and creel = 14000mm
     Pre-tensioner running position=(0-50)mm
     Time-delay pre-tensioner=(0-20)s
     Height of creel=3000mm
     Total motors in warping m/c = 11
     Comb moving motors = 3
      Warper beam motors = 3
      Hydraulic pump motor = 1
      Creel motors= 4

Creel Portion Motors:
          Package Transport Left: 0.37kwatt
          Package Transport Right: 0.37kwatt
          Pre-Tensioner Motor Left: 90watt
          Pre-Tensioner Motor Right: 90watt
Head Stock Portion Motors:
          Hydraulic Pump: 0.55kwatt
          Beam Clamping Left: 0.3kwatt
          Beam Clamping Right: 0.3kwatt
          Main Motor: 15kwatt
          Comb Traversing Motor: 0.18kwatt
          Comb Displacement Left/Right Motor: 0.09kwatt
          Comb Expansion Motor: 0.06kwatt
       TOTAL LOAD 18.5 kwatt for warping machine

       Cones weight w.r.t there counts and Cone Dimensions
          Ne 1-8 cone weight 6.25 lbs
          Ne 9-10 cone weight 6.25 and 4.16 lbs
          Ne up to 30 cone weight 4.16 lbs
          Ne 30-40 cone weight 2.5 or 4.16 lbs
          Ne 40 -50 cone weight 2.08 or 2.5 lbs
          Ne above 50 cone weight 2.08 or 2.5 lbs
          Empty cone dia at tip 25 to 26 mm
          Empty cone dia at bottom 67 to 68 mm
       Length of paper cone 172 to 173 mm
       Empty paper cone weight 50 to 55 grams
       Cone dia at tip with yarn 180 to 186 mm.
       Cone dia at bottom with yarn 200 to 201 mm.

    Cone reminder standards in STM 6
       For single ply yarn cone reminder 1.5%
       For finer count cone reminder 1%
       For 2 ply yarn cone reminder up to 2%
       For lycra cone reminder up to 3%

    Formulas used in Direct Warping:

   Efficiency Calculation:
   Total Stoppage time= it is noted with the help of stopwatch.
   Calculated time for running = length /beam x total no beams
                                                M/c speed
   Actual running time          = calculated time + breaking time

                                   ACTUAL TIME FOR RUNNING

   Set Calculations:

   No of beams = Total ends
                        Creel capacity
   Ends/ beam = total ends
                    No of Beams
   Set Length: Cone Length-Cone Remainder% of Cone Length *No of Creels
                                      No of Beams

   Cone length = Cone weight X 768.1 X count
   No of bags =               Total ends               X no of creels
                               No of beams X cones/ bag

   Beam Length Calculations:
   Volume                =    3.147 [D*2 - d*2] X W
   Mass                  =     Volume X Density
   Density (given)
   Weight (lbs)          =    Total length X Total ends/beam
                               768.1 X count
   Length (m) =1.33* (D2 - d2) * W *Count*Density
                               No of Ends/beam

   Breaks Calculation:

   Lbs/Breaks=Total Ends*Length (m)
                      Count*768.1*No of Breaks
   Breaks/10mm=No of Breaks*107
                      Total Ends*Length (m)
   Production Calculations:
   Production = Speed (m/min) * 60 * Time (hrs)
Warping Faults:

      weak yarn:
      It causes the breakage of yarn. This fault can be identified visually by viewing the broken
       end of the yarn because when the yarn is broken then it has the broken end as the
       cotton is accumulated on it...

      Hair:
       It is the mixing of human hair in the in the cones.
      Paper cone damage:
       This is due to the mishandling of bags or cones.
      Cone short:
       Less amount of yarn is wound on the cone.
      Lapper:
       It is the entanglement of yarn during winding.
      Cut on cone:
       It is due to the mishandling of cones and it causes the breakage of yarn.
      Spare ends:
       This fault comes on comb and spare end causes the entanglement of side yarn and
       causes breakage.
      Nylon:
       It is due to the presence of nylon yarn.
      Slub:
       It is spinning fault and it causes coarseness of yarn at certain places.
      Fluff:
      Bad splice:
Warping faults
               Selvedge demand
                Loose beam
                Short ends
                Extra ends

Warping maintenance schedule

1. Daily maintenance:
                        Cleaning of m/c with air is done.
                        Checking of winding zone and pressing drum is done.
                        Oil level is checked and serrated cones are also checked.
                        Combs checking and cleaning is also done.
                        Breaks of warper beam, pressing drum and guide roller are checked.
                        Creel spindles, creel chain & its gear and thread cutter is also checked.

2. Weekly maintenance:
                        Cleaning of wind shield, guide rollers, pressing rollers, trapezoidal
                 threaded spindle and switch assemblies is done.
                        Drive belts are checked and oil level is also checked.
                        Checking of screwed connections is done.
                        Re setting of maintenance intervals is also done.

3. Monthly maintenance:
               Cleaning and lubrication of trapezoidal threaded spindle is done.
               Quills lubrication is done and beam positioning is checked.
               Checking of comb and its traverse chain is done.
               Warp beams are checked and serrated cone bearings are greased.

4. Six-monthly maintenance:
                        Oil and air filters are changed.
                     Inspect and replace pressing drum, warper beam and guide rollers brake
                      pads if necessary.
                     Replace main motors belts if necessary.
                     Check wind / winding zone air cylinders and H.P spring.
                     Check beam clamping axial play.

5. Annual maintenance:
                             Check and clean beam and pressing drum bearing and replace if
                             Check and clean guide roll bearing and replace if necessary.
                             Check and clean quill bearings and replace if necessary.
                             Check brake caliper seals and replace.
                             Check and clean serrated cone and replace if necessary.

Maintenance faults in warping machine
In warping machine some faults occurs most frequently and some faults may occur in years. But
the main faults that can occur in any time in warping m/c are as follows.

      Sometimes combs movement is stopped due to comb moving switch‘s problem.
      Sometimes cutters don’t cut properly; this problem is most likely to occur.
      Breaking system of guide roller, warper beam, or pressing drum become loose due to
       hydraulic mechanism fault.
      Axial play in the beam clamping may also occur.
      Yarn tensioner problem may also occur.
      Pressing drums pressing force may also disturb some time.
      In driving motors of the m/c also some problem occurs.

                                    Sectional Warping
Machinery specification of sectional warping

Only one sectional warping m/c is present whose specifications are as follows.

    Made                           = Switzerland
    Model                          = 2003
    Creel capacity                  = 800
    Working width used              = 2400 mm
    Maximum speed                   = 800 m/min
    Running speed                  = (500-600) m/min
    Maximum warper beam speed = 200 m/min
    Running speed                   = (110-130) m/min
    Creel type                      = H- type creel
    Minimum section width          = 60 mm
    Maximum section width          = 340 mm
    Distance between warp stop and drum = 463 cm
    Distance between spindle to spindle vertical= 17 cm
    Distance between spindle to spindle horizontal = 27 cm
    Spindle length                 = 24 cm
    Rod length                     = 223 cm
    Leasing comb width             = 100 cm
    Traversing comb dents          = 238 (1.5 mm/dent)
Motors Detail on sectional warping machine:
   Beam drive= 22kwatt
    Drive for drum = 11kwatt
    Lift out left = 0.7kwatt
    Lift out right = 0.7kwatt
    Unclamping left = 0.7kwatt
    Unclamping right = 0.7kwatt
    Fan for beam drive side left (optional) = 80watt
    Fan for beam drive side right (optional) = 80watt
    Safety grill = 0.37kwatt
    Waxing device motor
    Warp sheet moving = 0.55kwatt
    Drive roll unit = 5.8kwatt
    Fan brake linking left = 0.37kwatt
    Fan brake linking right = 0.37kwatt
    Hydraulic pump = 7kwatt
    Machine shifting (stepper motor)
    Headstock axial motor = 0.37kwatt
    Headstock radial motor = 0.37kwatt
    Comb side adjustment = 0.56kwatt
    Hexing for lateral movement = 0.11kwatt
    Comb side changing
    Comb brightness adjustment

Different parts of sectional warping machine
Sectional warping m/c consists of a number of parts which are divided into three portions given
as follows.
      Creel portion
      Head stock portion
      Winding potion
Creel portion:
            Spindles
             Spindles are the packages or cone carriers. There are total 800 spindles present on
             the creel, So 800 packages can be used on the creel at a time.

            Balloon breaking rods:
When the yarn unwinds from the cones with speed than balloons are produced so to minimize
the effect of these produced balloons, balloon breaking rods are used.

            Yarn tensioners:
Yarn tensioners, used on the creel are load tensioners. Their main purpose is to provide proper
tension to the yarn. When the m/c stops due to yarn breakage than it stops the yarn to reduce
the slackness.
            Yarn guides:
Each individual yarn has separate set of yarn guides. Their main purpose is to separate the
yarns so that entanglement not occur. These yarn guides are of ceramic material.

            Yarn sensors:
These sensors are pin type and on their heads guides are present. When the yarn is passing
over them they remain connected to a metallic rod, but when the yarn breaks, they bounce
back and their connection with the metallic rods is disconnected, and m/c is stopped.

Head stock portion:

            Lease rods:
There are total 10 lease rods are present. These rods separate 8 different yarn sheets.

            Combs:
There two combs in the sectional warping m/c. First comb is big in size and the second comb is
smaller in size. In first comb from each dent only one end passes so it is separating the yarns.
From second small comb (2-7) ends are passed from each dent this comb determines the
section width.

            Guide roller:
This is the small diameter roller in front of the small comb. Its purpose is to guide the yarns
section to the winding drum.

            Pressing roller:
It is present below the guide roller. It is also of small diameter it makes the proper contact with
the yarns section and helps the proper and compact winding on the winding drum.

            Measuring feeler:
This sensor is present just below the pressing roller. Its function is to measure the density of
warp yarn wounded on the winding drum.

            Winding drum:
This drum is of large diameter and dyed yarn sections are winded on it. It is tapered from one
side. Tapering is done so that the sections of the yarn do not slip.

            Photo sensors:
One photo sensor is present in front of winding drum and one is present in the back of drum.
Each photo sensor consists of one emitter and one receiver opposite to each other.
Their main function is workers safety, if any thing comes in b/w emitter and receiver than the
sensor stops the m/c.

Winding portion:
            Guide rollers:
There are present two guide rollers in the back side of the winding drum. Their main function is
to guide the warp sheet consisting of many sections, on the warper beam.

            Warper beam:
Warp sheet consisting of many sections is winded on the warper beam. Maximum winding
speed of the drum is 200 m/min but winding is done normally at 120 m/min.

            Pressing rollers:
Their function is to press the warp sheet on the warp beam for compact winding. These rollers
are actuated with the help of pneumatic system.
Sectional warping maintenance schedules

Sectional warping maintenance is done at different times as follows.
      Daily maintenance
      Weekly maintenance
      Monthly maintenance
      Three-monthly maintenance
      Six-monthly maintenance

Daily maintenance:
        Overall cleaning of m/c is done.
        Check and clean evener roller.
        Check and clean waxing device roller & spindle support shaft and pressure device.
        Check spindle, spindle brush and reed.
        Check and clean yarn guides, tensioners & overall creel and creel movement is also

Weekly maintenance:
        Check oil level, hydraulic block and break system.
        Check and clean beam block and its shaft & check all belts.
        Oil pipes and its connections are checked.
        Check and clean reed and all the threaded shafts.

Monthly maintenance:
        Oil level is checked.
        Air filters are checked and cleaned & drum breaks are checked.
        All the air lines are checked and measuring feelers are cleaned.
        Drum tracks and drum wheels are checked.
Three-monthly maintenance:
       Inspection and greasing of feed spindle and reed head stock is done.
       Reed head stock guides, spindle head stock shaft, spindle beam lifting device,
         spindle support shaft and support guides and lifting assembly are checked and

Six-monthly maintenance:
       Hydraulic unit’s oil is changed.
       Beam block gear box oil is changed.
       Oil filters are changed.
       Change beam pressing device, Teflon roller and its bearing.
Hydraulic mechanism use in sectional warping

     In sectional warping hydraulic mechanism is only used in the breaking system of the
      winding drum or section drum.
     Hydraulic breaks are present on both sides of the drum.

     There should be creel cutters because lot of time is wasted, while cutting the creel
      manually it is the most important factor responsible for down time
     There should be some arrangement of fluff suction it causes a lot of problem while
      machine is running and also harmful for the worker
     The working of Opto sensor should be made proper, it has been observed that a lot of
      sensors of machine are out of order due to which when end breaks , the machine is not
      stopped at the time, due to which ends is buried inside the sheet which can cause
      problem in sizing
     There should be insect killing arrangement because some time the caught by the
      running yarn due to which they cause mark on yarn /breakages in yarn etc
   There should be proper balance of empty beams as a lot of time is wasted in searching
    the beams which disturb the process flow and increase work in progress
   The tension between rods is not uniform because some of rods have contact with lower
    plates or the rods are bent due to weight. Due to which there movement is opposed and
    causes bending of rods
   Beam flendges are not straight due to which beam causes a lot of problems like the
    sharp or bend edges which causes fiction between drum n beam flendges, may also
    damage other parts, results the time wastage.
   There should be proper air Conditioning without it proper amount of humidity can’t be
    maintained in the warp yarns, also can machine Heat up and may damage machine
   There should be proper lightening arrangement on both machine 1 and 2 because it
    may decrease the visibility of broken yarns and also affect the operator eye sight which
    decreases the operator efficiency
   The air pressure pipe being used during cleaning should have fewer diameters which will
    give more pressure on air and less air consumption
   The current pipe diameter is 9 mm, it should be reduce upto 3mm as according to
    Bernoulli equation A1V1=A2V2
   As the area decreases the velocity increases
   There should be some arrangement to prevent the warper beams from the fluff as the
    beams are stored near by the machine due to which all the fluff onto those beams . so
    for that purpose we use plastic sheets to cover the beams or we can also make separate
    sections of plastic sheets for beam storage which will effect in cleaning the environment
    of the mill
   Creel change sensor are also not in proper working condition due to which when
    changing the creel extra or less rods are moves which causes a lot of wastage in setting
    them back.

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