# Twill Weave of Fabric

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```					               PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE

TWILL WEAVE
The twill order of interlacing causes diagonal lines to be
formed on the cloth as shown in fig. 2.4
Comparison with plain weave
• Greater weight
• Closer setting
• Better draping quality
Construction of simple twill- Step-by-Step

Step – 1 : We used a minimum of three threads (i.e. warp and
1
weft) to construct a twill. We first try the twill                        (1 up 2
2

down). We make a 3x3 square as:

Step – 2 : Now we start from the first end and first pick we
make     our    first   mark     here    (it   represents     the        point   of
interaction).

Step-3:
Now in next pick the point of intersection is moved one
outward and one upward as

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In next pick again the point of intersection is moved one
outward and one up ward as

The three steps in construction twill are as follows:

The twills can be produced from Right to left (also called as
left hand twill) as shown in fig.

Or from left to right as ( also called as right hand twills)

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The Twills can be
1.     Warp faced Twill: In which quantity of warp is more on
the face of the fabric eg 3/1 twill.
2.     Weft faced twill: In which quantity of weft is more on
the face of the fabric (e.g 1/3 twill)
3.     Warp and faced twill: In which warp and weft are in
equal quantity on the face of the fabric (eg. 2/2 twill).

Twills can be broadly classified into six chief varieties
1.        Regular or continuous twills
In regular       twills    the      diagonal lines   are   formed   by
advancing the order of interlacing in step of one in either
directions.
In four threads the three orders of interlacing can be
1          2       3
3         2       1

incline in either direction, therefore, six different effects can
be formed.

These are

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Angle of Twill
The angle formed in the cloth by a twill weave depends
upon.
(a)     The relative ratio of ends and picks per cm.
(b)     The rate of advancement of interlacing
If the EPI and PPI are qual, a regular twill runs at an
angle of 45º as shown:

In fact the angle of the twill with the horizontal can be
calculated by the formula.

Rate of advancement of twill upwards                ends per cm
Tan α = ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––× ––––––––––––––
Rate of advancement of twill outwards              picks per cm

Thus if
Step upward       = 2
Step onward       = 1

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Ends/cm            = 42
Picks/cm           = 21
2 412
Then tan α =       ×    = 4 α = 76º
1 21
As in the following twill

Factors influencing the prominence of twills
The relative prominence of twills is chiefly determined by:
(a)     The character of weave
(b)     The character of yarn
(c)     The number of warp and weft threads per inch
(d)     The direction of twill in relation to the direction of
twist imparted to the yarn.
(a)         The Character of Weaves -          A twill weaves will be
relatively more pronounced if developed from longer
than from shorter floats of yarn.
(b)         Character of yarn – A more pronounced twill will result
either from coarse spun of soft spun yarn than from
fine spun or hand spun yarns; also from folded yarn
than from single yarn.
(c)         Number of Threads per inch – A twill will be relatively
more or less pronounced in proportion to the number
of warp threads and picks of weft per inch.

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(d)     Direction of twill with relation to the direction of twill
in the yarn
If twills are produced in the reverse direction to that of
the twist in the yarns, they will be more pronounced and if
twills are produced in the same direction as that of the twist
in the yarn, they will be less pronounced.
2.         Zig Zag or Wavy twills
Wavy twills are those in which the direction of twill is
frequently reversed. Wavy twills are normally made on point
drafts. The following is an example of wavy twill:

3.         Herring Bone Twills
Unlike wavy twills, the herring bone twill does not come
to a point where it changes the direction, but instead one twill
line in said to cut into the other at the pint of reversal.

Construction of Herring Bone twills
We will construct a simple Herring Bone twill. We
construct it on eight ends.

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Step-1 :
Construct a simple, 1/3 twill on 4 ends

Step-2: Now working of 5 th end will be exactly opposite to
that of 4 th end i.e. where crosses are replaced by blanks in 5 th
end and blanks by crosses i.e.

Step-3 : Similarly working of 6 th end is opposite to that
of 3 rd ; 7 th, opposite to that of 2 nd and so on; so that the final
herringbone twill will look like:

Broken twills

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A large variety of effects can be produced by breaking a
regular twill.
There are two ways of obtaining broken twills.
1.    Break and reversal methods.
2.    Entering and skipping method
1.     Break and Reveal method
In this we first decide the break unit i.e after how many
threads the twill will be broken. Generally ‘it’ is half the
number of threads in the repeat of a regular twill.
Same examples
1.     2/2 twill (break point : half the number of threads)
The regular twill is indicated as

In this case we run the twill in regular direction till half
the threads, however the ends in the second half of repeat are
run in reverse order:
Draft

Design

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3.    4 up 4 down twill (Break point 2 threads) the
original twill in indicated as

There we run the twill for 2 threads, then for next 2
threads reverse it, again we run as regular twill for 2 threads
and again we reverse it as shown:

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2.     Entering and skipping method
This method is applicable to twills that are composed of
equal warp and weft floats. In this, threads in the ordinary
twill are entered and skipped. Generally the number of threads
to skip is one less than half the number of threads in the
repeat of the twill.
Example: in a
6   
2-and-2 twill the no of threads to skip will be 2  −1
2 
8   
3-and-3 twill the no of threads to skip will be 3  −1
2 
4-and-4 twill the no of threads to skip will be 3 (8/2-1)
Some examples
2-and-2 twill
Step – 1:
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Calculate the number of treads that will be taken of regular
twill in order to enter and skip.
For n-and-n twill it will be (n+n) x 3
Thus for 2-and-2 twill no of threads = (2+2) x 3 = 12
Thus for 3-and-3 twill, no of threads = (3+3) x 3 = 18
Step 2 :
Make repeats of the no of threads calculated as above with the

twill given. Thus we make 2-and-2 twill on 12 threads as:

Step 3: Now we prepare another design from this by taking 2
ends and then skipping one alternately. Thus is every 3 ends 1
end will be skipped, in 12 ends 4 ends will be skipped so
design will be of 8 ends.

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TRANSPOSED OR RE-ARRANGED TWILLS
By means of transposition or rearrangement of the
original order of the threads in a regular twill, many new and
attractive designs can be created.
Transposition can be done in many ways
Let’s take a 12 thread twill as

Transposition this twill line in group of 2 we have.

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Similarly we can transpose this twill line in group of 3 as

Similarly we can transpose it in the groups of 4.
In the above cases we have rearranged all the threads. These
were the examples of full transposed twill. We can also have
a half transposed twill. In which only half of the ends are
rearranged. Below is the example of a half transposed twill in

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which o represent the half transposed base and X represent
the weave. It is an example of 4/4 half transposed twill:

One more example of transposed or rearranged twill is satin.
Combined twills
Combined twills are those produced by arranging
the treads of two continuous twill weaves alternately with each
others. It can be learnt with the help of an example.
Suppose we want to combine two 4-and 3-end twill as

represented by A and B.

One twill say A- is first indicated on the odd vertical spaces.
Then to complete the design, twill B is indicated on the even

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vertical spaces as shown by the design.
Each twill must be carried out on 12 ends and picks – the
l.c.m of 4 and 3, hence the design consists of 12 threads of A,
combined with 12 threads of B, and thus repeats on 24 ends
and 12 picks.

Some Other Twills

Curved Twill
The principle of construction of curved twill can be understood
from the design itself. It is used only to a limited extent as
there is disadvantage that the length of the weft float and
fineness of cloth may vary in direction so as to form curved
effects.
How to draw curved twill

First make the base of curved twill. It is represented by o. We
do it on 48x8 grid.

Now complete the pattern with 4/4 twill :

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Steep Twill
Steep twills are those in which the angle of twill is more than
45 degrees. The following is an example of steep twill:

Here the base mark o represents the steps of twill. Overall the
twill is 4/4.

Low Twills
Low twills are those in which the angle of twill is less than
forty five degrees. The following is an example of a low twill.
Again the base marks o represent the base of the twill.

SUMMARY OF TWILL WEAVES
Structuring Process

Interlaced with 2 or 3 warp yarns over and one or 2
warp yarns under respective filling yarns.
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Identifying the weave
Diagonal rides formed left to-right or right to left.
Performance characteristics
Compared to plain weave, twill weaves have
• Fewer interlacings and therefore more yarns per inch
• More raveling
• More pliable drape and hand
• More wrinkle resistance
• More resistance to showing soil and soiling
• More durability and weight
•   Tendency to have defined face and back
• Twill direction defined as left or eight hand or variation
• Angle of twill can vary from 15ºC to 75º with 45º typical.

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Common fabrics by Identifying Characteristics

Weight     Transparenc         Type        Surface/othe Name
y                   yarns       r

Mediu      Opaque              Spun        Lightly             Challis
m                                          brushed
surface

Mediu      Opaque              Filamen     Balanced            Surah
m                              t           reversible

Mediu      Opaque              Spun        Balanced            Flannel
m                                          revile              serge

Mediu      Opaque              Spun        Balanced            Sharkskin
m                                          yarn dyed           herring
bone
houndstoot
h

Mediu      Opaque              Filamen     Unbalanced          Lining twill
m                              t

Mediu      Opaque              Spun        Unbalanced          Jean,     drill
m                                                              covert,
chino,
gaberdine

Mediu      Opaque              Spun        Unbalanced          Denim
m

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