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Critical Components for RTI Startup

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					The Critical Components
     of RTI Startup
                       By
              John E. McCook, Ed.D.
              jmccook125@aol.com
               AutoSkill: Monroe,NJ
                 October 7, 2010
 Copyright held by author. Reprinted with permission.
            Do I Really Have To?
• Federal Language
1) Data that demonstrates that prior to, or as a part
   of, the referral process, the child was provided
   “appropriate instruction in regular classroom
   settings,” delivered by qualified personnel; and
2) Data-based documentation of repeated
   assessments of achievement at “reasonable
   intervals” which were provided to the child’s
   parents.
     34 C.F.R. 300.309


                                                        2
                     New Jersey
• Allows either a discrepancy or RTI
  determination for SLD
• In any case
  – v. A review of interventions documented by the classroom
    teacher(s) and others who work with the student;
  – vi. One or more informal measure(s) which may include,
    but not be limited to, surveys and inventories; analysis of
    work; trial teaching; self-report; criterion referenced tests;
    curriculum based assessment; and informal rating scales;
                          Teaching Reading is Urgent: Brutal Fact
                                                               Minutes Per Day         Words Read Per Year
                                            Percentile
                                              Rank           Books        Text          Books          Text


                                               98              65.0       67.3         4,358,000     4,733,000

~   A student in the 20th percentile   90                21.2                33.4      1,823,000     2,357,000

reads books 0.7 minutes a day.         80                14.2                24.6      1,146,000     1,697,000

~ This   adds up to 21,000 words       70                9.6                 16.9       622,000      1,168,000

read per year.                         60                6.5                 13.1       432,000        722,000

~   A student in the 80th percentile   50                4.6                     9.2    282,000        601,000

reads books 14.2 minutes a day.        40                3.2                     6.2    200,000        421,000


                                       30                1.8                     4.3   106,000         251,000

~ This   adds up to 1,146,000
words

                                       20                0.7                     2.4   21,000          134,000

read per year.

                                       10                0.1                     1.0   8,000            51,000


                                       2                 0                        0              0       8,000
         Torgeson J.K. 2004
Early Intervention Changes Reading Outcomes

                                                                                             5.2
                                5                                                                  With substantial
                                                                                             4.9   instructional
                                                                                                   intervention

                                4
          Reading grade level




                                                                                                 With research-
                                    Low Risk                                                 3.2 based core but
                                3   on Early                                                     without extra
                                    Screening
                                                                                             2.5 instructional
                                                                                                 intervention
                                2


                                1     At Risk on Early Screening


                                      1          2                    3                 4                        44
                                 Grade level corresponding to age
  Torgesen, J.K. ( 2001). The theory and practice of intervention: Comparing outcomes from prevention and remediation
  studies. In A.J. Fawcett and R.I. Nicolson (Eds.). Dyslexia: Theory and Good Practice. (pp. 185-201). London: David Fulton
  Publishers. Slide coursety of W. Alan Coulter http://www.monitoringcenter.lsuhsc.edu
         Understand the Phases
•   Awareness
•   Commitment
•   Capacity
•   Implementation
•   Evaluation
      Non-negotiables of RTI
1. Universal screening
2. Multiple tiers of intervention
3. Intervention/data teams
4. Progress monitoring
5. Integrated data collection/assessment
   system
6. Scientific research-based interventions
7. Fidelity
8. Professional development
                                       The Basics
                                                            Any
                                                        Curriculum
      Academic Systems                                     Area                    Behavioral Systems

 Intensive, Individual Interventions
 •Individual students                                                                    Intensive, Individual Interventions
 •Assessment-based                                                                       •Individual students
                                                    1-5%              1-5%
 •High intensity                                                                         •Assessment-based
 •Of longer duration                                                                     •Intense, durable procedures
                                                                                              Targeted Group Interventions
 Targeted Group Interventions                   5-10%                   5-10%                 •Some students (at-risk)
 •Some students (at-risk)                                                                     •High efficiency
 •High efficiency                                                                             •Rapid response



                                                           Students
 •Rapid response




Universal Interventions                80-90%                                   80-90%             Universal Interventions
•All students                                                                                      •All settings, all students
•Preventive, proactive                                                                             •Preventive, proactive



                                                                                           Sugai, Horner et al
            Decision Making Tool
                                                 Tier III Issue
  Tier I Issue           Tier II Issue


Are over 20% of        Are between                Fewer than 5% of
students               5% and 20% of              students struggle
struggling?            Students struggling?       after Tier II or
                                                  before

Problem definition       Problem definition     Problem definition




  Issue(s) belong to     Develop and            Develop and
  curriculum,            Implement small        Implement
  instruction or         group intervention     Individually
  environment                                   designed small
                             Evaluate effects   group intervention
                             by progress
                             monitoring
What is Universal Screening?
              Universal Screening
• Development of “benchmark” data norms
  –   Classroom
  –   Grade level
  –   School
  –   District
• Benchmark data taken three times per year
  – Fall
  – Winter
  – Spring
          Universal Screening
• Data from benchmarks must be available to
  teachers, principals, and district staff and
  shared with parents.
• Data must be “user friendly” in format.
What is CBM?

Curriculum-based measurement, or CBM, is a
method of monitoring educational progress
through direct assessment of academic skills. CBM
can be used to measure basic skills in reading,
mathematics and written expression, and readiness
skills.
What is a Probe?

When using CBM, the examiner gives the
student brief, timed samples, or "probes,"
made up of academic material taken from the
expected skills for the particular grade level.
How are Probes given and scored?


These CBM probes are given individually or in groups
(depending on the probe), under standardized
conditions, are timed and may last from 1 to 6
minutes, depending on the skills being measured. The
child's performance on a CBM probe is scored for
speed, or fluency , and for accuracy of performance.
What do Probes look like?

 Reading R-CBM




   This student read 72 WRC/8 Errors
Reading Comprehension Maze




                     15 correct with 1 error
Math
Computation
Math Concepts and Applications
             Implementing RTI
1. Collect local norms using Curriculum-
   Based Measurement (CBM) Probes
2.   Identify at-risk students
3.   Provide academic intervention(s)
4.   Monitor student progress
5.   Evaluate the response to the intervention(s)
Example of Benchmark Data
Not Good! Look at the drop
In the spring!!!
One of “our” students — Look
at his progress!!!
            Support Teams
• NOT Child Study Teams
                New Jersey Teams
• The intended scope of I&RS programs is much broader than
  the limited function of pre-referral interventions to the Child
  Study Team (CST). It is possible that a fully institutionalized
  program of I&RS that targets its resources to the identification
  and amelioration of problems at the earliest possible stages of
  problem identification would never or rarely function as a pre-
  referral mechanism for CST evaluations.
• The structured problem-solving process used by the I&RS
  team; the follow-up, monitoring and evaluation activities set
  forth in the I&RS action plan; and the focus on short-term,
  achievable behavioral goals provides a high likelihood of
  success in addressing individual student needs.
             New Jersey Teams
• In a substantial number of cases, students at-risk
  receive interventions designed to accommodate
  their individual learning, behavior and/or health
  needs in the context of the general education
  setting, without referral to special programs and
  services.
•
• Data collection and assessment activities for
  interventions are focused on the context in which
  the problem is occurring, rather than on referral for
  separate diagnosis and possible special education
  placement.
                 New Jersey Teams
• Decreases inappropriate CST evaluations and classifications by
  developing a supportive problem-solving mechanism in the K-12
  general education program, and increases the capacity in general
  education to address learning, behavior and health problems.
• In the event that the I&RS team obtains information that indicates
  that an evaluation for special education services is warranted, the
  I&RS process provides a clear trail of data and other information on
  related issues and concerns (e.g., student performance, records of
  attempted strategies prior to I&RS involvement, appropriate
  instructional objectives and instructional strategies designed by the
  I&RS to bring about meaningful student progress) that are used by
  the CST to facilitate the evaluation process.
• Provides a standardized, systematic and non-threatening procedure
  for providing collegial support to individuals requesting assistance
  for problems related to the educational process.
        The Support Team Process
•   Belief systems
•   Team roles
•   Purpose
•   Leadership issues
  Support Teams Under Discrepancy
• What is the purpose of support team?
  – The altruistic answer is to help kids succeed
  – The real life answer is, “That's how you get a kid
    to special education.”
How does support team receive
           child?
 Parent refers->Support Team<-Teacher refers
                       |
                       |
         Referral to Special Education
       Support Team Under RTI
• Purpose is to keep child in general education
  classroom
• Provide interventions and measure progress in
  general education
• Results in buy-in from general education
  teacher
How Does Child’s Situation Get to Support Team
                  Under RTI?
   Data Bring Child’s Needs to Attention of Support
             Team Through Benchmarks

                                       Vast majority is done this way



                         Support Team Process

Some come from parents                                 Few come from teachers



   Parent Referral                                   Teacher Referral
            Why the Change?
• Universal screening data (benchmark) identify
  children in need of intervention
• Teacher supports process through classroom
  data
• If parent referral, then parent provides
  information through parent referral form
             Implementing RTI
1. Collect local norms using Curriculum-
   Based Measurement (CBM) Probes
2.   Identify at-risk students
3.   Provide academic intervention(s)
4.   Monitor student progress
5.   Evaluate the response to the intervention(s)
        What Are Interventions?
• Targeted assistance based on progress monitoring
• Administered by classroom teacher, specialized
  teacher, or external interventionist
• Provide additional instruction
   – Individual,
   – Small group,
   – And/or technology-assisted
          What Are Interventions?
•   Match curricular materials and instructional level
•   Modify modes of task presentation
•   Cue work habits/organizational skills
•   Modify direct instruction time
•   Modify guided and independent practice
•   Ensure optimal pacing
•   May use partner reading
        What Are Interventions?
• Increase task structure (e.g., directions, rationale,
  checks for understanding, feedback)
• Increase task relevant practice
• Increase opportunities to engage in active academic
  responding (e.g., writing, reading aloud, answering
  questions in class)
• Increase mini-lessons on skill deficits
• Decrease group size
• Increase the amount and type of cues and prompts
          What Are Interventions?
•   Change curriculum
•   Add intensive one-to-one or small group instruction
•   Change scope and sequence of tasks
•   Increase guided and independent practice
•   Change types and method of corrective feedback
        Interventions are NOT
• Preferential seating
• Shortened assignments
• Parent contacts
• Classroom observations
• Suspension
• Doing MORE of the same/general classroom
  assignments
• Retention
• Peer-tutoring
      Written Intervention Plans
• A description of the      • Measurable outcomes
  specific intervention       that can be used to
• Duration of the             make data-based
  intervention                adjustments as needed
• Schedule and setting of     during the intervention
  the intervention            process
• Persons responsible for   • Description of
  implementing the            measurement and
  intervention                recording techniques
                            • Progress monitoring
                              schedule
How Will We Know If It Works?
            Progress Monitoring
• Is formative
• Uses a variety of data collection methods
• Examines student performance frequently over
  time, to evaluate response to intervention in making
  data-based decisions
• Is on-going, systematic process for gathering data
   – Academic
   – Social
   – Behavioral
         Progress Monitoring
• Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is the
  recommended tool for measuring student
  response to the intervention.
          Progress Monitoring
• The purpose of progress monitoring is to take
  frequent measures, usually weekly, of a
  student’s performance to determine whether
  he or she is making progress in response to
  the intervention.
• Most models that have been researched have
  used CBM for weekly progress monitoring.
    Why Not Pre- and Post-Test?

Pre-Test    (10 Weeks)   Post-Test




              ?
            Summative vs.
         Formative Assessment
• Summative assessment occurs after
  instruction
• Example: “High Stakes” testing
• Conducted infrequently
• Does not provide teachers with ongoing
  assessment data
• Answers the question, “Did the students
  learn?”
                                            49
            Summative vs.
         Formative Assessment
• Formative assessment occurs during
  instruction
• Example: CBM probes
• Conducted frequently
• Provides teachers with immediate feedback
  on student performance
• Answers the question, “Are the students
  learning?”
                                              50
   CBM — Formative Assessment
• Dynamic—measures are designed to be
  sensitive to short-term effects of instructional
  interventions
• Measures fluency, which is more sensitive to
  change than accuracy
• As a result, CBM probes are useful for
  progress monitoring.


                                                     51
Positive Response to Intervention
Not Responding to First Intervention
Better Response to Intervention
ONGOING PROGRESS
  MONITORING
Interpreting Progress




                        56
57
             So We Have Data
• Integrated data assessment/analysis
  – Team level for targeted students to alter
    instruction based on response to the intervention
• School level use of data
• District level use of data
• What about?
  – ELL
  – Disaggregated groups
  Scientific, Evidence-Based Interventions

• Programs, not strategies in Tiers II and III
• Sources
  – Fcrr.org
  – Interventioncentral.org
  – Etc.
      Fidelity: Two-Step Process
• Typical step is how long do we do the
  intervention (number of sessions or time)
• Most overlooked – are we doing the
  intervention in the manner it was designed
• 6- to 12-minute walk-throughs
        Professional Development
•   Awareness for all
•   Leadership training
•   Implementation of intervention training
•   Data analysis and use training
•   Team training
•   Follow-up training

				
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