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					World War II Slides
    The Next 100!!!
                    17 August

• British total since the outbreak of the war:
   – 8,266 sailors
   – 4,400 soldiers
   – 3,851 pilots and airmen
   – 729 civilians
            Churchill

• “Never in the field of human
 conflict was so much owed by
 so many to so few.”
Churchill knew bombing Germany was a
   certain, but long road to victory.
• “Even if Nazi legions stood triumphant on the
  Black Sea, or indeed the Caspian, even if
  Hitler were at the gates of India, it would
  profit him nothing if at the same time the
  entire economic and scientific apparatus of
  German war power lay shattered and
  pulverized at home.”
                   The Blitz

• German bombing of London.
• As a result, British bombers were told to not
  return home with their bombs. If they could
  not locate primary target they should drop
  the bombs somewhere.
         Day of the Eagle - Update

• In first 40 days, 15,000 tons of bombs had
    been dropped on Britain.
•   By the end of September, the civilian
    death toll had reached 6,954.
               Operation Tooth

• Page 29 of notes.
                 Tripartite Pact

• 27 September: Germany, Italy and Japan enter
  into a tripartite pact.
• Extends the Rome-Berlin Axis to Tokyo.
• Creation of a New Order in Europe and Asia.
• Pledged each of the parties to help the others if any
  of them were attacked by a power not involved in
  the war in Europe.
            Operation Otto

• Began on October 1
• A program to construct and improve all
 roads and railways leading to the Soviet
 border.
             “The war is won!”

• Hitler to Mussolini on October 4.
• He thought the war was just a matter of time
  since Britain would need aid from the United
  States and Russia.
• Operation Sea Lion was cancelled
 except as a deception to keep the
 Russians looking the other way.
                        FDR

• “…we will continue to help those who resist
  aggression, and who now hold the aggressors far
  from our shores.”
• “The men and women of Britain have shown how
  free people defend what they know to be
  right…democracy, when put to the test, can show
  the stuff of which it is made.”
            28 October 1940

• Italian forces in Albania invade Greece.
• Hitler was furious.
• Hitler regarded the attack on Greece as
 a major strategic error.
               3 November

• First night since 7 September that there
    was no German air raid on London.
•   In the previous 3 months 2,433 German
    aircraft had been shot down and more
    than 6,000 German airmen had been
    killed.
              5 November

• FDR re-elected
• British have Enigma message telling of
 the cancellation of Sea Lion.
                  11 November

• 24 British torpedo bombers flew of HMS Illustrious
  in the Ionian Sea to attack the Italian Fleet at
  anchor at Taranto.
• Japanese took note of this attack!!!
• Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox, also took note
  of this attack and wrote about increasing the safety
  of Pearl Harbor.
              Automedon Bag
• British steamer Automedon was attacked by the
  German raider Atlantis.
• Bag on the bridge contained British Merchant
  Navy code book, Chief of Staff opinion that it
  would be impossible to hold Hong Kong, Malaya or
  Singapore.
• Showed vulnerability of British in SE Asia.
• Bag was to be thrown over if attacked.
           Bombing of Coventry
• 14 November
• 27 vital war factories were hit and production
  stopped for several months.
• Firestorm started --- 60,000 of the 75,000
  buildings were destroyed or damaged.
• 568 killed
            Significance of Greece
• Ploesti
• Hitler:
   – Egypt
   – Holy Lands
   – Secure the Mediterranean
FDR
• “The people of Europe who are defending
  themselves do not ask us to do their fighting. They
  ask us for the implements of war, the planes, the
  tanks, the guns, the freighters, which will enable
  them to fight for their liberty and for our security.”
• “We must be the great arsenal of democracy.”
Directive No. 22

• 11 January 1941
• Hitler must come to the aid of Mussolini
 or face grave problems in or from the
 South.
13 January 1941

• Stalin told his commanders the future
    war could be against Japan and
    Germany.
•   Wanted smaller and quicker units
•   Mobilization would be the key
Checking out England
• FDR sent a contact to Britain to see if they could
  really wage a successful war.
• He did not want a mass of American supplies to fall
  into German hands if Britain surrendered.
• Hopkins to Churchill what he would tell FDR:
• “If courage alone could win, the results are
  inevitable.
• From the Book of Ruth: “Wither thou goest I will
  go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge; thy people
  shall be my people, and thy God my God… Even to
  the end.”
• Story of the mother and the baby thrown into the
  snow.
19 January 1941
• British launch an attack against the Italians in
  North Africa.
• During the campaign every secret Italian military
  instruction was read by the British.
• Hitler would send the 15th Armored Division
  under Rommel to help the Italians.
24 January 1941

• United States Secretary of the Navy, Frank
 Knox, stated that “if war eventuates with
 Japan, it is believed easily possible that
 hostilities would be initiated by a surprise
 attack upon the Fleet or the Naval Base at
 Pearl Harbor.”
ABC -
America-British Conversations
• Talked about United States and
 British Commonwealth cooperation
 if the United States would enter the
 war.
Purple Machine

• Japanese equivalent of the Enigma
  machine
• Taken to Bletchley
• Code is broken
2 February 1941
• Germans estimated 211 Soviet Divisions against 190
  German and Axis Divisions
• Advantage in #’s but not in technical or strategic
  side
• Hitler thought Soviet rule was so hated that the
  first German attacks would cause Russia to
  crumble in rebellion.
Directive No. 23
• 6 February1941
• Acceleration of operations against the British war
  economy:
   – increase sinking of merchant shipping
   – continued air attacks on armaments factories
   – focus on damaging British morale
The Commissar Decree

• “The war against Russia cannot be fought in
  knightly fashion. The struggle is one of
  ideologies and racial differences, and will
  have to be waged with unprecedented,
  unmerciful and unrelenting hardness.”
          The Commissar Decree

• “The Commissars hold view directly opposed to
  those of National Socialism. Hence these
  Commissars must be eliminated . Any German
  soldier who break international laws will be
  pardoned.”
• Came direct from Hitler and would lead to the
  deaths of hundreds of thousands of innocent people.
             Operation Claymore

• British raid on Lofoton Islands, just off the
  Norwegian coast, inside the Artic Circle
• Aim was to capture Enigma machine used by Navy
  to help break code keys
• After 3 weeks of work at Bletchley, could read
  naval traffic for last week of April and most of May
                Richard Sorge

• On 5 March he sends word from Tokyo to his
  Russian superiors of a telegram from Ribbentrop to
  German ambassador in Japan of date for invasion
  of Russia
  “The highest jurist in the State is me” -
                 Goering
• Death becomes penalty for singing the Polish
  anthem
• Theft on large scale of art from museums and
  private collections
 SOE – Special Operations Executive

• “subversive agents could be dropped into occupied
  France quite unobtrusively, move about inside it
  with reasonable ease, be welcomed by a decent
  French population, and – given time, bravery,
  trouble, and luck – be extricated”
                   22 March

• Japanese agent in Hawaii, Nagai Kita, was told by
  Tokyo to obtain intelligence about US fleet
  movements in and out of Pearl Harbor.
• Instructions were intercepted by American Signals
  Intelligence
• Did not cause alarm
              Directive No. 25

• Yugoslavia and Greece would be attacked
  simultaneously
• Invasion of Russia postponed from May to June
                    28 March

• Battle of Britain announced
• 28,859 British civilians killed and 40,166 injured
  in the previous 7 months
• In March 1941 alone there were 4,259 civilians
  killed
             Defense Plan No. 1

• Germany first
• Japan next
                    28 March

• Group of Western scientists discovered a new
  element
• Would be named after the planet Pluto –
  discovered just 11 years earlier – it would be called
  Plutonium
             News of Holocaust

• At the end of March the West learned through
  Polish Government in Exile that more than 3,000
  Poles had been murdered in Auschwitz – or had
  died from exposure and cold – in the previous 10
  months
              Operation Castigo
• The bombing of Belgrade – 6 April
• Principal purpose – created confusion through
  terror
• 17,000 civilians killed – largest number of civilians
  killed by bombing in a single day in 20 months of
  war
• Many Yugoslavs from surrounding area had come
  into the capital to celebrate Palm Sunday
                  Clan Fraser

• British merchant ship hit by German bombs in the
  Greek port of Piraeus
• Blew up with 200 tons of explosives on board
• 10 other ships were sunk as a result
                      10 April

• In the Atlantic, first hostile action by US against
  Germany since the war in Europe began
• Destroyer Niblack dropped depth charges against
  a German submarine
                   Greenland

• US forces will occupy the area
• US extends security zone and patrol areas as far
  east as 25th Meridian
                      Belgrade

• 8th European capital to be conquered by German
  arms in 1 ½ years
                   23 April

• Greek Army surrenders to German and Italian
  invaders
• Operation Demon: evacuation of British,
  Australian, New Zealand, and Polish troops from
  Greece. Begin 24 April and continues for 6 days
• 50,732 men were evacuated
• Most were taken under strong escort to Crete
                    25 April

• Hitler issues Directive No. 28 – Operation Mercury
  – the invasion of Crete
          Losses in Battle for Greece

•   Greeks – 15,700
•   Italians – 13,755
•   BEF – 3,712
•   Germans – 2,232
                   Good Boy Stalin
• While preparing for war Stalin tried not to provoke
    hostilities. In April his shipments of raw materials to
    Germany reached highest level since Nazi-Soviet Pact of
    August 1939: 208,000 tons of grain, 90,000 tons of fuel
    oil, 8,300 tons of cotton, 6,340 tons of copper, tin, nickel
    and other metals, 4,000 tons of rubber
•   Factories around Moscow were told to move to the
    country’s interior
                  10 May 1941

• Deputy Leader of Nazi party, Rudolf Hess, flew
  across the North Sea, parachuted into Great Britain
• He had come to make peace between Great
  Britain and Germany
• German official announcement was that Hess had a
  mental disorder – British interrogators agreed
                  10 May 1941

• London bombed
• Debating chamber of the House of Commons
  destroyed
• 1/3 of streets in central London were impassable
• 1,436 civilians killed
• Bombing raid was last raid of the “Spring Blitz” of
  1941
  Unexploded Bomb Disposal Squads

• Death toll among them was high
• Holy Trinity: bomb team of Earl of Suffolk, his
  secretary and his chauffeur. (Same Earl that had
  brought heavy water and nuclear scientists from
  France
• On 12 May they were defusing their 35th bomb
  when it exploded and they were all killed
                      14 May

• Germans began massive bombing of Malta
• They were trying to make it look as if Malta was to
  be attacked when the actual target was Crete
• Britain knew Crete was target through Enigma
  intercepts
           Dr. Sigmund Rascher

• Air Force surgeon
• Asked Himmler for permission to use inmates from
  Dachau for experiments in atmospheric tests
• Himmler approved
 20 May –German attack on Crete begins

• General Kurt Student led the airborne forces on
  Crete
• What do you know about this battle?
  Second Lieutenant Charles Upham
• In the fighting on Crete a New Zealander was
  awarded the Victoria Cross.
• He was Charles Upham
• He would later win a 2nd Victoria Cross in North
  Africa
• Only British Commonwealth serviceman to be
  awarded the Victoria Cross twice during World
  War II
        23 May – Directive No. 30

• The decision about whether or not to launch an
  offensive to “break the British position” between
  the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf, or on the
  Suez Canal, “will be decided only after Barbarossa”
                     24 May

• The Bismarck sank the British battle cruiser Hood
  – only 3 of the crew of 1,500 survived
                         27 May
• German battleship Bismarck was attacked in the Atlantic
    by a ring of British warships
•   Admiral Lutjens gave orders for the ship to be scuttled
•   Submarine alarm was sounded for a British ship
    performing rescues work – it withdrew at full speed –
    Germans hanging to side of ship were chopped apart by
    the propellers
•   2,300 German sailors were killed
FDR talking about supplies to England

• “This can be done. It must be done. It will be done.”
  He went on to add: “The only thing we have to fear
  is fear itself.”
                      June 3

• SS Death’s Head Division traveled from France to
  East Prussia
• These types of units would follow in the wake of the
  German invasion of Russia
                     June 10

• 751st anniversary of the drowning of Frederick of
  Barbarossa in 1190
• Germans put Operation Warzburg into effect – the
  mine laying in the Baltic Sea to prevent the
  Russian Baltic Fleet from escaping into the North
  Sea
                Directive No. 32

• Hitler spelled out plans for after the destruction of
  the Soviet armed forces
• Secure the Atlantic coastline of Spain and Portugal
• Renew “Siege of England”
                    Churchill

• “Should this new war break out we shall of course
  give all encouragement, and any help we can
  spare, to the Russians following the principle that
  Hitler is the foe we have to beat.”
                     June 17

• All German military, naval, and air commanders
  received the coded radio message “Warzburg”
• The attack on Russia was to begin at 3:00 am on
  Sunday 22 June
                   Barbarossa
• 21 June – shortest night of the year
• 22 June – 2.5 million Russian soldiers faced 3.2
  million German soldiers (est.)
• 2.2 million Russians in reserve
• Only 30% of Soviet troops had automatic
  weapons. Only 20% of Soviet aircraft and 9% of
  Soviet tanks were of a modern type
• German army begins advance along 930 mile front
                  Barbarossa
• Russia had not signed the Geneva Convention and
  therefore “could not be expected to wage war in
  the civilized fashion.”
• Men of the SS Death’s Head Division would
  therefore be expected to fight “without mercy or
  pity”
• The war in the East was a struggle “upon which the
  fate of the German people depended”
                   Barbarossa

• Attack began at 4:15 am
• 21 June was the longest day of the year
           What to do, what to do?

• Russians issue order for their soldiers to “attack the
  enemy and destroy him” wherever they have
  crossed the frontier – BUT – Soviet troops were
  ordered not to cross the frontier into German
  territory.
                Warsaw Ghetto

• When the news of the German invasion of Russia
  reached the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto many
  were trying to hide their smiles. “With Russia on
  our side, victory was certain and the end for Hitler
  was near.”
    Goebbels to his diary on 23 June

• “The public mood is one of slight depression. The
  nation wants peace, though not at the price of
  defeat, but every new theater of operations brings
  worry and concern.”
                    Fast start

• By noon on 22 June, the Luftwaffe had destroyed
  more than 1,000 Soviet aircraft on the ground or in
  combat – ¼ of Russia’s whole air strength.
              23 June – Moscow

• Evacuation Council was set up
• Was to organize the dismantling, removal, and
  reassembly of more than 15,000 armament
  factories and industrial plants in Western Russia
  and the Ukraine, to safety in the East – behind the
  Ural Mountains
• In its very moment of shock and weakness, the
  Soviet Union was rebuilding the basis of a massive
  war potential
            Goebbels to his diary

• “I am refraining from publishing big maps of Russia.
  The huge areas involved may frighten the public.”
                  To the death

• There was fear among the German troops, even the
  SS troops, at the many groups of Soviet soldiers
  who, isolated far behind the front line, consistently
  fought to death rather than surrender.
             Vulture – 27 June

• British cryptographers at Bletchley broke Enigma
  code used by the Germans on the Eastern Front
             On Minsk Front

• After only one week of war, advancing
 German units were already 1/3 of the way
 from German border to Moscow.
           Nazi Party Newspaper

• “The Russian soldier surpasses our adversary in the
  West in his contempt for death. Endurance and
  fatalism make him hold out until he is blown up
  with his trench, or falls in hand to hand fighting.”
• Scorched Earth

• Partisans

• Evacuation of children from Leningrad
• “On 29 June, as German forces drove through what
  had once been the western provinces of Poland, the
  first Prime Minister of Poland, the pianist
  Paderwski, died in the U.S. at the age of 80.
  President Roosevelt at once offered Arlington
  Cemetery as his coffin’s resting place ‘until Poland
  is free.’ Paderewski’s lead-sealed casket, inside a
  cedarwood box, mounted on wheels for its journey
  back to Poland, is still at Arlington 47-years later.”
                  Jakov Kreiser

•   A Soviet General and a Jew
•   Commanded a motorized infantry division
•   He halted a tank attack by Guderian
•   He was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union
                      July 1

• Marshals Voroshilov and Shaposhnikov briefed
  those to stay behind to become partisans
                Richard Sorge

• Spy that tells Moscow that Japan will attack into
  French Indo-China rather than Russia
• Russian reinforcement head West
                       3 July

• Stalin broadcast for the first time since the invasion
  12 days earlier
• “A grave threat hangs over our country….Military
  tribunals will pass summary judgment on any who
  fail in our defense, whether through panic or
  treachery, regardless of their position or their rank.”
    “…Bolshevism must be exterminated”
• Moscow, “as the center of the doctrine, must disappear from
    the earth’s surface, as soon as its riches have been brought
    to shelter.”
•   Hitler to his private staff: making the “beauties of the
    Crimea” accessible by autobahn from Germany. “For us
    Germans that will be our Riviera.”
•   Croatia too would be a tourist paradise
•   The Urals would be the new Eastern frontier
                     7 July

• United States launches Operation indigo – landing
  a Marine brigade in Iceland
• American patrols could now patrol further
  eastward – to within 400 miles of Scotland
• American support was allowing Britain to extend
  their support to Russia
                  2-front war

• Increased British bombing of German cities helped
  draw German aircraft back from the Russian front
              Hitler’s intentions

• Hitler want to completely destroy Moscow and
  Leningrad and to fully dispose of their populations
  – otherwise these populations would have to be fed
  during the winter
                     12 July

• Britain and the Soviet Union signed a pact
  pledging “mutual assistance” against Germany.
• Neither side would make a separate peace
                      14 July

• The Russians used for the first time a new multiple
  rocket launcher
• It was called the Katyusha and could fire 320
  rockets in 25 seconds
              Juan Pujol Garcia

• Was the chief of a network of spies that he
  recruited
• Included a Dutch airline steward, a censor in the
  Ministry of Information, a typist in the Cabinet
  office, an American soldier based in London, and a
  Welsh fascist – all of whom were non-existent – as
  was Garcia himself >>> in fact the British double
  agent Garbo
            Retreat and regroup

• Hitler was becoming as worried as his commanders
  by the Russian’s ability to retreat and regroup
• Directive No. 33 (19 July) – “The aim of the next
  operations must be to prevent any further sizable
  enemy forces from withdrawing into the depths of
  Russia, and wiping them out.”
                      20 July

• The first British naval vessel, a minelayer, crossed
  the North Sea on its way to the Soviet Artic port of
  Archangel with military supplies.
• “a northern saga of heroism, bravery and
  endurance”- Soviet Ambassador to London
                     21 July

• Germans launch first air raid on Moscow



• The partisan war is what caught the Germans by
  surprise
                     26 July

• As a sign of disapproval and retaliation, FDR seized
  all Japanese assets in the US; this was followed by
  the British and the Dutch.
• This cut off Japan from ¾ of her overseas trade and
  90% of her oil imports.
• Japan’s own oil resources could last for 3 years at
  the very most
                    30 July

• The Germans had taken 799,910 prisoners and
  destroyed or captured 12,025 tanks in Russia.
• What do you do with these POWs?
• What does this take away from your war effort?
                         31 July
• “Hitler’s greatest weakness was found in the vast numbers
    of oppressed peoples who hated Hitler and the immoral
    ways of his Government.” Stalin to Harry Hopkins at
    meeting in the Kremlin.
•   Stalin continued that these people “and countless other
    millions in nations still unconquered, could receive the
    kind of encouragement and moral strength they needed to
    resist Hitler only from one source, AND THAT WAS THE
    UNITED STATES.”

				
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