Social Crisis, War, and Revolution by pptfiles

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									       Social Crisis, War, and Revolution
               Test 7Questions:

• 1. Explain the causes for inflation in Europe in the
  1600’s.
• 2. What were the characteristics of the majority of
  those accused of witchcraft?
• 3. How did the Peace of Westphalia impact the Holy
  Roman Empire?
• 4. Trace the sequence of events that led to the English
  Bill of Rights.

         Economic and Social Crisis
         Economic and Social Crisis
• From1560 to 1650 Europe witnessed severe economic
  and social crises.
• One major economic problem was inflation.
• Another economic problem was over population
  causing a rise in food prices.
• Spain’s silver mines were producing less, and pirates
  on the high seas were becoming more successful.
• Italy was declining also.
         Economic and Social Crisis
• Population figures reveal a growing over population
  creating an increasing demand for goods.
• The population grew from 60 million in 1500 to 85
  million by 1600.
• Warfare, plague and famine by 1650’s caused a
  leveling off of the population, and an increase in social
  tensions in Europe.
              The Witchcraft Trials
              The Witchcraft Trials
• A belief in magic or witchcraft had been part of village
  traditional culture for centuries.
• The religious zeal that helped find heretics now turned toward
  witchcraft.
• This religious zeal created an intense hysteria throughout
  Europe.
• More than 100,000 people were accused, 75% were women.
• Most women were poor, single or widowed and over 50 years
  old.
                The Witchcraft Trials
• Under intense torture, most confessed.
• Many said they had sworn allegiance, attended nightly
  meetings to feast and dance.
• Others admitted using evil spells and special ointments to
  harm their neighbors.
• By 1650’s, the witchcraft hysteria had begun to lessen.
• Most people stopped believing in magic and started to believe
  in a new world view called the “Scientific Revolution”
               The Thirty Years War
               The Thirty Years War
• Religious disputes continued after the Peace of Augsburg
  (1555)
• One reason was Calvinism had not been officially recognized
  in the treaty.
• By 1600’s, Calvinism was spreading to many parts of Europe.
• War broke out in 1618 in the Holy Roman Empire.
• First it was a struggle between the Catholics led by the
  Emperor and the Protestants led by German princes.
               The Thirty Years War
• But soon the war became political.
• Catholic France joined forces with the Protestant
  princes in Sweden against the Holy Roman Emperor.
• The Thirty Years War was very destructive all over
  Europe except for England.
• Rival armies destroyed the countryside and entire
  towns. And both sides plundered for food and
  weapons to continue the war.

               The Thirty Years War
• The Peace of Westphalia officially ended the war in 1648.
• The major contenders gained land and France became the
  dominant nation in Europe.
• The Peace of Westphalia stated all kings and princes could
  determine which religion was allowed in their own countries.
• Germany was divided into more than 300 independent
  kingdoms and the Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist.
             Revolutions in England
             Revolutions in England
• A struggle within England became known as the
  English Civil War.
• It was a struggle between the king and the English
  Parliament.
• They struggled over who should govern England… the
  people or the king?
• With the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, James 1st
  become king.
• James believed in the “divine right of kings”

             Revolutions in England
• Kings receive their right to govern directly from God.
• Parliament did not think much of this.
• Parliament thought there should be a partnership
  between the people and the king.
• Also Calvinists in England didn’t like the kings strong
  support of his church (the Church of England)
             Revolutions in England
• They were called Puritans because of their pure Bible
  beliefs.
• The Church of England still had several Catholic
  traditions embedded into their services and doctrines.
• Many English noblemen were Puritans and many were
  in the Parliament.
• But armed conflict didn’t break out until James 1st died
  and his son Charles 1st became king.
            Revolutions in England
           st
• Charles 1 also believed in Divine Right of kings.
• In 1628, Parliament passed a new law stating all taxes
  must have the parliament’s consent before application
  of the tax.
• Charles did not like this new law that limited his power
  to tax.
• So Charles decides to force the Puritans out of the
  parliament and out of England.
            Revolutions in England
• Charles starts placing larger amounts of Catholic
  rituals into the Church of England to upset the
  Puritans.
• This worked for awhile and thousands left.
• But in 1642, civil war broke out between the
  supporters of the king (Cavaliers or Royalists) and
  supporters of parliament (Roundheads… called this
  because of their haircuts)

            Revolutions in England
• Parliament won the civil war because of the genius
  named Oliver Cromwell.
• He created the “New Model Army” made up of
  Independents who believed they were fighting for God
  directly.
• When Cromwell won, he purged the parliament of all
  supporters of the king.
• Then he had Charles 1st beheaded.
                Revolutions in England
• Parliament then declared England a Republic or
  Commonwealth.
• But soon Cromwell didn’t like what the new parliament
  was doing, so he disbanded the parliament and
  became a military dictator.
• Cromwell died in 1658, parliament reconvened and
  reinstated a new king named Charles 2nd.
• And trouble started again.

                Revolutions in England
           nd
• Charles 2 was sympathetic to Catholicism.
• And his brother James (heir to the throne was a Catholic)
• Parliament didn’t trust either and introduced the Exclusion
  Bill.
• This barred all Catholics from becoming king.
• Debate over this bill split parliament into two(2) parties.
• 1.The Whigs – wanted to exclude all Catholics.
                Revolutions in England
• 2. the Tories – who did not want to interfere with the
  proper lawful succession to the throne.
• Charles 2nd dismissed the parliament and died in 1685.
• His brother became king, James 2nd.
• James names Catholics to all the high posts in
  government, which makes parliament mad.
• But parliament didn’t do anything.
                Revolutions in England
• Parliament knew James was old and would be
  succeeded by either Mary or Anne, both Protestants.
• However, in 1688, James had a son who would be
  raised as a Catholic.
• Parliament had to act.
• Some English noblemen invited William of Orange (the
  Netherlands hero) to invade England.
• William and (James’s daughter Mary) raise an army
  together.
              Revolutions in England
• In 1688, William and Mary invade England and James
  2nd leave.
• This was called the “Glorious Revolution”.
• The issue was who was going to be the monarch.
• In 1689, parliament invite William and Mary to be king
  and queen of England.
• They also sign a bill of rights giving most
  governmental powers to the parliament.
              Revolutions in England
• Now England became an constitutional monarchy.
• Parliament also passed the Toleration Act in 1689
  granting Puritans (but not Catholics) the right to
  worship in England.
• Divine right doctrine was forever destroyed in
  England.
• And religious persecution came to an end.
                          DBQ 7
•   Read Chapter 7 Section 2
•   Pages 216- 221
•   Answer all questions (1-8) p.221
•   Essay Format Answers
•   Write the questions
•   Due at end of class
•   50 points possible
•   Articles due Wednesday
                        The End

								
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