The Scientific Method and Scientific Processes

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					The Scientific Method
         and
 Scientific Processes
Scientific Investigation
Stages of the Scientific Method
Step 1: Ask a question or state a problem
Step 2: Form a hypothesis or prediction
                The Scientific Method
             (How scientists solve problems and answer questions)
 1. Ask a Question or state a problem:
(ex) What is the best fertilizer for a tomato plant?
 2. Make a Prediction/ Form a Hypothesis
 If...then statements (If I use miracle gro then my tomato plants will
 grow larger tomatoes than with other brands of fertilizer)
  3. Design Experiment
     a. Choose Variables A variable is the factor that is tested
        (1) INdependant (manipulated) Variable This is the item that is
 manipulated or changed by the experimenter (e.g. the type of fertilizer
 given to plants) (everything else is =… water, light, container size, etc)
 This variable will be graphed on the X axis
        (2) DEpendant (responding) variable This is the factor that
 responds to the change in the variable. The response DEPENDS on
 changes in the manipulated variable (e.g. how much growth {height
 and # of tomatoes} produced by fertilizer) This variable will be graphed
 on the Y axis.
        (3) Constant: the variables that remain EQUAL
        (3) Control The group of subjects that show what would happen
 in the ABSENCE of the variable being studied (e.g. the plants that
 have NO fertilizer)
Step 3: Design & conduct an experiment
  4. Make Observations and collect data
    a) Qualitative observations note the QUALITIES of
 something:
      (1) shape (2) color (3) size (4) texture
      (5) luster/sheen how light reflects off of the object
      (6) scent
What other qualitative observations could be made?
 5. Quantitative observations note the QUANTITY of something
(Temp., #, length, density, volume, pressure, mass, or weight) This
refers to ANYTHING that you measure.
   (a) Measure
       (1) Length distance in m: km, cm, mm
       (2) Mass amt of matter in an object in grams
       (3) Weight force of gravity on object in pounds (lbs)
       (4) Volume the amt of space something takes up, measured in
cubic units (m3 for example)
      (5) Temperature Measured in Centigrade (Co) or Kelvin (K)
 (b) Count
6. Display Data
  (a) Tables and charts
  (b) Graphs
     (1) Line Graphs show a trend or pattern over time
     (2) Bar Graphs compare 2+ pieces of information
     (3) Pie (or Circle) Graphs show parts of a whole or
  percentages
Step 4: Analyze your results
           Post Experiment:
 Analyze the Data and Make inferences
      What does the data show?
      What does it MEAN?
     Is it significant (important/meaningful)?
What can you assume BASED ON THE DATA?
Your data is the ONLY evidence on which you
 can base your conclusions
Step 5: Draw a conclusion
          Draw Conclusions
Compare to your hypothesis:
1. Was your hypothesis supported or refuted?
 (what data/evidence shows that your
 hypothesis was supported/refuted?)
2. What did you learn?
  Publish and share with other scientists
  What else do scientists do?
II. Research
   A. Read other scientists' work
      1. Publish
   B. Investigate - use original (your own)
 ideas to find answers
      1. Publish

				
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posted:10/9/2012
language:English
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