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Dams and Development Report of the World Commission on Dams

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					Heavy toll on affected communities…

  • estimated 40-80 million physically displaced
  • significant number of others affected
  • failure to adequately
    recognise & respond to
    those affected
  • negative impacts fall
    disproportionately on
    disadvantaged
  • inequity is not addressed in ‘balance sheet’
    approach

              Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Alternatives often exist…
  • reduce demand by increasing end-use efficiency
  • defer new supply by enhancing supply &
    conveyance efficiency
  • extend life and performance through improved
    land & water management
  • promote alternative supply options, including
    small-scale & locally appropriate approaches




               Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Lack of compliance…
  • weak regulatory frameworks & lack
    of enforcement
  • little public participation & scrutiny
  • top down decision-making, often
    politically motivated
  • past conflicts remain unresolved with no
    legal recourse
  • vested interests in favour of large infrastructure
  • no incentives or sanctions


               Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Summary findings…

  • lack of systematic evaluation of dam projects
  • considerable scope to improve performance
  • economic profitability is elusive – many externalities
  • all too often impacts on people & ecosystems are
    unacceptable and avoidable
  • alternatives to dams exist that are acceptable &
    viable – depends on location
  • the means to improve development outcomes exists
    but are not yet common practice


                Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
The way forward –
New framework for decision-making

 To improve development
 outcomes, the Commission
 presents a new framework for
 decision-making based on
 recognising rights and
 assessing risks of all
 interested parties


 Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
            The Way Forward

• Move beyond the simple
  “balance –sheet approach”…
…to shared values, objectives and goals
• Internationally accepted norms are basis
  for WCD recommendations
• Adopt a rights and risks approach
• Define whose rights and what risks



           Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Move beyond the simple “balance-sheet”
approach that…
   • trades off losses and gains between groups
   • impoverishes some people
   • excludes people and limits awareness
   • overlooks sustainability aspects
   • induces conflict and higher costs




              Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Towards shared values, objectives & goals…

        • equity
        • efficiency
        • participatory decision-making
        • sustainability
        • accountability



             Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Internationally accepted norms are basis for
WCD recommendations…


  • UN Declaration of Human Rights
  • Declaration on the Right to Development
  • Rio Principles




              Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Adopt a rights & risks approach…


   Future planning & decision-making
   should be guided by -
      – a recognition of rights

      – an assessment of risks

   to determine who has a legitimate place in
   negotiating outcomes



              Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Define whose rights & what risks…


   Rights
   • No party’s rights should extinguish another’s
   • Where rights compete – negotiated agreements
     are needed

   Risks
   • Move beyond considering voluntary risk takers
     to include involuntary risk bearers



                Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
    Turning Conflict Into Consensus
          Seven Strategic priorities
•   Gain public acceptance
•   Assess options
•   Address existing dams
•   Sustain rivers and livelihoods
•   Recognise entitlements and share benefits
•   Ensure compliance
•   Share rivers across boundaries



           Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Gaining public acceptance…
   • dams affect existing rights & create wide range
     of risks
   • opportunities exist for achieving a higher level
     of equity
   • recognise rights of indigenous & tribal peoples
   • achieve outcomes through binding formal
     agreements




               Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Comprehensive options
assessment…
 • failure to adequately define
   needs & assess options led to
   dispute
 • an early and open examination
   of options can avoid poor
   projects
 • raise the significance of social
   & environmental aspects
 • increase the effectiveness of
   existing systems as a priority
               Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Address existing dams…
• most dams that will operate in
  the 21st century already exist
• considerable scope exists for
  improving benefits
• remedy outstanding social
  issues & …
…enhance mitigation,
 restoration & enhancement of
 ecosystems
• use licences to formalise
  operating agreements
              Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Sustain rivers and livelihoods…
  • rivers support millions of livelihoods
  • dams cause significant and often
    irreversible effects on ecosystems
  • value rivers, ecosystems & endangered
    species
  • emphasise avoidance
    of impacts
  • maintain ecosystem
    integrity through
    environmental flows

               Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Recognise entitlements & share benefits …
 • many people displaced - many
   more unrecognised
 • including those who depend on a
   river’s resources
 • recognise rights and assess risks
   as a basis for negotiations
 • agree legally enforceable
   entitlements
 • adversely affected people become
   first among beneficiaries
              Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Ensure compliance …


 • many policies and guidelines exist..
 • but often a failure to fulfil obligations
 • need a compliance plan covering all commitments
   to people and the environment
 • introduce initiatives to reduce corruption
 • develop incentive framework for compliance



                Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Share rivers across boundaries…
 • conflicts over transboundary rivers due to
   power imbalance
 • experience suggests disputes can be resolved
 • endorse the UN Convention principles
 • go beyond sharing water - to sharing the benefits
 • encourage consistent policies for financing
   agencies




              Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
The Commission’s Criteria & Guidelines…

            Government                    Civil Society



      International                                  International
       Standards                                     Agreements




     Multilateral &                                Private Sector
       Bilateral
     Organisations
                           Professional
                           Organisations

                                        …in a wider framework
                 Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
                 Needs assessment

Five key             Criteria 1

 decision      Selecting Alternatives        Investigative Studies

  points…            Criteria 2                   Criteria 2a



                 Non-Dam Options               Dam Options




            Policy, programme, projects      Project Preparation
                                                  Criteria 3


                                           Project Implementation
                                                  Criteria 4


                                             Project Operation
                                                  Criteria 5

            Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Guidelines for good practice…
                      Which include:            Stakeholder
Environmental
         flow                                     analysis

          Performance                  Greenhouse
          bonds                            gas
                                        emissions
            Prior
          Informed                        Compliance
           consent                           plan
                                                      Multi-criteria
         Project
 benefit-sharing                                       analysis
                Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Dams in the pipeline - general

      • Establish a stakeholder forum
        based on rights and risks approach
      • Undertake distribution analysis
      • Promote development opportunities
        and benefit sharing
      • Provide for an environmental flow
      • Include recourse and compliance
        mechanisms

              Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
Dams in the pipeline - it’s not too late

Feasibility - assess all options
           - gain public acceptance
Design    - prepare Compliance Plan
          - contractualise benefit sharing
          - determine environmental flow
Construction - formalise commitments


               Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams
  Improve Development outcomes


Using the WCD’s
framework will reduce
cost, save time and
avoid conflicts while
achieving more
equitable outcomes


         Dams and Development - Report of the World Commission on Dams

				
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posted:10/9/2012
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