Introduction to Instructional Design

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					       Introduction to
    Instructional Design



             John R. Savery, Ph.D.




1
    This slide show will…

       Introduce the main concepts related to
        instructional design.
       Provide definitions and vocabulary.
       Explain each of the components in the ID
        process.
       Touch briefly on ID models.
       Set expectations for this course.

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    Getting started


       Instruction is the arrangement of information
        and environment to facilitate learning.
       Learning is the development of new
        knowledge, skills or attitudes as an individual
        interacts with information and the environment.



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    Beware over-simplification!

       The definition that follows is one of several
        equally viable definitions for ID.
       It is a personal favorite because it works.
       Avoid simplistic ‘recipe’ approaches.
       Well designed instruction leading to thorough
        learning is analogous to a well-prepared feast
        leading to a satisfied palate.


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    Definition of Instructional Design

       Instructional design BLENDS what we know
        about…
        –   the LEARNERS
        –   the SUBJECT MATTER
        –   HOW PEOPLE LEARN
        –   the capabilities of an INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIUM

        …to produce instruction that will facilitate learning

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    Expanding on these “Terms”

       SUBJECT MATTER
        –   The content to be taught including knowledge, skill,
            or attitude.
       INSTRUCTION
        –   Ways to organize the subject matter to facilitate
            learning. (lecture to virtual reality)
       DELIVERY
        –   Making the best use of the medium (text, motion
            video, computer-based teaching, etc.)

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    More Terminology

       Technology by definition is anything that
        extends human capabilities – lever, wheel,
        chalk board, books, video, computers….
       Technology in instruction refers to both the
        hardware and the process that is used to
        enhance/extend teaching and learning.



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    Instructional Design and Systems

       The Instructional Design process is a
        “systems” approach.
       The ID process is expressed as a linear
        model, an iterative process, and often as a
        pragmatic, real-world set of procedures.




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    Quick Review of Systems

       A system has four basic parts:
        –   Input
        –   Processing
        –   Output
        –   Feedback




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     System Components




      INPUT   PROCESSING   OUTPUT




               FEEDBACK


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     A Classroom is a Complex System

        A classroom is a system with multiple inputs:
         –   Physical environment
         –   Number of students
         –   Ability levels and ages of students
         –   Curriculum requirements
         –   Available teaching resources
         –   Expectations of parents, administration
         –   Skill and knowledge of the teacher

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     Classroom to School to District…

        A complex classroom system is embedded within an
         even larger system. (District,State,National)
        Each system provides inputs, which can effect the
         processing, and reacts to outputs. (i.e. OPT scores)
        More terms…
         –   Systematic refers to a programmed approach
         –   Systemic refers to changes affecting the entire system – I.e.
             systemic changes in education




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     So what is the ID process?

        The ID process at one level is a planning and
         organizational tool.
        The steps in the process help to ensure that all
         the important information is considered in the
         context of the instructional problem or
         challenge.



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     Example of ID planning




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     Components in the ID process

        Analysis
        Design
        Development
        Implementation
        Evaluation




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     ID Process - Analysis

        Analysis
         –   learning needs analysis/discrepancy analysis
         –   front end (feasibility) analysis
         –   audience analysis
         –   content or task analysis




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     ID Process - Design

     Design
       –   specification of intended learning outcomes
       –   knowledge, skills, behaviors, attitudes, etc.
       –   specification of evaluation methods and criteria
           indicative of learner achievement
       –   scope and sequencing of instructional events
       –   media selection



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     ID Process - Development

     Development
       –   project management
       –   timelines
       –   resource management
       –   prototype development
       –   beta testing
       –   usability testing



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     ID Process - Implementation

     Implementation
       –   training for users both learners and teachers
       –   embedded help
       –   support materials for successful utilization
       –   management of resources and time




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     ID Process - Evaluation

     Evaluation of instructional effectiveness
       –   formative (short term)
               beta testing
               usability testing
       –   summative (long term)
               large scale validation
               multiple contexts




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     Instructional Design Models

        Morrison, Kemp – Circular Model
         –   An copy of this model is on the next slide


        Other popular ID models
           http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/idmodels.html
           http://www.coe.missouri.edu/~wang/portfolio/pages/isdm.html
           http://www.pace.edu/ctlt/newsletter/articles/idm.htm




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                                                    Planning

                                                    Revision

        Confirmative                                                                      Implementatio
        Evaluation                             Instructional                                    n
                                                 Problems
                                                                      Learner
                            Evaluation
                                                                   Characteristics
                           Instruments



                   Development                                                  Task
                   of Instruction                                              Analysis




                     Designing                                          Instructional
                   the Message                                           Objectives



                                    Instructional               Content
     Support                         Strategies                Sequencing
     Services


                                           Formative Evaluation

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     So what’s the point?

        Experienced teachers who have internalized
         the teaching/learning process and are teaching
         the same content for the umpteenth time can
         be spontaneous in the classroom.
        Even experienced teachers when teaching new
         subject matter need to examine the
         instructional process.
        The ID process enhances the creation of
         effective instruction.

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     Why is Instructional Design
     Important?

        We are living within a “knowledge explosion”
         referred to by the popular press as the
         Information Age.
        This has serious implications for what and how
         we teach.




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     In the Information Age...

        Rapid rate of change to the knowledge base
         leading to information “overload”
        What we teach is constantly evolving.
        What students need to know is expanding.
        Graduates need to be prepared for multiple
         careers during their lifetime



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     Possible “teaching solutions”

        learner centered approach to instruction
        technology rich classrooms
        extended classrooms (web-based)
        on-line learning environments
        virtual classrooms




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     How this Applies to This Course

        I support the constructivist notion that problem
         solving is an excellent format for learning.
        I support dialogue, discussion, and debate as
         means to articulate knowledge.
        I believe the role of the teacher is to provide
         learners with authentic opportunities to perform
         like a professional in the domain.
        I support lifelong and self-directed learning.

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     Instructional Strategies

        Work in small groups to remove barriers to
         communication and give everyone an
         opportunity to be heard.
        Foster ownership of the individual project by
         team members.
        Peer evaluations to recognize quantity and
         quality of contributions by peers.


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     Before you take a Break..


        The next few slides will be a self-test to see
         what you recall.

        When you are ready you may begin.




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     Select the best response.

        Instruction is what we do to students to make
         them better taxpayers in the future.

        Instruction is the arrangement of information
         and environment to facilitate learning.

        Instruction is the transmission of established
         facts to unsuspecting learners.

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     Correct Response is:

        Instruction is the arrangement of information
         and environment to facilitate learning.

        The other answers were meant to trick you, but
         only you will know if they worked.




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     True or False?

        ID is all about simple cookie-cutter solutions to
         complex instructional problems.

         –   True


         –   False




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     If you chose False you are correct.

        If you chose True read on…
        The ID process is highly structured and
         rigorous. Separating the components into
         Analysis, Design, Development,
         Implementation, and Evaluation phases is a
         convenient way to identify the levels of
         complexity…as shall be shown in this course.


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     Last question: Who runs ID?

        Democrats
        Republics
        Idiots
        Dr. Savery




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     A moment of in-decision here?

        Tough choice – Idiots or Dr. Savery

        The correct response was…




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