Issue 1 Reviewer # 2 “The PI does not do much to explain the significance of this hypothesis, but I think that it is a small but significant piece of research.” Rebuttal – If minority members perceive themselves as similar to other members of their minority1, then social projection could be a very important explanatory variable for the relationship between ethnic identification and self-esteem. Issue 2 Reviewer #1 “Budget is bloated, in terms of time and money.” Reviewer #2 “Budget is bloated, both in money and time.” Rebuttal – The longitudinal nature of this study is critical given that ethnic identity will change with context and time. Thus a simple study of one or two years will be inadequate, given that previous studies have documented statistically significant changes in ethnic identification patters over the course of the undergraduate period, for example (Ethier & Deaux, 1994). Adequate longitudinal studies are by and large absent (Phinney, 2000), therefore entire field of ethnic psychology would benefit immensely from a comprehensive longitudinal study that addresses not just ethnic identification, but also self-esteem and social projection. Sufficient funding for subject compensation is also a critical component to the success of this project. In a similar study conducted at Yale University and Amherst College (Aries, et al, in press), attrition rates were exceptionally high over the course of the 4-year longitudinal study. Lack of subject monies appears to have been the primary problem. A simple analysis of the recruitment procedure reveals the following: Participation rates Yale Time 1 = 78% (no compensation) Time 2 = 41% (student assistants paid to distribute and collect surveys) Time 3 = 38% (same as Time 2) Time 4 = 31% (raffles offered to participants) Time 5 = 38% (raffles offered to participants)2
i.e. high ethnic identification as measure by the MEIM
Amherst Time 1 = 89% (raffles offered to participants) Time 2 = 80% (same as Time 1) Time 3 = 65% (same as Time 1) Time 4 = 63% (same as Time 1) Time 5 = 84% (all participants paid $10 for participation) The sampling patterns from both institutions suggests that it is not sufficient to simple seek voluntary participation (Yale Times 1, 2, and 3 show a clear drop in participation from 78% at Time 1 to 38% at Time 3), nor are raffles sufficient incentive (Yale Times 4 and 5 are little better than the purely voluntary condition, and Amherst Times 1, 2, 3, and 4 also demonstrate marked decrease over time 89% to 63%). However, direct monetary compensation is a strong incentive to participation, as evidenced by the sharp turn around in participation rates for Amherst (Time 5 = 84%, direct compensation versus Time 4 = 63%, raffle). The Yale/Amherst study used a simple paper questionnaire, and thus participants could complete the questionnaire at any feasible location. In contrast, the current proposed study would be conducted on computers located in the lab spaces of the participating universities. To entice participants into the lab to complete the questionnaire, we propose compensating participants with $15 dollars per visit. The questionnaires will be quite extensive and may take approximately 1 hour (give or take ten minutes). The computers located in the Social Psychology Lab of Brown University are extremely antiquated and in need a replacement. As per the specifications on the Russell Sage website, we are requesting less than $10,000 in equipment funds. We are proposing to process 400 individual questionnaires at our location alone each year, and the coding process would be streamlined and simplified if run through computers. We request funds to purchase ten new versions of Apple’s educational model (e-mac, approximate cost $700 per computer). By computerizing the questionnaire, we can quickly and simply process large numbers of questionnaires, and we will be able to do this each year for the four years of the proposed study. Through an initial investment of $7,000 - $9,000, we can establish a data collection procedure that will eliminate the need to pay for manual coding each year. The current computers are over ten years old and there is currently no possible way to integrate these computers with modern data collection and analysis systems.
non-respondents were contacted again and offered a free gift (value $1), and $5 for completing survey)
Issue 3 Reviewer #3 “I worry about the fact that the whole project hinges on census categories like Latinos and European Americans when there is lots of data that people who end up checking these boxes on a census form don’t think of themselves as members of these categories, e.g. some see themselves as Salvadorans, not Latinos or Jews and not European Americans, etc. etc. The purposes of methodological and statistical simplicity, this study will constrain itself to four basic ethnic groups, European-American, Latin-American, Asian-American, and African-American. Though it is conceivable to organize participants into far more diverse ethnic categories, we believe that there is good empirical evidence to support the proposed methodological structure. In a very large and comprehensive study, Phinney and Alipuria (1996) compared two hundred and forty-one multiethnic/multi-racial students with 1,041 monoethnic students. The study was based on two sets of sampling data drawn from one population of university students and a second population of high school students. Between the multiethnic and monoethnic students Phinney and Alipuria (1996) found no significant difference in ethnic identification, no significant difference in self-esteem, and no significant difference in correlation strength between ethnic identification and self-esteem. This study also limited itself to a basic number of ethnic groups (original self-labels: Asian American, Black, Latino, American Indian, White, Mixed(Phinney & Alipuria, 1996)). The current study does not propose to collect Native American data, however Mixed or Multiethnic data can easily be obtained by noting the number of participants who select two or more categories when self-selecting ethnic group. Based on the data of previous research (Phinney & Alipuria, 1996), we assume that even if participants were allowed to choose from a highly diverse number of ethnic-labels, there would be no statistically significant differences between monoethnic and multiethnic students. Therefore, to create a more efficient and simplified methodological process, the current study will restrict itself to a basic set of ethnic groups. References Ethier, K. A., & Deaux, K. (1994). Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 243-251. Phinney, J. S. (2000). Identity formation across cultures: The interaction of personal, societal, and historical change. Human Development, 43(1), 27-31. Phinney, J. S., & Alipuria, L. L. (1996). At the interface of cultures: Multiethnic/multiracial high school and college students. Journal of Social Psychology, 136(2), 139-158.